Influence Of Staff Development And Training On Teacher’s Productivity In Secondary Schools
This study assessed and investigated staff training and teachers’ productivity in five selected Junior and Senior Secondary school in Bariga Local Local Government Areas of Lagos State. The study employed a descriptive survey research design. An instrument titled: Staff Training and Teachers’ Productivity (STTP) was used to collect relevant data for the study. The five secondary schools involved were selected based on simple random sampling technique and the statistical tools employed to analyse the data collected were percentages, means scores while t-test statistical tool was used for hypothesis one and Pearson Product Moment Correlational Coefficient was used for hypothesis two and three respectively at 0.05 level of significance.
200 sample sizes were used for the study. Three research questions and three research hypotheses were designed and formulated for the purpose of the study. The survey results revealed that there was a significant effect of training on teachers’ productivity in the school sector. Recommendations were made at the end of the study
1.1 Background of Study
The need for improved productivity has become universally accepted and that it depends on efficient and effective training is not less apparent. It further becomes necessary in view of advancement in modern world to invest in training. Thus the role played by staff training and development can no longer be over-emphasized (Ojo, 2009).
With the rapid global workforce changes, staff development programs have been fully recognized as a dream in enhancing job performance. It is imperative therefore, that to achieve institutional performance and enhance credibility, institutions should emphasize the effective acquisition and utilization of their human resources by investing in them through training on their jobs. (Sebuwufu, 2004).
Training is a systematic development of knowledge, skills and attitudes required by employees to perform adequately on a given tasks or job. New entrants into organizations have various skills, though not all are relevant to organizational needs. Training and development are required for its staff to enable them work towards taking the organization to its expected destination. Staff training and development are based on the premise that staff skills need to be improved for organizations to grow.
Gardner (1993) defines training as an organized procedure by which people learn knowledge and or skills for a definite purpose. It is a process for equipping employees, particularly the non-managerial employees. Training would enable employees to improve on their performances and when they improve on their performances, it will bring about high and increased productivity in an organisation or an institution
Asobie (2002), states that the objective of training is to enable employees to perform his/her job in such a way as to meet the standards of output, quality, waste control, safety and other operational requirements.
Ayodele (2003) states that, for the fact that ours is a world that is currently undergoing rapid changes particularly in the area of skill obsolescence and technological capability, training is not exclusively reserved for newly employed staff but also for the old employees as well. It is therefore, for the purpose of enhancing individual performance that training and development should be made a continuous process that should last through an employee’s entire working life.
Anyanwu (2004) affirms that because low and middle level employees need to adapt to new skills and technologies, while managers and top management personnel need deeper knowledge and understanding of their jobs, the jobs of others, a good understanding of where and how their jobs fit into the wider organisation pattern, an understanding of government and societal constraints, and a sensitive social awareness of the environment within which organisation or school operates.
According to Uzorue (1994), the objective of training and retraining teachers in the school sector is majorly to enable them to perform their work well in the school and bring about high work performance of the teachers and high academic achievement of the students. Uzorue opines that the teacher’s job is a tedious one, which requires skills and proficiency to carry out effectively. Therefore, training of teachers is a sine qua non in the teaching profession.
According to Nkemakolam (2005), he stated that constant training or organisation of seminars, workshops and other courses for teachers would improve to a great extent, the effectiveness and efficiency of teachers’ productivity in the school environment. Teachers occupy a central position in harnessing the administrative and material resources necessary to blend with learners (students).
For jobs like teaching that requires complex and diverse range of skills and knowledge, a period of apprenticeship training is usually required. For example, in technical jobs such as carpentry, plumbing, printing, welding, engraving, tool making, and other jobs that require long period of practice and experience, apprenticeship programmes are necessary if the trainee is to fully grasp or understand the intricacies and complexities of the job. Besides, since training takes place over an extended period of time, the distributed learning necessary to master such skills is able to take place. In addition, when apprenticeship programmes or training is well planned and operated, it permits the integration of the best features of on-the-job training and off-the-job training. It gives the apprentice an opportunity to earn something while learning (Banjoko, 2001).
The Teachers’ Establishment and pension Office (TEPO) was created from the defunct Post-Primary Teaching Service Commission (PP-TESCOM) by the education sector Reforms laws of year 2005 which also established the six Education District in Lagos State, it was headed by a Tutor General/Permanent Secretary under the Administration of the former Governor, Asiwaju Bola Ahmed Tinubu.
The Reform Law was to provide the enhancement of career of teachers in Post Primary Teaching service, decentralization for effective management of Post Primary school system in the state.
Recently, The Teachers’ Establishment and pension Office (TEPO) organized an 8-days seminar on “Effective use of ICT across the School Curriculun” facilitated by Corona Schools’ Trust Council. The seminar was aimed at improving teachers’ on adequate and effective use of modern ICT technology in the classroom.
Training of staff is important in the following ways: to remove performance deficiency; to match the employees’ abilities with the job requirements and organizational needs; to enhance organizational viability and the transformation process, to cope with the new technological advancement; to improve quality and quantity of work; to improve productivity and efficiency; to help staff cope with increased organizational complexity resulting from increased mechanization automation. Training, sometimes, may be undertaken to enhance employees’ self-esteem; to boost staff morale and thereby improve organisational climate, especially, in the school (Munonye, 2006).
For teachers to maximize their potentials or exhibit maximum effectiveness in their duties in the school system, constant staff training and development programmes must be put in place and these programmes must be geared towards the enhancement and improvement of teachers work performance which will also enhance the academic performance of students in the school environment.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Management of schools has, over time been a contentious issue but more contentious however, has been the performance of teachers at work. Unfortunately, some teachers do not perform to the expected standards and neither do they seem to address the needs of students. Their performance is still less satisfactory than the expected standards and consequences have been predictable as there are rising concerns over poor coverage of term curriculum and course content, delayed examination results and missing marks, poor assessment of examinations, poor teacher-student interaction, deteriorating academic performance and reduced levels of research (Ayo, 2003).
The school system in Nigeria, has the problem of untrained teachers who have greatly infiltrated into the teaching profession, because they think that teaching is an all-comers’ job. They think that everyone knows how to teach, but they forget that not everyone is trained to teach. Untrained and inexperience teachers lack the mastery of content (what to teach), the methodology (how to teach). Any teachers who do not possess the mastery of both what to teach and how to teach cannot be said to be a teacher in the first place. Untrained and inexperienced teachers therefore, lack the skills and the capabilities to achieve the goods in teaching and learning process. This unsatisfactory performance of inexperienced teachers has in turn posed a threat on the quality of education offered by the schools and service delivery. It is this belief that the researcher is motivated to find out the influence of staff development and training on teacher’s productivity in secondary schools.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study is to examine the influence of staff development and training on teachers’ productivity in secondary schools in Bariga Local Government Area of Lagos State.
Other objectives of the study include:
- To find out what types of training and developmental programmes are available for teachers in secondary schools.
- To find out whether training affects teachers’ productivity in the school.
- To investigate whether there is difference between the productivity of trained teachers and untrained ones.
- To differentiate the productivity of male and female teachers in the school.
- To find out whether there is a relationship between training and development of teachers and academic performance of students in the school.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions are raised in this study:
- What types of training and developmental programmes are available for secondary school teachers in Lagos State?
- Will training affects teachers’ productivity in the school sector?
- Is there any difference between the productivity of teachers who are trained and those who are not?
- How can the productivity of male and female teachers be differentiated?
- Will there be any relationship between training and development of teachers and academic performance of students in the school?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses will be formulated and tested in this study:
- There will be no significant effect of training on teachers’ productivity in the school sector.
- There will be no significant difference between the productivity of teachers who are trained and those who are not.
- There will be no significant relationship between training and development of teachers and academic performance of students in the school.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will be beneficial to the following individuals in many ways:
This study will help Principals of schools benefit from the findings and recommendations made by the researcher. This is because; the principals would be able to understand the essence of maintaining a conducive atmosphere in the school. It is important that principals maintain good relationship with their teachers and students so that they will be able to have good school climate running in the school for the overall maximization of high productivity.
The study will be beneficial to the teachers because it will enable them to be able to know more about the essence of having good principal – teacher relationships in the school, and how bad principal – teacher relationship can affect the school atmosphere badly. This is because nothing works in an organization or school where there is rancour and bad blood amongst principals, teachers and school community or even students and parents.
For the school to achieve its goals and objectives, it must operate on good climate or cordial culture which promotes high productivity. Also, Parents being one of the important stakeholders in the school system, ought to be in good relationship with the principals, the teachers and all that are in the school. Therefore, assisting parents to be able to be well informed on the importance of having their children in schools where there is good relationship among the school personnel and schools where is provision of infrastructures and other amenities in the school.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study covers all secondary schools in Bariga Local Government Area of Lagos State. But it is limited to five (5) schools within the Local Government because it is assumed that the number is enough to explain the whole Local Government.
1.8 Definition of Terms
The following terms were operationally defined thus:
Refers to manners, moral conduct and treatment shown to or towards management
This has to do with the total output or result of work obtainable from the input of employees in any organisation. In other words, it is the total production level of all the workers in a company, industries, schools and other parastatals within the private and public sectors.
This is the final result an organization intends to see from the employees after being motivated.
This means training somebody for something in order to be somebody or something; the act of giving teaching and practice to an individual or a worker in order to bring to a directed standard of behaviour, efficiency or physical condition.
Staff Training and Development:
Training and development are processes for equipping the employees particularly the non-managerial employees with specific skills e.g. technical skills such as plumbing, electrical, wiring, repairing, artistic skills, clerical and typing skills that could enable them to improve on their performances and overall efficiency. Adamson and Adamson (2000) state that the objective of training and development on the job is to enable an employee to perform his job in such a way as to meet the standards of output, quality, waste control, safety and other operational requirements.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings into the influence of staff development and training on teachers’ productivity in secondary schools in Bariga Local Government Area of Lagos State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was to examine the influence of staff development and training on teachers’ productivity in secondary schools in Bariga Local Government Area of Lagos State. The study specifically was aimed at finding out the types of training and developmental programmes available for teachers in secondary schools, identifying whether training affects teachers’ productivity in the school, investigating whether there is difference between the productivity of trained teachers and untrained ones, ascertaining the differentiation in the productivity of male and female teachers in the school, and finding out whether there is a relationship between training and development of teachers and academic performance of students in the school.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 160 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are active teachers from the five selected schools in Bariga Local Government Area of Lagos State.
Training and Development has always been a driving force for enhancing the teachers’ productivity and performance. A training and development program provided by the employer is a sincere effort to provide opportunities to the employees to be acquainted with the variety of skills, information, attitude and conduct. With the ever-growing needs of modern education system, the education industry has to become more techno savvy, dynamic and updated. There is always requirement of skillful and talented manpower to take up this education industry to the heights of international standards. Based on the findings of the study, the researcher concluded that;
- There will be a significant difference between the productivity of teachers who are trained and those who are not.
- There will be a significant effect of training on teachers’ productivity in the school sector.
- There will be a significant relationship between training and development of teachers and academic performance of students in the school.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.
- The Management of the Institutes is required to invest in training sessions for teachers and it is important to assess and review the effectiveness of training methods implemented in the institutions and get regular feedback from teachers to ensure best results.
- Government should mobilize adequate funds for regular in-service training of secondary schools teachers in Lagos state.
- The government, NGOs and other educational stake holders should regularize the conducts of educational conferences secondary school teachers in Lagos state. This will improve teachers‟ skills, productivity and effectiveness in service delivery and a sustained achievement of desired educational objectives.
- A policy on conduct of workshops should be put in place to allow every teacher to benefit from such training because of its desirability and usability.
- Teachers need to be acquainted with the current trends in education, the study has therefore recommended that Lagos state government should sensitize secondary school teachers on the need for regular attendance of educational seminars to enable them be abreast on current educational strategies, methods etc.
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