Influence Of School Politics On The Academic Performance Of Public Secondary School Students In Obio Akpo Education Zone Of Rivers State

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Influence Of School Politics On The Academic Performance Of Public Secondary School Students In Obio Akpo Education Zone Of Rivers State


Abstract


This study was carried out on the influence of school politics on the academic performance of public secondary school students in Obio Akpo education zone of Rivers state. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of Language teachers of selected secondary schools in Obio Akpo education zone of Rivers state. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 120 respondents and 100 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the extent politics is played among secondary schools in Obio Akpo Education Zone Of Rivers State is high. The study also revealed that school politics have created inequalities among secondary schools in Obio Akpo Education Zone Of Rivers State. Furthermore, school politics affects academic performance of secondary schools in Obio Akpo Education Zone Of Rivers State. Therefore, it is recommended that policies that will ensure students participation in politics and make meaningful contribution to their academic achievement should be encouraged among others.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypotheses
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.0 Data Presentation
  • 4.1 Analysis of Data
  • 4.2 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.3 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE 

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Education is a weapon for acquiring skills relevant knowledge and habits for the survival of the changing world. It is an area of major concern to the society because it helps to foster the national unity and transform the political, socio-political and religious aspect of the nation. Okeke (2004) and (2009) posits that education is a political battle ground through which political formation gets its power and budgetary allocation. Education is a key to national development because it unlocks the economic potentials of the people empowerment and equips individuals in the society to participate in and benefit from the national economy, facilitate economic development and provide the basis for transformation. In addition, Ajaye (2016), Aluede, Okhiku, Esamah, & Ojemhenkele (2009) in their studied noted that poor planning, poor funding , inaccurate statistical record, poor awareness and mobilization campaign, insufficient number of qualified teacher in schools, embezzlement of the funds by administrators, poor school infrastructural facilities, poor provision of instructional materials, lack of adequate motivation of teachers, and politicization of secondary school education were the constraints to effective implementation of secondary school educational policies. In Nigeria, education is an instrument par excellence for affecting national development for it has become a political issue because the amended Nigeria constitution has put education under the concurrent list that‟s means that federal ,state, and local government can control education as far as their conduct does not breach constitutional guideline. Education system cannot survive outside the financial support and protection of the government for example; Nigeria education development has been guided by politics in the area of social demand from government. Politics involve the use and the regulation of power, influences and authority in the allocation of things which people want, therefore politics of education consist of the struggle among actors in education governance, it is concern with pattern of .interaction or conflicts over value, interest and goals relative to the perceive need of education and public authority. United Nation Development Programme (2011) defined politics as struggle over value, power and scarce resources in which the aim of the conflicting interest are to gain the desired value and resources at the expense of other rivals. Politics is also defined as who gets what, when, how, and where ( Nwawu 2002).

Politics is failing education reform because it does not acknowledge or address two central realities: Nigeria remains corrosively inequitable, especially in terms of tribe, class and gender; and education tends to perpetuate those inequalities through commitments to tracking, testing and ranking. Politics cannot teach as Ogbonnaya, (2000) opines but educators and researchers can lead schools if they will commit themselves to genuine social reform that addresses poverty, and to education reform that allows teachers to do that which they know how to do.
In the foregoing discussion, it seems as if politics has taken much tolls on education via bureaucracy. It has been established that school is a formal organization that is made up of learners interacting together (within a community) to perform coordinated teaching, learning and knowledge-creating activities. The character of school as a bureaucratic organization within a society determines the nature of educational management. Max Weber (1946), the German sociologists, developed the principles of rational administrative organization based on rules, procedures, competence, contract agreements and objectivity so that bureaucrats could deal with stable and routine tasks which are the bases of organizational efficiency.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The influence of politics in education in Nigeria is reflected both in the setting of educational institution of learning as well as the appointment of teachers and administrators in secondary school. Though politics and education are interconnected in that it is very difficult to separate them since the time of independence because most of the educational decision as relates to the appointment are connected with politics, but now it has gone even worse. This culture have affected the academic performance of students in secondary school because even teachers or principals who were not qualify are employed into secondary school leaving the qualified ones because they have no gods father or someone who cannot stand for them in politics, this can hinder individuals from performing at their best. Politicization of appointment has become a cankerworm, destroying our educational system. The problem is how the interplay between micro politics and macro politics constitute a challenge in the attainment of the educational goals.

Having considered so far the subtle and glaring inter plays of education and politics, this study investigated the influence of politics on education and its impact on students‟ academic performance in public secondary schools in Obio Akpo Education Zone of Rivers State.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main aim of this study is to examine the influence of school politics on the academic performance of public secondary school students in Obio Akpo Education Zone Of Rivers State. Specifically, other aims of this study are:

  1. To determine the extent politics is played in secondary schools in Obio Akpo Education Zone Of Rivers State.
  2. To determine whether political system determines the attainment of educational goals in secondary schools in Obio Akpo Education Zone Of Rivers State.
  3. To determine whether school politics have created inequalities among secondary schools in Obio Akpo Education Zone Of Rivers State.
  4. To determine whether school politics affects academic performance of secondary schools in Obio Akpo Education Zone Of Rivers State.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will be answered in this study:

  1. To what extent is politics played among secondary schools in Obio Akpo Education Zone Of Rivers State?
  2. Does the political system determines the attainment of educational goals in secondary schools in Obio Akpo Education Zone Of Rivers State?
  3. Has school politics created inequalities among secondary schools in Obio Akpo Education Zone Of Rivers State?
  4. Does school politics affect academic performance of secondary schools in Obio Akpo Education Zone Of Rivers State?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • H01: School politics has not created inequalities among secondary schools in Obio Akpo Education Zone Of Rivers State.
  • H02: School politics does not affect academic performance of secondary schools in Obio Akpo Education Zone Of Rivers State.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be of great significance to the education sector as the findings of this study will reveal the effects of politics in the educational sector.

This study will also be of great importance as it will serve as focal point for further studies and future references.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on the influence of school politics on the academic performance of public secondary school students in Obio Akpo Education Zone Of Rivers State. Specifically, this study focuses on determining the extent school politics is played in secondary school students in Obio Akpo Education Zone Of Rivers State, determining whether political system promotes the attainment of educational goals in secondary schools in Obio Akpo Education Zone Of Rivers State, determining whether politics have created inequalities in our educational system in secondary schools in Obio Akpo Education Zone Of Rivers State and determining whether politics affects academic performance in secondary schools in Obio Akpo Education Zone Of Rivers State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

School:

A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students under the direction of teachers. Most countries have systems of formal education, which is sometimes compulsory. In these systems, students progress through a series of schools.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the influence of school politics on the academic performance of public secondary school students in Obio Akpo education zone of rivers state. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the influence of school politics on the academic performance of public secondary school students in Obio Akpo education zone of rivers state.The study is was specifically carried out to; determine the extent politics is played in secondary schools in Obio Akpo Education Zone Of Rivers State, determine whether political system determines the attainment of educational goals in secondary schools in Obio Akpo Education Zone Of Rivers State, determine whether school politics have created inequalities among secondary schools in Obio Akpo Education Zone Of Rivers State, and determine whether school politics affects academic performance of secondary schools in Obio Akpo Education Zone Of Rivers State.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were teachers of some selected secondary school in Obio Akpo education zone of Rivers state.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The extent politics is played among secondary schools in Obio Akpo Education Zone Of Rivers State is high.
  2. School political system determines the attainment of educational goals in secondary schools in Obio Akpo Education Zone Of Rivers State.
  3. School politics have created inequalities among secondary schools in Obio Akpo Education Zone Of Rivers State.
  4. School politics affects academic performance of secondary schools in Obio Akpo Education Zone Of Rivers State.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Students should be enlightened on the need and reasons for school politics through unions and during orientations before joining school politics
  2. Students should understand that political activities are not for power tussle or a place to intimidate and embezzle money but a training grown for good leadership
  3. The school management should monitor activities of students during the politics so as to ensure decorum and avoid immoral attitudes
  4. Policies that will ensure students participation in politics and make meaningful contribution to their academic achievement should be encouraged among others.

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