Influence Of Staff Training And Development On Operations Of Non Governmental Organization
This study examines the impact of Training and development on effective performance of workers in non governmental organization, it becomes imperative because of the poor selection of personnel’s, lack of proper assessment and evaluation of employee’s performance in the organization and the need to tackle the problems for efficient and effective performance.
The findings discovers that majority of the staff of non governmental organization understood what Training and Development meant; believed that Training programmes have paramount increase effect on their skills in some particular jobs as well as having a positive contribution to the economic wellbeing of the organization.
It is recommended that the importance of training and development is a vital and very indispensable tool in achieving an organizational efficiency and effectiveness. At this vantage point, it is necessary to embrace training and development concept to achieve effectiveness and efficiency in every organization to match with the current technological change and sophistications in the world.
1.1 Background of Study
Some years ago, the concept of training and development were widely misunderstood and not fully appreciated in most Nigerian organization. Today, the situation has dramatically changed such that many organizations, business and non business organization have come to appreciate the need for employee development and training as a very important instrument for organization development.
Training and development date back to the beginning of man. In our own families, our parents direct the children on what to do. A little baby is trained / taught to sit, crawl, stand and walk. All these efforts are geared towards developing the child to gain essential skills for adaptability in this environment. It is this training and development that guides the child as he grows and matures into adulthood.
The above make it clear that although once is qualified to be employed in an office, to perform once duty or the other, yet the staff employed needs to be trained for adaptability in his office environment.
As can even be seen from the Biblical aspect of it, in the book of Samuel chapter 30, David the king of the Israelites realized the importance of training and development. By selecting his distinguished six hundred soldiers he gave the special training and sponsored their scientific and special reading to enable them to satisfy advisory roles in his palace and ultimately meet the nations needs in having a well trained army. It has become increasing apparent to more and more organization that life/long learning must become a reality for them to remain competitive in an increasingly demanding environment. Such learning can take place through training courses offered by the firm themselves or by outside suppliers of training and education.
According to Buke (vol 41, 1988; 731) it can also take place informally through learning and development on the job. There has recent literature Morrison (1992: and Burke (1994:28 suggesting the impact of both the number of development activities undertaken and their pertinences usefulness on a variety of work attitude and outcomes, such as self reported future career prospects.
Furthermore, training and development is seen as a continuous process, believing that money spent on training and development is money well spent.
According to Ubeku (1975:270) employee who have not received adequate training before assigning them with responsibility lack of necessary confidence with which to carry out the job. It is evident that the main objective of any organization is profit maximization, complimented with cost minimization. Hence, it is prudent for organizations to manage their resources in the best possible manner. One of such ways is through the manipulation of its labour force in such a way as to yield the highest attainable effective operations.
In the past, organization did not fully accept the benefits of employees’ training just because the results were not easily identified and clear.
The Federal Government of Nigeria recognized the benefit of training and manpower development when they established the Industrial Training Fund (ITF). Through the promogation of Decree No. 47 of 1971, the objective of which were to “promote and encourage employee training and development as well as the acquisition of skills to industries with a view to generating a pool of indigenous training manpower sufficient to meet the needs of economy”. With these objectives in mind, one realizes that it is very necessary for organizations to expect high productivity in order to accomplish organizational goals and objectives.
It is a truism that without production, the organization will not survive and such survival is usually predicated on the quality, quantity and efficient use of resources.
All these cannot be achieved without the expertise knowledge and skill of the particular job coupled with the right attitudes acquired through training and development. Ogundele (1983:35) stresses that the success of an enterprise depends on the effectiveness of the human resources, the skill and the enthusiasm of the employees.
He observed that a set of objectives will not be achieved if there is no competent employees to effect such objectives. He argues that human development could be effected by the employees concerned through trial and error but error but better by the organization, through as well planned training scheme or programme.
He argued that the question should not be whether or not to train but the type of training to be employed. He concluded that human resources are rather scarce production factors which must be intelligently handled.
This brings us to be the importance of labour. Likert (1967:11) lie of taught is that “all activities of any enterprise are initiated and determined by the person who make up that institution”. The importance of labour force are two folds. First, its indispensability in the organization set up. Second is its unpredictable nature. Mainly because of the later, it is very necessary to take special care of this factor of production i.e labour.
In actually, no man is indispensable but suffice it to say that there are costs associated with recruitment and orientation or new staff. The profit the organization would have reaped from having this in mind, my aim in this research paper is to highlight the influence of staff training and development on effective operations and hence after make recommendations from the empirical findings.
The Importance of Staff Training
After an employee has been selected, placed and inducted he should also be trained. Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job. No organization has a choice of whether to train or not, the only choice is that of method, if no planned training programme established this has not eliminated training costs. The employee will train himself by trail and error or by observing others.
The establishment of a sound training programme serves the interest of both the management and workers. Training is valuable to the employee in terms of better security and greater opportunity for advancement within or outside the present organization.
Other values of training include: –
a. Increased Productivity:
An increased in skill usually results in increase in quantity and quality output. The increasingly technical nature of modern job demands systematic training to enable even minimum, levels of accomplishment.
b. Heightened Morale:
The possession of needed skills helps to meet such basic needs as security and ego satisfaction. Elaborate personnel and human relations programme can make a contribution toward moral but they will be of little use of employees do not possess the necessary knowledge, skill aptitude and altitude to perform their job.
c. Reduced Supervisor:
The trained employee is once who supervise himself. Both employee and supervisor want less supervision, but greater independence is not possible unless the employee is adequately trained.
d. Reduced Accidents:
More accidents are caused by deficiencies in people than in equipment and working conditions. Proper training in both job skills and safety attitudes should contribute towards reduction on the accident rate.
1.2 Statement of Problem
The failure of the first and second development plans of Nigeria according to Adebayo where partly attributed to inadequate and lack of trained manpower to handle the development plan as programmed. Since the country has been experiencing low productivity due to the dearth of training personnel.
According to Sam Aluku (1984), “productivity cannot be increased due to inadequacy of personnel, crude implement we are using in local government for instance health for all by the year 2000, the goal set by the world health organization for its member nations called out be achieved because of manpower structural inadequacy and lack of material drug, etc.
The problem of this study therefore, is to analyze the inherent disadvantages that has followed this lack of in –service training of personnel and proper solutions that if religiously adopted, would enhance employee effectiveness, world capacity output as well as place the country among the community of industrialized nations with adequate trained wealth personnel for the improvement of health service generally. In-service training have become a “sin qua non” for higher productivity.
To carry out this research, the researcher posed the following research questions:
- How often does non governmental organization conducted in-services training programmes for her workers?
- Does non governmental organization have staff training programmes?
- Has staff on in-services training any contribution to the development of local government?
- How adequate is the existing training programmes of non governmental organization.
1.3 Objective of the Study:
The objective of the study is to:
- Ascertain the extent to which non governmental organization organize in-services training and development programme for its workers.
- Examine the extent- to which the in-service and development programmes organized by non governmental organization have positively influence higher productivity.
- Identify the hindrances to effective training generally and non governmental organization in particular; and
- Determine the extent of damage done by inadequate manpower training in local government.
1.4 Significance of the Study
This research work will help the local government any organization as well as individuals in assessing the effect of training and development on employee productivity.
The research finding would also helps policy marker and management consultants to adopt adequate strategies in employee training and development.
It will help the non governmental organization in general and local government commission in particular to appreciate the importance of training and development to employee productivity. The study will guide the goods government of Yaba to identify areas of training needs to improve workers productivity.
Finally, the work would highlight the effect of training and development on employee productivity to the administrators of various ministries in the local government who do not give service attention on training and development of employee.
1.5 Theoretical Framework
In view of the topic of this project the researcher is exposed to many management theories, otherwise known as classical theory of management. The scientific management was propounded by one of the earliest management scientific F.W. Taylor.
Scientific management school comprised those who first applied scientific principles to management with a view of aiding increased productivity and efficiency in the work place. Their work formed the basis of the further development of other management thoughts. In the beginning of the 20th century therefore, most of the previous management and practices were found to be inadequate with to meet the needs of the causes of inefficiency in the management of an organization and experimentation to find more efficient methods and practices. It was from such experiments and observations members of the group where referred to as the classical school, being pioneers in the drive for a systematic approach to the management process.
Summary, the scientific management involves the following principles:
- All managers most be trained to use scientific principles replacing the old rule of thumb methods for solving problems.
- Managers should select and train workers rather than let them choose their work habit and procedures.v
- Managers should divide the work possible between themselves and workers.
- That managers should cooperate motivate the workers the workers tov ensure that all work is done in accordance with the scientific management.
The scientific management theory therefore from a good guide for this study since in emphasized the training the development of employee for the higher productivity and attain organizational objective.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The researcher is aware of the existence of other agencies that train employee in Nigeria. It is outside the focus of this study to research other agencies. The main focus of this study if find out the impact of in-service training and development of employee in non governmental organization. The interest of the study is relevance to training and development, the extent of achievement and the extent to which these have helped to improve employee productivity.
The geographical coverage of the study is non governmental organization. The local government is located south east of the country. The study will focus on the activities of in-service training and development in the commission.
The effect of training needs in other ministries or agencies in non governmental organization and other local government in federation can only be alluded to as a way of using such impacts to classify what happens in non governmental organization. However, such performances in other part of the state will not in themselves constitute subject for study.
- H0: There has not been a significant effect of training and development on employee’s productivity.
- Hi: There has been a significant effect of training and development on employee’s productivity.
- H0: There has not been improvement of training and development in on employee’s productivity.
- Hi: There has been improvement of training and development in on employee’s productivity.
- Hi: Staff training in non governmental organization exist as a matter of government polices.
- H0: Lack of in-services training has adversely affected the job performance of workers in non governmental organization.
- H0: Insufficient budgetary allocations have militated against government training programmes in non governmental organization.
- H0: Political influence affect staff training in non governmental organization.
- H0: Ethnic or geographical location affect staff training in non governmental organization.
- H0: On –the- job training is the most popular training programme in the non governmental organization.
1.9 Definition of Terms
It has become necessary to define certain concepts, term and acronyms used in this project in order to gained ear audience on what we used these terms for in this project. Local government: A local government is a system of subordinate government made up of elected representative of people which has territorially defined constituency, corporate personality, power and functions to exercise in their locality.
In-service training is education for employee to help them develop their skills in a specific discipline or occupation. In-service training take place after an individual begins work responsibilities.
Job performance is how the employee is carrying out its job and ability to operate efficiently in relation to consider how successful it is.
Employee: Is a person who works for somebody or company in return for wages.
Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations
This chapter presents the summary of findings and policy recommendations followed by the conclusion. With the last section of the chapter containing suggestion for further studies. The study was conducted in non governmental organization.
The research had attempted to look at the impact of Training and Development of job enhancement in the accomplishment of organizational objectives. The research problems were identified, the problems defined, research questions raised, significance of study stated and lastly some terms were defined.
The second chapter is where the researcher tried to review various literature relating to the research topic. He also looked at various theorists in terms of their contributions to the topic under study, that is, Training Development. It also highlighted the procedural approach and the assessment of training at different levels.
The various ways by which training needs could be identified were also discussed. The literature review also delved into describing the various methods of training for different sets of individuals where some concepts like case study, internship, conference, Job Rotation, Apprenticeship, Vestibule Audio Visual etc. were used, while also stating the factors that determine the use of each of the methods and their various limitations.
The importance of Training and Development programmes were stated.
The chapter three of the study offered explanation as to the methodology and the data collection technique, sampling technique employed, sample size and the method of data analysis.
Chapter four presented and discussed the data of the study at which it was conducted and lastly the contribution of organizational objectives.
The result of the research indicated many discoveries. The major findings are summarized as follows:
Majority of the staff of non governmental organization understood what Training and Development meant; believed that Training programmes have been able to increase their skills on a particular job as well as having a positive contribution to the economic wellbeing of the. Organization.
This however may not be unconnected with one form of the training or the other that they have attended.
It was also discovered that a little have average in the number of respondents answered that their training needs had been met: This goes to state that frantic efforts must be made to identify training needs. It was also discovered that the organization does not somewhat value training and when it was probed further the following were revealed.
- The organization is miserly spending on training development programmes and when it does it’s usually used to cover up uninsured expenditure.
- Training is not carried out in good spirit.
- Training needs are not properly identified
- Training at times are not conducted in line with employee’s jobs.
- It was also discovered that some inadequacies existed in the following areas;
- The timing and duration of training
- Venues or environments for training
- Resource persons
The above goes to confirm the earlier claim that the organization does not spend much money on training and development. As earlier pointed that frantic efforts should be made to identify training needs, this was also buttressed in the frequency of training where a little above average in the number of respondents answered training should be conducted when the training need arises.
The study also pinpointed the fact that majority of the staff were not made to assume higher responsibilities. However, this should not be so, they should be given higher tasks to really practicalise what they have learnt
Manpower training and development is necessary for all categories of workers in an organization. This corroborates the finding by Onah (1988) who pointed out that “it is the systematic and continuous development of knowledge, skills and attitudes which could prove beneficial both to the organization and to the individual in achieving the objectives of the organization.
This would lead to organizational growth and efficiency. As stressed by a handful number of respondents, there is need for improvement in the training facilities i.e. quality knowledge and credible resource persons or consultants should be called upon, who have the potentials to deliver, who have the potentials to deliver, who have the necessary training materials and the provision of a very conductive environment for training and development From the employees’ perspective, the practice of training a worker on his current task may not really yield maximum return to the organization. Rather the employees prefer to be trained in preparation for tasks. They argued that having been on the job for some time, there is nothing new to be learnt again, i.e. to them it is a duplication of effort.
While to the management on the contrary argued that employee are sent on training to perfect what they might have learnt through on the job training, they received from their colleagues, who were formerly performing their present task. In other words, rather than train an employee on what he has no idea of, it is better to try and improve his knowledge on what he is doing presently. With this work, the researcher hopes that some light has been shed on the issue of manpower training and development as it enhances workers’ productivity.
Traditionally, the value of training and development has been accepted implicitly. Information gathered from this study also shows that investment in human resource capital generally pays off. In order to justify the organizations expenses on training programmes, the following recommendations may be considered. The first recommendation as asserted by Fenn (1986) who pointed out that “manpower Training and Development as a process in an organization which must reflect or show a reflection of skills, potential, training and development. Person who expects to rise in the organization must therefore seek development opportunities. Further training and development may involve rotation through a variety of jobs and through organization, all of which imply change.
The second is that, management should recognize the important role of training and development in any formal organization, to this end, basic training materials especially audio visual aids, should be acquired to make training more effective.
Trainers should be adequately motivated. This will attract competent and quantified staff to training and development department. The third recommendation is that manpower training and development is time consuming as well as financially and emotionally draining, the expected reward far outweighs the immediate cost, thus the management should give some room for the effect of the training to materialize and not immediately.
Furthermore, another is the one listed by variable that;
- In an organization where customer’s goodwill and quality of goods and services rendered by employees count heavily, as training brings direct financial gain.
- Job safety can be promoted by training and development.
- Manpower training and development is intimately linked to the delegation of job.
Again, the management should allow supervisors to give the employees reasonable freedom of action on the job so as to practicalise what they have actually learnt during training and in other cases make them assume higher responsibilities.
In addition, since improved job performance is crucial to the growth and survival of any organization, it follows that individual employees, job need be acquired through appropriate and well-designed training programmes. For this programmes to be effective, it should be conducted whenever the need arises inferring from the data gathered, management should also provide the resources necessary for the programme and its implementation.
Management should ensure that workers are motivated during training and rewarded after training. It should also set expected standard as to what is expected from workers undergoing training, suggestions of employees should be considered by management.
Finally the management should allow the subordinate to give suggestion and their suggestions should put into consideration.
It should be noted that if all these recommendations are adhered to there will be a greater productivity, no absenteeism, no workers’ unrest, and low labour turnover will be experienced in the organization. With this work, the research hopes he had shed more light on the issue of manpower training and development as it enhances workers’ productivity. However because research is a continuous process, no study could be exhaustive.
Further studies on the assessment should shed more light on the intricacies of the assessment.
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