Influence Of Social Economic Background On Secondary School Student Perception Of Their School Learning Environment In Calabar Municipality, Cross River State

Environmental Education Project and Seminar Material

Influence Of Social Economic Background On Secondary School Student Perception Of Their School Learning Environment In Calabar Municipality, Cross River State


Abstract


The study examined the Influence Of Social Economic Background On Secondary School Student Perception Of Their School Learning Environment In Calabar Municipality, Cross River State. To achieve the purpose of the study, the researcher developed three (3) objectives, research questions and null hypotheses that guided the conduct of the study. The research design used for the study is a correlational research design. The population of the study consists of all the teachers and SS II students in public senior secondary schools in Calabar Municipality. The sampling technique used for the study is simple random sampling technique, with a sample size of 400 (one hundred and twenty (120) teachers, and two hundred and eighty (280) students). The instrument used for the data collection was self structured. The instrument was validated using two other senior lecturers from measurement and evaluation, while the reliability of the instrument was achieved using test-retest method to obtain a reliability coefficient value of 0.85. The data gathered were analyzed using mean and standard deviation for the research questions, while the null hypotheses were tested using z-text statistical tool at 0.05 level of significant. Based on the analysis of the data, the findings of the study revealed that there is a significant relationship between educational attainment level of parents, income level of parents, parental occupation and academic performance of students in public senior secondary schools in Calabar Municipality. Based on the findings of the study, the researcher recommends that: parents should try as much as possible to improve that level of education. This is because higher level of educational attainment of parents would have a positive relationship with the students’ academic performance in public senior secondary schools, parents should try to be engaged in meaningful occupation to increase their income level because hence the parental income level of the students has a positive and significant relationship on the students’ academic performance among others.

Keywords: Relationship, Parents, Socio-Economic Background, Academic Performance, Parental income level, Parental Educational level, Parental Occupation, Calabar Municipality


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Socio-economic background or status refers to a person’s position in a given group, society or culture as determined by wealth, occupation, education and social class. Amutabi (2003) discusses the impact of socio-economic status on children’s readiness for school. He asserts that the segregating nature of social class, ethnicity may well reduce the variety of enriching experiences thought to be prerequisite for creating readiness to learn among children. Social class and ethnicity, dictate neighborhood, housing, and access to resources that affect enrichment or deprivation as well as the acquisition of specific value systems. American Psychological Association, APA (2001) describes the relationship of family socio- economic status and children’s readiness for school across all socio-economic groups; parents face major challenges when it comes to providing optimal care and education for their children. For families in poverty these challenges can be formidable.

So without parents not being ready to train their children, their performance in school might be discouraging due to individual differences. Even when some are being cared for properly, it is observed that they still could not cope with the system thereby leading to their failure or poor academic performance.

The family also provides an ascribed social class for its members. A child’s initial social class is a very important variable in determining his/her educational attainment, selection of marital partner, place of residence, religious and political preferences, occupation and even life expectancy. As the saying goes “it is easier to climb the ladder of success if your parents own the ladder (Thompson &Hickey, 2002). The family is to a large extent where individuals acquire their specific social positions in society and parent socioeconomic background goes a long way in improving the child’s life and welfare in all ramifications. The school as an important agency for socialization is responsible for polishing the individuals for adult life. The major function of the school as an agent of socialization is the transmission of the cognitive aspect of culture (i.e. knowledge and ideas) from one generation to the other and preparation for adult roles. The school serves as both formal and informal socializing agent. Through its hidden curriculum it trains the individual to become useful to himself and society in general. The school provides conscious and systematic training among others.

Buchi (2005) further stated that family socio-economic status which forms the subject of this study, includes housing condition, availability of reading materials and opportunities for intellectual development. Family factors, such as unsatisfactory housing condition may have a serious effect on educational achievement of a child. Large families, insufficient amenities, due to poor economic condition could distract the interest and attention of the Learner, which may affect the whole process. On the other hand, Buchi (2005) observed that, children from poor families or those lacking those materials or amenities go to the school hoping to find the essential qualities lacking in their homes.

The socio-economic status of the family has its own consequences on educational achievement. Inability to pay regular school fees due to unfavourable economic situation can force some parents to send their children to substandard schools or even withdraw them from the school. Where such resources and facilitates are lacking, it is inevitable that the education of the child could be seriously affected in terms of their educational progress. Poor socio-economic status parents cannot afford to provide all the material resources that are very important for educational advancement of their children in school. The absence or denial of such resources to their children is borne out of the necessity of their economic circumstances, not because they do not have similar aspiration like the high and middle socio-economic parents who have these material recourses at their disposal (Blaks, 2006).

However, some factors like family size, parental educational levels, parental income levels and parental occupation, etc. have influenced the academic performance and achievement of the senior secondary students in Rivers State. It is against this background that the study seeks to investigate the relationship betweenSocial Economic Background On Secondary School Student Perception Of Their School Learning Environment In Calabar Municipality, Cross River State.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The notion that the standard of education has fallen, has generated a lot of arguments among scholars and educationists. Teachers, government and students are often blamed for this phenomenon without investigating other factors that could hinder high standard of education. Every child in school performs differently in terms of academics, which may either be positive or negative. Experience has shown that among the secondary school students there are variations in the type of schools children attend. Peters (2000) observed that most parents seem to be more interested in the feeding and clothing of their children than in their educational progress. Some parents do not care about teaching and encouraging their children at home. They believe that the school teachers will do everything.

It has been observed that many students do not pass well in both internal and external examinations such as West African School Certificate (WASC), National Examination Council (NECO) and Junior Secondary School Certificate (JSSC). Obanya (2004), Ebenuwa-Okoh (2010), and Atanda & Jaiyeoba (2011) noted that some of the factors responsible for the low performance of students in schools are low socio-economic status of parents and lack of seriousness on the part of the students. There is poor students’ academic performance and achievement in public senior secondary schools as a result of parental socio-economic status or background. These status includes; parental level of education, parental occupation, the family population or size and parental level of income. Some scholars like, Uba, (2016), Oti, (2008) and Owen (2009) have actually carried out studies on the relationship between parental socio- economic status and students’ career choice in Rivers State. In this case, emphases were not given to the students’ academic performance which has necessitated this research or study. In the light of this, this study intends to find out the relationship between Social Economic Background On Secondary School Student Perception Of Their School Learning Environment In Calabar Municipality, Cross River State.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main purpose of the study is to examine the Influence of Social Economic Background On Secondary School Student Perception Of Their School Learning Environment In Calabar Municipality, Cross River State. Specifically, the study sought:

  1. To find out the extent of the relationship between educational attainment level of parents and academic performance of students in Senior Secondary Schools.
  2. To determine the extent of the relationship between income levels and academic performance of students in Senior Secondary Schools.
  3. To determine the extent of the relationship between parents occupation and academic performance of students in Senior Secondary Schools.

1.4 Research Questions

For the purpose of this research work, the following research questions have been formulated:

  1. What is the extent of the relationship between educational attainment level of parents and academic performance of students in senior secondary schools in Calabar Municipality?
  2. What is the extent of the relationship between income levels of parents and academic performance of students in senior secondary schools in Calabar Municipality?
  3. What is the extent of the relationship between parents’ occupation and academic performance of students in senior secondary schools in Calabar Municipality?

1.5 Hypotheses

The following hypotheses are proposed to be tested.

  1. There is no significant relationship between educational attainment level of parents and academic performance of students in senior secondary schools in Calabar Municipality.
  2. There is no significant relationship between income levels of parents and academic performance of students in senior secondary schools in Calabar Municipality.
  3. There is no significant relationship between parents’ occupation and academic performance of students in senior secondary schools in Calabar Municipality.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The result of the relationship between the socio-economic background and students’ academic performance will help to make useful recommendations to improve the teaching profession if need be.

The teacher would be able to take new dimensions to teach those less privileged from poor background if all these problems are identified, known and taken note of. For instance, an extra lesson could be given by the teacher to some sections of the class that are weak academically in certain aspects of their learning.

Even instructional materials like television, radios, field trips and different programs might be provided for all the students and it will give those that come from poor environment some of the experiences which those students who come from rich environment have. Therefore from this type of study it can be noted that continual educational decisions could be made about students from, various social classes, cultural and economic background.


1.7 Scope of Study

This research work restricts the researcher to just one of the reasons or factors affecting the educational performance of students at the senior school certificate examination (SSCE) in some selected secondary schools in Calabar Municipality. These schools are the sample population which represents the entire population. The senior secondary I (SS I) students will in these schools represent the entire students population.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Due to the limitations faced by the researcher financially and in terms of time allocated for this work the study would be restricted to three secondary schools as earlier mentioned.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Social Class:

Social class can be defined as a level o r class in society. this level is made up of individual who see income and occupation, value and some attitude towards social issues.

Economic Background:

This has to do with wealth; the family is rich or poor. If they have factors land, houses, cars or if they don’t have at all.

Higher Education:

This has to do with the educational qualification e.g. NCE, Bed, Med etc.

Lower Education:

This refers to education which starts with the educational life of the students e.g. primary school, SSCE etc

Stimulating Homes:

These are situations where individual are kept alert mentally by parents, by involving them in brain tasking activities and provision of learning requirements.


Chapter Five


Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Discussion of Findings

The finding in research question one indicated that the respondents agreed that educated parents ensure that their students or children are educated no matter the cost or involvement. The respondents still accepted the view that educated parents promote their children’s education by providing their needs academically. The analysis also showed that the respondents accepted the point that Illiterate parents have little or no concern about their children education thereby affecting their academic performance. This study is in line with the view of Henslin (2006), who observed that most educated parents do not allow their children to learn or acquire skills or entrepreneurship. The analysis also revealed that the respondents agreed the fact that some educated parents normally train some of their children to take after their profession.

The result of research question two showed that students in their education or academics consider the financial level of their parents thereby improving their academic performance. The study still revealed that rich parents provide everything for their children education thereby promoting their academic performance. It was also observed from the table that the respondents supported the point that rich parents like training their children to any level of education no matter the cost thereby promoting their academic performance. The findings also indicated that children from well to do home or family are gingered to take professional courses since their parents are ready to provide all the necessary materials. The study revealed that some children from low income family are not privilege to have all the reading or school materials thereby affecting their academic performance.

The result of research question three revealed that most lawyers (learned men) like their children to take after their profession thereby providing everything for them to improve their academic performance. The findings still showed that children or students’ vocational development are mainly trace from their parental occupational background. This study is in line with Oti (2008) who observed that some medical students have parents that are medical doctors thereby encouraging them in the profession to improve their academic performance. The analysis indicated that parental occupation helps in shaping, moulding and orienting their children on their own profession thereby promoting their academic performance. The findings also showed that parents see their children as a second chance whose future is to compensate for their occupational frustrations and disappointment thereby encouraging their children to perform well academically.


5.2 Conclusion

The influence of social economic background on secondary school student perception of their school learning environment in Calabar Municipality, cross river state cannot be overemphasized. However, the study concludes that parents’ family size and educational attainment level of parents have significant relationship on the academic performance of students in public senior secondary schools. The study also deduced that there is a positive and significant relationship between income levels of parents, parents’ occupation and academic performance of students in public senior secondary schools in Calabar Municipality. The researcher still concludes that parental status provide the first learning opportunity for the students and that socio-economic status of parents is a direct drive to students’


5.3 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are hereby put forward to ensure that this study achieved its objectives:

  1. Parents should try as much as possible to increase the level of education. This is because higher level of educational attainment of parents has positive relationship with the students’ academic performance in public senior secondary schools.
  2. Parents should try to diversify their sources of income to increase their income level because the parental income level of the students has positive and significant relationship on the students’ academic performance in public senior secondary schools in Calabar Municipality.
  3. Parents should try as much as possible to get better occupation since it is not only going to help the family in times of feeding but it has a positive significant relationship on the students’ academic performance in public senior secondary schools in Calabar Municipality.

Get Complete Project Material

5,000 5000

The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦5,000 to the Account Below

Zenith BankAcc No: 1225513212
Samphina Academy
Current Account

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card


FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($15)

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  1. Payment Details

  2. TOPIC: Influence Of Social Economic Background On Secondary School Student Perception Of Their School Learning Environment In Calabar Municipality, Cross River State

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


Need a Different Topic? Perform a Quick Search



List of Related Works

Click on Any Topic to Preview the Content


Frequently Asked Questions


Does the socio-economic status of Parents affect the academic performance of students?

The socio-economic status of parents has no significant effect on the academic performance of physics students. There is no significant effect between family size and the academic performance of students in physics.

Does the school environment have a significant influence on students’ academic performance?

The school environment has a significant influence on students ’ academic performance. We are 95% con fident that the slope of the actual regression line is somewhere between 6.047 and 18.049. performance somewhere between 6.047 and 18.049.

How does family background affect students in (SS1)?

If family background affects students in (ss1), it is assumed that likely to affect their performances in senior secondary school certificates examinations and even worst in their higher academic performance. 

How does the family background affect the education of a child?

In order to achieve this noble course, so many factors must be put into consideration. Among them is the family background of the child. The family has a great role to play on the overall development of the child and his educational upbringing in particular. 

samphina.academy

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.