The Influence Of School Library On Student Achievement In Chemistry In Secondary Schools

Project and Seminar Material for Chemistry Education

The Influence Of School Library On Student Achievement In Chemistry In Secondary Schools


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the influence of school library on student achievement in Chemistry in secondary schools in Andoni Local Government Of Rivers State. The study was set to investigate the rate at which students use school library in secondary schools; identify the factors affecting the adequate utilization of school libraries in secondary schools; determine whether the use of school libraries facilitates the effective teaching and learning of Chemistry in secondary schools; and determining if the use of school library has a positive impact on students academic performance in Chemistry. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of chemistry teachers and students of some selected senior secondary schools in Andoni Local Government Of Rivers State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlation statistical tool SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that the use of school libraries facilitate the effective teaching and learning of Chemistry in secondary schools. The result of the findings reveals that there is a significant relationship between the use of library facilities and students academic performance in Chemistry. Therefore, it is recommended that the use of library resources in teaching and learning has been found to enhance the quality of achievement in chemistry, chemistry teachers should therefore be encouraged to increasingly, employ it in the teaching of the subject. in so doing, Chemistry students’ ability could be enhanced. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Education is the key factor in the development and advancement of society. Education greatly contributes to a nation’s socio-economic development and is a powerful tool for change. Schiller (2008), sees education as an investment in human capital that produces returns to individuals in the form of higher earnings and social returns. It should be noted that the training of the cream of the human capital of a country takes place in schools. This is because schools have been known to play a central role in developing a knowledge base of individuals, societies and organizations. Information provision and management are crucial to development at all levels. It is accepted that information is knowledge and knowledge is power and those who have it will always be ahead of those who do not have it. Information can only be provided when it exists but when information has not been properly packaged and stored, it cannot be made available. The creation of libraries is therefore a means to ensure quality access to information (Bannerman, 2007). Informed library users know that libraries have resources that are more comprehensive and scholarly, relative to cyber cafés. Libraries often provide access to scholarly literature for users at various schools.

The school library is an integral part of the educational system that can not be ignored without jeopardizing the quality of education in schools. It is an important part of school programs without which, students would not thrive academically and invariably find it most difficult to conduct academic research before they reach the college level (Francis Lance & Lietzau, 2010). According to Kolade (2001), the school library can be described as the nerve centre of the school and is expected to play an important role in the school curriculum since it has unlimited jurisdiction in the field of knowledge. The school library is a facility in the school, where books and periodicals are stored in sequential order for research, study, evaluation and recreation by students as well as teachers who are ready to make use of the library (Odusanya, 2004; Ogunbote and Odunemu, 2008; Oluwadare, 2007 and Tiwari 2013). Nowadays, libraries have become the intellectual storehouse, where all forms of publications, manuscripts, books, newspapers, diaries and other printed works one documented and kept. Every school needs a standard library as the backbone of academic achievement and that is why the importance of the school library and its resources cannot be overemphasized.

Library resources are those materials, both print and non-print, found in school libraries which support curricular and personal information needs. Print items include books, magazines, newspapers, pamphlets, microfiche or microfilms. Non-print items include films, disc records, film strips, slides, prints, audio tapes, videotapes, compact discs and computer software. These resources enable libraries to play a crucial role in the lifelong success of the education of communities and society in general. They can also, meet the broad and viewing needs of people living in the society for information, knowledge, recreation and intellectual enjoyment. A good library is indispensable if academic excellence is to be achieved in any academic setting, Obajemu (2002). The truth of this statement depends on the types of services that are available in such school libraries. Clark (1999), contented that school libraries serve students by providing materials to meet their various needs and by encouraging reading and the use of the library. The quality of school library services will be largely influenced by the availability of human, material and financial resources. The school library today not only serves the curriculum needs of students and teachers but also provides materials for the professional growth of teachers and students. The school library helps teachers and students to keep pace with the best ideas and practices in education and use materials to broaden their knowledge to derive personal enjoyment. Students may not have been exposed to library resources or may not be aware of which resources a library might have so that they can make use of them, which may be partly blamed on library staff (Waldman, 2003). It is therefore paramount for librarians or information officers to provide up-to-date comprehensive library and information services needed to satisfy the information required by users. Librarians are responsible for gathering, selecting, organizing, disseminating and preserving recorded knowledge and information in all forms and for providing assistance and instruction in their use. Books have been described as channels of civilization, without which history may be silent, literature dumb, science crippled, thought and speculation at a standstill (Bannerman 2009).

Basic knowledge of science is essential for all forms of modern development. To be able to appreciate, control and effectively tap from and utilize the library resources it is imperative to acquire scientific knowledge which is a basic tool for all forms of industrial and technological advancement in any nation. Being aware of this obvious fact, many nations, Nigeria inclusive, have recognized the significance of science and technology and its developmental endeavours. Onu (2017), asserts that no nation can become great, without science and technology. The expression of the need for scientific and technological literacy for all Nigerians was a discussion opined by Ibe et al. (2016). Any nation that ignores scientific and technological education may find it difficult to fit into the global advancement in science and technology. The role of science and technology in the development of a nation is never in dispute. The current upsurge of effort in the development of science and technology has greatly affected human beings and, to be ignorant of this development is to live an empty, meaningless and probably unreal life. The technological development of any nation lies in its emphasis on sciences, especially chemistry.

Chemistry is a branch of science that deals with the composition of substances, atoms of elements that combine or break up and the reactions of atoms and compounds under different conditions (Udu, 2018a). Students have often gone through secondary school either blindly or without proper guidance as to the importance of Chemistry. It is only when students wish to enter the university that they realize they should have taken Chemistry more seriously. The importance of Chemistry in society today cannot be overemphasized because of its relationship to other fields. The knowledge of the subject and its applications contribute immensely to the industrial development of any nation. As numerous as the importance of chemistry, students encounter difficulties learning the subject, especially at the secondary school level because of its presumed abstract nature. Many factors such as poor primary school background, mathematical aspects/nature of the subject, poor instructional models, lack of instructional materials and libraries in many schools result in most of the schools lacking even a place to access extra materials, lack of interest in school, large classes, and fear of the subject psychologically were associated with students’ poor performance in chemistry (Njoku, 2007; Saage, 2009; Udu, 2018b). It was further reported that candidates concentrated mainly on familiar questions that demanded a recall of facts and were unable to apply their knowledge of scientific principles to answer other questions as well as poor mathematical skills, inability to write chemical formula-correctly, poor spelling and poor understanding of the structures and properties of compounds (West African Examination Council (WAEC, 2018). Furthermore, students answered chemistry questions poorly and also failed to draw correct structures and give correct structures. Hence, it is considered that the students could perform better if library resources are effectively used by both the chemistry students and teachers in the teaching and learning processes. Students have great difficulty understanding chemistry concepts at all levels of education. The role of chemistry in the development of the scientific base of a country cannot be overemphasized and Nigeria is not an exception. Yet with the increasing importance of chemistry to the unfolding world, the performance of Nigerian students in the subject at secondary school remains a dismal failure.

However, it is disappointing to note that the students’ performance in chemistry at internal and external examinations has remained considerably poor despite the relative importance of Chemistry (Saage 2009).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The chemistry students’ weaknesses identified by researchers were the learning difficulties to the presumed abstract nature of many chemistry concepts, didactic methods of instruction, students‘ levels of conceptual understanding, mathematical abilities, problem-solving skills, poor level of communication skills, inadequate practical exposure, poor quantitative skills, inability to relate concepts in Chemistry to everyday life and lack of access to library resources in schools among other factors that may be responsible for this poor performance (Ajeyalemi, 2011; Berg, 2012; Samba & Eriba, 2012). These problems have continued to generate several research concerns among stakeholders on the underlying factors responsible for, as well as possible ways to combat this poor trend of poor achievement. Several reasons have been adduced for the poor achievement. Idoko and Njoku (2017) reported poor laboratory facilities and poor pedagogical characteristics of teachers. Neji (2011) reported the learner’s characteristics. Meanwhile, Victor (2018) and Onyeabor (2020) lamented that the teaching of Chemistry in secondary schools is defective since students do not utilize the library and its services effectively. This has posed a lot of threats to students that have the passion to undertake science courses that have Chemistry as a prerequisite requirement for entrance to tertiary institutions.

Academic achievement of students in science subjects generally and in Chemistry, in particular, had witnessed a deplorable trend in the past decades. The observed students’ poor performances and weaknesses in Chemistry in Nigeria are strong indications of poor conceptual knowledge and inadequate skills acquisition by the students which might have been caused by the lack of libraries in some schools or poor library resources that do not match the needs of the 21st -century learners, as they encourage rote memorization that leads to poor learning. Effective use of library resources by both the chemistry teachers and students was recommended for science teaching because it involves active student participation. The effectiveness of libraries has often been measured by the volume of library materials available to clients, the amount of use of services and resources and the apparent or quantified satisfaction of users. Very little research has taken into account the objectives of the users. This is probably because the library plays an indirect role in the process of a user achieving objectives and it is difficult to assess the exact contribution the library has made. Moreover, the users’ objectives are not always known. However, we need to keep in mind that the use of libraries is not an end in itself, but a means to an end. This study, therefore, investigated whether the effective use of library resources in the teaching and learning of Chemistry would enhance students’ academic ability levels as determined by their academic achievement in the subject.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The general object of this study is to evaluate the influence of school library on student achievement in Chemistry in secondary schools.

Specifically, the study is aimed at;

  1. Investigate the rate at which students use school library facilities in secondary schools.
  2. Identify the factors affecting the adequate utilization of school libraries in secondary schools.
  3. Determine whether the use of facilitate the effective teaching and learning of Chemistry in secondary schools.
  4. Determining if the use of school library facilities has a positive impact on students academic performance in Chemistry.

1.4 Research Question

The following questions will guide this study.

  1. What is the rate at which students use school library facilities in secondary schools?
  2. What are the factors affecting the adequate utilization of school libraries in secondary schools?
  3. Does the use of facilitate the effective teaching and learning of Chemistry in secondary schools?
  4. Does the use of school library facilities has a positive impact on students academic performance in Chemistry?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between the use of library facilities and students academic performance in Chemistry.
  • Ha: There is a significant relationship between the use of library facilities and students academic performance in Chemistry.

1.6 Significance of the Study

One of the major goals of this research is to educate students about the importance of school libraries in improving academic performance and achieving high academic success in their educational careers. This is because, if students generally imbibe the culture of reading and make use of the library facilities in school, their academic achievement would improve and the seemingly low academic standards in the school system would be remedied.

Teachers would benefit from this study as well, as they would be better aware and exposed to the topic of students’ usage and/or non-use of libraries as drivers of their academic performance in school. The study and its recommendations would also provide library attendants with necessary information to assist them in changing some of their negative attitudes and unfriendly dispositions that do not inspire students to come to the library to read or study.

Lastly, this study will serve as a source of information for students and researchers who may be likely to carry out studies on related topics.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study focuses on the influence of school library on student achievement in chemistry in secondary schools. The study borders on the rate at which students use school library facilities in secondary schools; and the factors affecting the adequate utilization of school libraries in secondary schools; the use of facilitate the effective teaching and learning of Chemistry in secondary schools. Geographically, this study will be delimited to Andoni Local Government Of Rivers State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definitions of Terms

Library:

A building or room containing collections of books, periodicals, and sometimes films and recorded music for use or borrowing by the public or the members of an institution.

A School Library:

A school library is an information centre located within the school environment where tasks such as identifying and collecting, processing, organizing, storing, preserving, retrieving, and disseminating information pertinent to the needs of members of the school community with a view to satisfying their changing information needs.

Academic Performance:

This is the overall outcome of the learning activities of students over a period of learning in a formal school environment.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the influence of school library on student achievement in Chemistry in secondary schools in Andoni Local Government Of Rivers State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the influence of school library on student achievement in Chemistry in secondary schools in Andoni Local Government Of Rivers State. The study was specifically set to investigate the rate at which students use school library in secondary schools; identify the factors affecting the adequate utilization of school libraries in secondary schools; determine whether the use of school libraries facilitates the effective teaching and learning of Chemistry in secondary schools; and determining if the use of school library has a positive impact on students academic performance in Chemistry.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants, where all respondent are chemistry teachers and students of some selected senior secondary schools in Andoni Local Government Of Rivers State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The rate at which students use school library in secondary schools is low.
  2. The factors affecting the adequate utilization of school libraries in secondary schools include; unavailability of needed materials, poor study habit of students, and overcrowdedness.
  3. There is a significant relationship between the use of library facilities and students academic performance in Chemistry.
  4. The use of school libraries facilitate the effective teaching and learning of Chemistry in secondary schools.
  5. The use of school library has a positive impact on students academic performance in Chemistry.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. The use of library resources in teaching and learning has been found to enhance the quality of achievement in chemistry, chemistry teachers should therefore be encouraged to increasingly, employ it in the teaching of the subject. in so doing, Chemistry students’ ability could be enhanced.
  2. Enlightenment campaigns, workshops and seminars should be organized for teachers by Local Education Authorities, State and Federal Ministries of Education, institutes and Colleges of Education, etc. to create awareness of the efficacy of exposing students to lessons with the use of library resources and school authorities sensitized on the adoption of those strategies in their various schools.
  3. The government at all levels (federal, state and local) in collaboration with other stakeholders in education, should build modern libraries in public secondary schools in the state and equip them with all necessary library facilities, while private secondary schools should be mandated to do so.
  4. Standby generators with adequate storage facilities should be installed and adequate security provided, in all secondary schools in the state, in case of power failure.

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