The Influence Of Smart Phones And Social Networking Sites On The Academic Performance Of Senior Secondary School Students
The study investigated the influence of smart phones and social networking sites on the academic performance of secondary school students in Amwuwo-Odofin local government area of Lagos State. The descriptive research design was adopted for this study. Three (3) public secondary schools were selected from the list of Public Schools in Amuwo-Odofin Local Government Area of Lagos State using the Simple Random Sampling Technique. Two hundred (200) students were selected using stratified Random Sample Technique. The research instrument used was a four point modified Rennis Likert Rating Scale Questionnaire type. Five research questions were raised and five hypotheses were formulated. Data analyses was done using the descriptive statistics of frequency counts and percentages to answer research questions while the hypotheses formulated were tested using chii-square and t-test – statistical tool at 0.05 level of significance. All stated null hypotheses were rejected.
1.1 Background of the Study
The world is a comprehensive cyber community that has been connected by a network of wired and wireless devices through the World Wide Web (WWW). Today most of us have secured a room in cyber space by having email accounts, doing online transaction and through e-learning.
Social networking sites are the main application under the umbrella of social media, which comes with the Web 2.0 era. Social media is the fastest growing web application in the 21st century.
Technology addiction problem has been treated important, especially in the education field of secondary schools, because adolescent is more vulnerable to the addiction. However, smart phones addiction has become a more serious problem recently.
Smart phones are the new generation of mobile phones; they have emerged over the last few years and already have conquered the market. Smart phones with their mini keyboards are not just phones, but have computer functions as email, calendar and address book and office programs for reading and editing. The multimedia phone features such as camera, video, sound recordings or podcasting is advanced and can compete with specialized equipment.
With the growing of gadgets embedded in modern mobile phones (particularly 3G and 4G phones) such as MP3,Internet and the decrease in the size and price of such devices, mobile phones has become omnipresent. The mobile phone is an anytime and anywhere tool, boosting the tendency to the things discretely as well as openly. The fact is that with the use Of cell phones, people sometimes lose the capacity to manage the boundaries between appropriate and inappropriate usage. (Ling. 1997)
In this current technology, the use of social networking sites(such as Face book, twitter, WhatsApp, Skype, Instagram, e.t,.c) has become a common place for this generation of college students (Hanson, Drumheller, Mallard, Mckee & Schlegel,2011). Connecting to these social networking sites has become easier and more convenient with the increased popularity of wireless technology. This has contributed to an increase of more than one billion people logging on to these sites daily. Young adults, 18_29 years old, are the most active user of wireless technology, 81%are active users (Lenhart, Purcell, Smith & Zickuhr, 2010). The demand for social networking sites among college students is significant.92% of all under graduates students are members of social media (Junco & Cotton, 2012). As college students are increasingly adopting social media, it is important for faculty and administrators in higher education institutions to understand how this is influencing student’s academic performance.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The invention of technology such as mobile phones has no doubt brought about immense positive progress to human societies, but this invention equally brought about in its wake some observed attitudinal problems among secondary schools students. However, this is not to say that these problems are solely caused by the usage of these phones as there are other causes, but that the attitudes of the users and the modes of the usage are significantly the contributing factors especially in the 21st century. Scholars have identified the problems associated with the phone usage and time (Junco, Merco and Salter, 2010_Wei and Lo, 2006), the attachment to phones (Gaser, 2006), in the face of this, therefore, there is the need to establish the link between these observations and academic performance. In analyzing the problem of these internet phones, and in order to synchronize and have a clearer understanding of the problem as it is related- to this study, it must be borne in mind that other varying platforms of distractions towards the academic performance of the secondary school students are also implicated, such as the computer usages, which generate internet social networking sites, and the visual display devices for relaxation such as televisions.
In addition to this, there is high tendency of students to interact with their phone in the class in the course of lectures, either to respond to received messages, or to browse the internet. These, no doubt, take a heavy toll on the level of concentration devoted to the lectures. Even while outside the classroom environment, most students who use internet enabled phones devotes much time interacting with their phones by chatting on Twitter 2go, Facebook, Instant messages (Bbm, Yahoo messenger). Consequently, the time that ought to have been devoted to study and other useful academic endeavours are thus frittered away.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The general purpose of the study is to determine the influence of smart phones and social networking sites on the academic performance of secondary schools students and they are stated below
- To determine the influence of smart phones on academic performance of school students.
- To ascertain the influence of social networks on the academic performance of students.
- To determine the influence of social networks on student study habit.
- To ascertain the influence of smart phones on students level of concentration in class.
- To determine the influence of social networks on students access to learning materials.
1.4 Research Hypotheses
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
- H0: There is no significant influence between smartphones and students academic performance.
H1: There is significant influence between smartphones and students academic performance.
- H02: There is no significant influence between social networks and students’ access to learning materials.
H2: There is significant influence between social networks and students’ access to learning materials.
1.5 Significance of the Study
As said earlier, this study is about the influence of smart phones usage and social networking sites on academic performance of secondary school students. This study will be useful to students, parents, teachers, school administrator and school counselor. The students as the receiver of knowledge in the school will understand the ways by which usage of smart phones can affect their learning performance. Teachers in schools will find these work useful as it will provide the rationale for ensuring that students are been told how and when to use smart phones and the ways they can benefit from social sites. The school administrator will see this work as one that can be relied on and as such come up with rules that can put the commendation of this study into action. The counselor as a professional will apply knowledge gain from this work by putting students through the use of smart phones and social networking sites, thereby assisting them to perform well in their studies.
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope of this study will be limited to Senior Secondary Schools in Educational Districts (iv) of Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State. It is worthy to note that smart phones and social networking sites will be treated as two separate variables affecting academic performance. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
a) Availability of Research Material:
The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Organizational Privacy:
Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities
1.8 Definition of Terms
i. Smart Phone:
Any mobile communication device capable of accessing the Internet.
ii. Social networking sites or Social media:
A group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0and that allows the creation and exchange of user generated context (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010).
iii. BYOD (Bring Your Own Device):
Trend of using iPads, iPhones, Andriod phones, and sometimes even their own laptops, and expecting to use this to gain access to corporate educational data(Miller, 2012).
iv. Mobile Learning:
Use of mobile or wireless devices for the purpose of learning while on the move or learning that takes advantage of mobile technologies.
A person who studies at a school, college or university.
Is a collection of computers and computer networks located all over the world, all of which share information by agreed upon protocols.
vii. Social Networking Site:
This is an online site that focuses on facilitating the building of social -networks or social relations among people who share activities, interests, background thus allowing them share ideas, events among themselves.
viii. Academic Performance:
Refers -to how students deal with their studies and how they cope with or accomplish different tasks given to them by their teachers.
1.8 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain the influence of smart phones and social networking site on the academic performance of senior secondary schools student
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the influence of smart phones and social networking site on the academic performance of senior secondary schools student
This study was on the influence of smart phones and social networking site on the academic performance of senior secondary schools student. Four objectives were raised which included: To determine the influence of smart phones on academic performance of school students, to ascertain the influence of social networks on the academic performance of students, to determine the influence of social networks on student study habit, to ascertain the influence of smart phones on students level of concentration in class, to determine the influence of social networks on students access to learning materials. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected secondary schools in Amwuwo-Odofin local government area of Lagos State. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up principals, vice principals administration, senior staff and junior staff were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
Social networking sites have great potential for educational use and it is found that by chatting using Face book, Twitters, and chatting online result in increase of the English communication. The inferiority complex of talking and writing in English is decreased. They are trying their best to write and speak English which results in better communication. Social networking sites get updated with the news and other information which results in increasing the General Knowledge and current affairs which in result make a child ready for competitive examination. Theses social sites increases the links of the friendship with reputed person and famous personalities and scientists which on request guide and motivate these students.
Students should be taught proper time management so that they would rightly allot time for various activities especially while using facebook in their various institutions of learning so as to enhance chances of better academic performance. Also, lecturers should look out for and completely discourage the use of facebook and other social networking sites gadgets during classes. Nonetheless, the National Communication Commission (NCC) should review downward the cost of accessing facebook or any other social networking site like Blackberry subscription, bearing in mind that majority of people on the site are students who may not have enough money but need the site to meet their academic demands. Encouraging academic staff’s active utilization of the site for imparting knowledge to students as well is another realizable recommendation. This action will boost group academic communication, and also encourage and sustain students’ efforts towards learning and problems solving. It will reduce to the minimum endless youthful social communication while it achieves better utilization of the Internet and available technologies for learning.
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Frequently Asked Questions
How do smart phones increase the usage of social networking sites?
Smart phones increase the usage of social networking sites because in smart phones facebook application are amended and also Wi-Fi technology. In 2009 27 percent students buy the smart phones but in 2010 49 per cent students buy the smart phones because they want to online every time.
Do social networking sites affect student performance and satisfaction with life?
The research model suggests the negative mediating affects of the Social Networking Sites such as Facebook, Twitter and Skype etc. The concluding remarks are that, a decrease occurs in the student’s academic performance but a positive effect on the satisfaction with life.
Does social media use affect school performance of secondary school students?
Social media use has no significant effect on psychosocial behaviour of secondary school students. Social media use has no significant effect on academic performance of secondary school students.
Does SNS affect one’s academic performance?
Similarly, SNS do affect one’s academic performance adversely. It causes the gradual drop in the grades of the students directly. It affects the student’s academic performance if he/she invests his/her time in SNS instead in his studies. Time wasting is a major issue in this regard.