Influence Of Social Media And Student Gender As Determinant Of Students Academic Achievement In Basic Science In Ido Local Government, Oyo State.

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Influence Of Social Media And Student Gender As Determinant Of Students Academic Achievement In Basic Science In Ido Local Government, Oyo State.


Abstract


This study on the influence of social media and student gender as determinant of students academic achievement in basic science in Ido Local Government, Oyo State was specifically carried out to find out the extent social media is being used by secondary school students in Ido Local Government, Oyo State; find out the negative effect of social media on students academic performance in Basic science in Ido Local Government, Oyo State; determine if there is a significant relationship between gender and students academic performance in Basic science in Ido Local Government, Oyo State; and determine whether there is a significant gender difference in the academic performance of students in Basic science in Ido Local Government, Oyo State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of Basic science teachers and students of some selected secondary schools in Ido Local Government, Oyo State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, while the hypotheses were tested using Pearson Correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that the level of social media usage among junior secondary school negatively affects their academic performance in Basic science in Ido Local Government, Oyo State. The study also revealed that there is a significant relationship between gender and students academic performance in Basic science in Ido Local Government, Oyo State. Therefore, it is recommended that students should also be advised on the use of social gaming especially during examinations. Games are most times addictive, and involve a lot of thinking especially when it involves competition. If it is utilised effectively it will better improve their academic performance. On the other hand, female science teachers should engage in social persuasion (in the form of pep talks or verbal messages) as well as acting as role models to the female students to induce and encourage them to develop positive attitude towards science, which will in turn enhance their grades.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Academic achievement represents performance outcomes that indicate the extent to which a person has accomplished specific goals that were the focus of activities in instructional environments, specifically in school, college, and university. The problem of students’ under-performance in secondary schools in Nigeria has been a much discussed educational issue. In solving any problem however, it is pertinent to understand the causes of such problems. Many causes or agents have been studied as the etiological starting point for investigating the phenomena of school failure or success. These causes are looked into from several perspectives including the role of the students, teachers, parents or family, school environment, society, government etc. Notable works among these are effects of: students’ study habits (Ayodele & Adebiyi, 2013; Obasoro & Ayodele 2012), school environment (Adesoji & Olatunbosun, 2008; Okoro, 2004), teachers’ competencies (Akiri & Ugborugbo, 2009), parents’ economic status (Osonwa et al, 2013), continuous assessment (Kolawole & Ala, 2014; Okwu & Orum, 2012), educational funding (Ugwulashi, 2012). However, much attention have not been given to gender and social media as determinants of students academic performance in Basic science, which is the focus of this study.

Gender is the range of physical, biological, mental and behavioural characteristics pertaining to and differentiating between the feminine and masculine (female and male) population. The importance of examining performance in relation to gender is based primarily on the socio-cultural differences between girls and boys. In a nutshell, what are regarded as complex and difficult tasks are allocated to boys whereas girls are expected to handle the relatively easy and less demanding tasks. As a result of this way of thinking the larger society has tended to see girls as a weaker sex”. Consequently, an average Nigerian girl goes to school with these fixed stereotypes.

In view of the belief that students’ gender may have impact on the students’ academic performance, this study will study the relationship between them if any. Gender differences in achievement have been examined for some time resulting in a substantial body of literature (Jegede & lyang (1990); Okeke (1990) etc. Some of these researchers pointed out that there is no significant gender difference in students’ academic achievement and retention in various subjects while others found significant difference with either the boys or the girls performing better.

On the same note, the argument on the impact of social media on students academic performance still lingers. The social media, an offshoot of ICT, is the different forms of online communication used by people to create networks, communities, and collectives to share information, ideas messages and other contents such as videos (Pappas, 2013). The emergence of social media is as a result of advancement in technology and expansion in internet software has raised eyebrows among academics on its effects on students’ studies. Students at all levels of learning now have divided attention to studies as a result of available opportunities to be harnessed from the social media. Whether these opportunities promote studies is a question that needs to be answered.

According to the opinion of Temi(2013). the understanding of social media usage by secondary school students is vital in order to improve their academic performance. Although there are other factors standing in the way of academic performance, social media seems to be a major factor, considering the extent of students interest towards it. There are many works on social media usage among students in Nigeria, but there exists a gap in knowledge on social media and its impact on academic performance, bearing in mind that social media is a fascination among tudents. Hence, there is need to investigate the relationship between social media and students’ academic performance, in order to determine students’ attitude to social media and how it impact on their academics.

On the basis of the above, this study seek to examine the influence of social media and student gender as determinant of students academic achievement in basic science in Ido Local Government, Oyo State.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The problem of students’ under-performance in secondary schools in Nigeria has been a much discussed educational issue. In solving any problem however, it is pertinent to understand the causes of such problems. Many causes or agents have been studied as the etiological starting point for investigating the phenomena of school failure or success. These causes are looked into from several perspectives including the role of the students, teachers, parents or family, school environment, society, government etc. Notable works among these are effects of: students’ study habits (Ayodele & Adebiyi, 2013; Obasoro & Ayodele 2012), school environment (Adesoji & Olatunbosun, 2008; Okoro, 2004), teachers’ competencies (Akiri & Ugborugbo, 2009), parents’ economic status (Osonwa et al, 2013), continuous assessment (Kolawole & Ala, 2014; Okwu & Orum, 2012), educational funding (Ugwulashi, 2012). However, much attention have not been given to gender and social media as determinants of students academic performance in Basic science, which is the focus of this study.


1.3 Objective of Study

The main purpose of this study was to examine the influence of social media and student gender as determinant of students academic achievement in basic science in Ido Local Government, Oyo State. Specifically, this study will;

  1. Find out the extent social media is being used by secondary school students in Ido Local Government, Oyo State.
  2. Find out the negative effect of social media on students academic performance in Basic science in Ido Local Government, Oyo State.
  3. Determine if there is a significant relationship between gender and students academic performance in Basic science in Ido Local Government, Oyo State.
  4. Determine whether there is a significant gender difference in the academic performance of students in Basic science in Ido Local Government, Oyo State.

1.4 Research Questions

The study was guided by the following research questions:

  1. What is the extent of social media utilization by secondary school students in Ido Local Government, Oyo State?
  2. What are the negative effect of social media on students academic performance in Basic science in Ido Local Government, Oyo State?
  3. Is there a significant relationship between gender and students academic performance in Basic science in Ido Local Government, Oyo State?
  4. Is there a significant gender difference in the academic performance of students in Basic science in Ido Local Government, Oyo State?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho1: There is no significant relationship between social media and students academic performance in Basic science.
  • Ho2: There is no significant relationship between gender and students academic performance in Basic science.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The result of the study will assist in identifying the gender based performance of students in Basic Science. This will provide opportunity for identifying problem and proffer possible solution to academic challenges related to gender.

Furthermore, the study will unveil students attitude towards social media usage and the significant effects of social media on students academic performance.

In addition, the school board and proprietors/proprietress will benefit from the result of the findings which would enable them to evaluate and re-evaluate the performances of their students and assist them in formulating realistic and achievable policy based gender difference, and social media consumption among the young students.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study will focus generally on influence of social media and student gender as determinant of students academic achievement in basic science. The study will further assess the attitude of students towards the use of social media, and the possible gender differences in students performance in Basic science.

The study will geographically be conducted in junior secondary schools in Ido Local Government, Oyo State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

As with any human endeavor, the researcher experienced small impediments while performing the study. Due to the scarcity of literature on the subject as a result of the discourse’s nature, the researcher incurred additional financial expenses and spent additional time sourcing for relevant materials, literature, or information, as well as during the data collection process, which is why the researcher chose a small sample size. Additionally, the researcher conducted this inquiry in conjunction with other scholarly pursuits. Additionally, because only a small number of respondents were chosen to complete the research instrument, the results cannot be applied to other secondary schools outside the state. Regardless of the limits faced throughout the investigation, all aspects were reduced to ensure the best outcomes and the most productive research.


1.9 Definition of Terms

At this junction it is necessary to clarify what some used terms in this study means:

Basic Science:

Basic Science (Previously Integrated Science) was defined by UNESCO (1973) and Omiko (2005) as a science in which concepts and principles are presented so as to express the fundamental unit of scientific taught and avoiding premature or undue stress on the distinction between various scientific fields

Gender:

According to Lahey (2003) is a psychological experience of being a male or female.

Social Media:

They are forms of electronic communication which facilitate interactive base on certain interests. Social media include web and mobile technology.

Social Networking Sites:

A website where people put information about them and can send to others.

Social Networking:

The use of internet to make information about yourself available to other people especially people you share an interest with to send messages to them.

Academic Performance:

Academic performance or achievement is the outcome of education, that is, the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the influence of social media and student gender as determinant of students academic achievement in basic science in Ido Local Government, Oyo State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the influence of social media and student gender as determinant of students academic achievement in basic science in Ido Local Government, Oyo State. The study is was specifically set to find out the extent social media is being used by secondary school students in Ido Local Government, Oyo State; find out the negative effect of social media on students academic performance in Basic science in Ido Local Government, Oyo State; determine if there is a significant relationship between gender and students academic performance in Basic science in Ido Local Government, Oyo State; and determine whether there is a significant gender difference in the academic performance of students in Basic science in Ido Local Government, Oyo State.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants, where all respondent are Basic science teachers and students in some selected junior secondary schools in Ido Local Government, Oyo State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The social media is highly used among junior secondary school students in Ido Local Government, Oyo State.
  2. The level of social media usage among junior secondary school negatively affects their academic performance in Basic science in Ido Local Government, Oyo State.
  3. There is a significant relationship between gender and students academic performance in Basic science in Ido Local Government, Oyo State.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Female science teachers should engage in social persuasion (in the form of pep talks or verbal messages) as well as acting as role models to the female students to induce and encourage them to develop positive attitude towards science, which will in turn enhance their grades.
  2. Students should be better educated on the use of blogs and its effect on their performance. They should be advised on curtailing the use and its intended purpose to avoid dwindling academic performance.
  3. Students should also be advised on the use of social gaming especially during examinations. Games are most times addictive, and involve a lot of thinking especially when it involves competition. If it is utilised effectively it will better improve their academic performance.
  4. Students are also to be educated on the use of social networks. They should be educated on how to properly manage their study time in other to avoid distractions from social networks.

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