Influence Of School Environment On Students’ Academic Performance In Ilorin West Local Government Area

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Influence Of School Environment On Students’ Academic Performance In Ilorin West Local Government Area


Abstract


School Environment is defined as school having appropriate facilities, well-managed classroom, available school-based health supports and a clear, fair disciplinary policy. Influence is the capacity or power of persons or things to be a compelling force or produce effects on the actions, behaviors, opinion e.t.c., of another or others. Students’ academic performance represents performance outcomes that indicate the extent to which a person is accomplished specific goals that were the focus of activities in instructional environments, especially in school, college and university.

Data collected were from (10) secondary schools in Ilorin West Local Government. Two hundred (200) respondents (teachers) were engaged in the study. Percentage, t-test and ANOVA statistical methods were used for the analysis of data collected. The distribution of respondents based on the variables of Age, Gender, School type, Teaching experience and Education qualification. The results derived from the analysis revealed that School Environment influences academic performance of students as perceived by the teachers in Ilorin West Local Government among others.

In the hypothesis for influence of school environment on student’ academic performance on the basis of age, there was no significant difference. In the hypothesis for influence of school environment on students’ academic performance on the basis of gender, there was no significant difference. In the hypothesis for influence of school environment on students’ academic performance on the basis of school type, there was no significant difference. In the hypothesis for influence of school environment on students’ academic performance on the basis of teaching experience, there was no significant difference.

Based on these findings, it was recommended that Kwara State Government should cater for motivational facilities such as school library, laboratory, sport materials etc. which can enhance teaching and learning process. It was recommended that academic staff should be motivated to create a good social, psychological and physical climate in the classroom. It was recommended that the school counselor should reflect upon various factors that helps students in achieving their academic goals. It was also recommended that school management should ensure that school are well suited, buildings are adequately utilized and teaching aids are being provided to aid students’ understanding and bring about better academic performance.


Table of Contents


  • Title page
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • Background to the Study
  • Statement of the Problem
  • Research Questions
  • Research Hypotheses
  • Purpose of the Study
  • Significance of the Study
  • Scope of the Study
  • Operational Definition of Terms

Chapter Two:

Review of Related Literature

  • Preamble
  • Concept of Academic Performance
  • Concept of School Environment
  • Influence of School Environment on Students’ Academic Performance
  • Summary of the Related Literature

Chapter Three:

Methodology

  • Preamble
  • Research Design
  • Population, Sample and Sampling Technique
  • Research Instrument
  • Validity
  • Reliability
  • Procedure for Data Administration and Collection
  • Data Analysis Technique

Chapter Four:

Results

  • Preamble
  • Demographic Data
  • Summary of Findings

Chapter Five:

Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • Preamble
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • Recommendations
  • Suggestions for Further Studies
  • Reference
  • Appendix

List of Tables


  1. Distribution of Respondents on the basis of Age, Gender, School type, Teaching Experience and Education Qualification.
  2. Mean and Rank Order of Respondents on Influence of School Environment on Students’ Academic Performance
  3. Mean, Standard Deviation and t-value of Respondents on the Influence of School Environment on Students Academic Performance on the Basis of Age.
  4. Mean, Standard Deviation and t-value of respondent on influence of school environment on students’ academic performance on the basis of gender.
  5. Mean, Standard Deviation and t-value of respondents on influence of school environment on students’ academic
    performance on the basis of school type
  6. Mean, Standard Deviation and t-value of respondent on the influence of school environment on students’ academic performance on the basis of educational qualification.
  7. ANOVA of respondents on the influence of school environment on students’ academic performance on the basis of teaching experience

Chapter One


Introduction

Background to the Study

Generally in the whole world, particularly in Nigeria, education has been considered to be the corner – stone for development. It forms the basis for literacy, skill acquisition, technological advancement and ability to harness human and material resources towards the achievement of societal goal, (FRN, 2004).

Education is very important in any given society. It is a process by which abilities and capabilities of individual are developed. These abilities might be physical abilities, emotional abilities, social abilities and intellectual abilities. It is the actualizing of human potential so that the individual can become something more than what he was before. According to Ugwuanyi (2003) education is the process by which society establishes to assist the young to learn and understand the heritage of the past, participate productively in the society and contribute meaningfully for the development of the society. Emeka (2008) citing Kneller (2000) sees education as a process by which any society through schools, colleges, universities and other institutions deliberately transmit knowledge, values and skills from one person to another. As a result of deregulation in Nigerian education, the system of education has two main interest groups – public education and private education.

Public education is the pillar or backbone of society which opens the door of equal educational opportunity to all citizens. It is a public owned property which attracts public attention constantly. According to Ukeje in Akpa, Udoh and Faghamiye (2005): Public school is concerned with the acquisition of appropriate skills, abilities and competencies of both mental and physical nature as equipment for the individual to live in this society, and acquisition of a relevant and balanced knowledge of facts about local and world phenomena. (P. 12-13). Public schools can also be seen as those schools controlled neither by individuals nor by private interest or agencies but by those who represent the society as a whole. In other words public schools are those schools which are supported and controlled by the government of the state or nation.

Secondary school is the stage of education following primary school. It is generally the final stage of compulsory education. Webster (2009) sees secondary school as a school intermediate between elementary school and collage usually offering general technical, vocational or college- preparatory course, while Collins (2003) refers to it as a school for young people, usually between the ages of eleven and eighteen. As for the National policy on education (FRN, 2004) it is the form of education children receive after primary education and before the tertiary stage.
In this study, environment includes all the external condition and influences in the school that affect the academic achievement of the student such as laboratory equipment, library facilities, qualified teachers, furniture, school building, good administrative management, teacher pupil relationship and school location among others.

Environment for the purpose of this work can be divided into two parts home environment and school environment.
Environment can be defined as a system within which living organisms interacts with the physical element while education environment is a learning place where the learner learn and interact with learning facilities in order to be socialized and face the challenges in the society. Agusiegbe (2004) sees environments as consisting of all elements existing around man and which exert some influence on him. These include physical, biological and social attributes. Environment can also be seen as aggregate of all the external condition and influence affecting the life and development of an organism.

The school environment, which include the classroom, libraries, technical workshops, laboratories, as well as teachers effectiveness and school management etc are variables that affect students’ academic performance (Ajayi, 2008). Hence, the school environment remains an important area that should be studied and well managed to enhance students’ academic performance.

However, the issue of poor academic performance of students in public secondary schools has been of major concern to the government, parents, teachers and even the students themselves. The quality of education is not only on the teacher as it reflected in the performance of their duties, but also in the effective coordination of the school environment (Ajao, 2008). Teachers and students are essential in teaching learning process. The extent to which students learn could depend on the location within the school compound, the structure of the classroom, availability of instructural facilities and accessories. It is believed that a well planned school will gear up expected outcomes of education that will facilitate good social, political and economic that are geared towards effective teaching and learning process and academic performance of students.

Classroom environment aspect of instructional space school facilities were significantly related to students’ academic performance in schools. The three researchers also quoted (Glassman, 2010), asserting that a comfortable and carrying environment among other treatments helped to contribute to students’ academic performance.
The physical characteristics of the school have a variety of effects on teachers, students and learning process, poor lighting, noise, high level or carbon dioxide in classrooms, and inconsistent temperature make teaching and learning difficult. Poor maintenance and ineffective ventilation system lead to poor health among students as well as teachers, which lead to poor academic performance and higher absentee rates (Frazier, 2010) (Nylon, 2011) and (Ostentort, 2008). These factors can adversely affect student’s behaviour and lead to higher levels of frustration among poor learning attitude among students.

However, the direct effect those poor facilities have on students’ ability to learn, the combination of poor facilities, which create an uncomfortable and uninviting workplace for teachers, combined with frustrating behaviour by students including poor concentration and higher activity, lethargy or apathy, creates a stressful set of working conditions and common pre-cursors to lowered teachers’ enthusiasm, it is possible that the aforementioned characteristics of school facilities have effect upon the academic performance of the students.


Statement of the Problem

Emphasizing the importance of school environment to students’ academic performance, school environment is an essential aspect of educational planning unless schools are well suited, buildings are adequately utilized and teaching aid are being provided to aid students understanding and bring about better academic performance.
The high levels of students’ academic performance may not be guaranteed where instructional space such as classrooms, libraries, technical workshops and laboratories are structurally defective. However, little is known on the Influence of school environment on students’ academic performance in Ilorin West Local Government Area.
However, problems with students’ teacher ratio, school population, class ventilation poor lighting in the classroom and inconsistent temperature in the classroom with, students health problems have been studied before. To complement these studies, therefore, the present research effort will examine the school location, school facilities, class size as variables and how they can affect student academic performance in public secondary schools of Ilorin West Local Government Area.


Research Questions

The following research questions have been generated to guide the conduct of the study;

  1. What is the influence of school environment on students’ academic performance in Ilorin West?
  2. Is there any difference in the influence of school environment on students’ academic performance as perceived by teachers on the basis of gender?
  3. Is there any difference in the influence of school environment on students’ academic performance as perceived by teachers on the basis of qualification?
  4. Is there any difference in the influence of school environment on students’ academic performance as perceived by teachers on the basis of years of teaching experience?

Research Hypotheses

The following research hypotheses have been formulated to guide the conduct of the study:

  1. There is no significant difference in the influence of school environment on students’ academic performance on the basis of gender.
  2. There is no significant difference in the influence of school environment on students’ academic performance on the basis of qualification.
  3. There is no significant difference in the influence of school environment on students’ academic performance on the basis of teaching experience.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to investigate the Influence of School Environment on Students’ Academic performance in Ilorin West Local Government Area.


Significance of the Study

It is hoped that this study would provide information for parents, educators, school administrators, Government, counselors and the society at large to reflect upon various factors that help students in achieving their academic goals. In so doing, they can investigate the possibility of introducing those factors to their school, which may consequently lead to enhancing students’ educational outcomes in schools. In addition, the fact that this study is conducted in public schools, it shares quite a lot of similarities with many other counterparts. In this connection, this study provides a valuable reference for other schools to reflect upon the school environment as it affect the academic performance of students in secondary schools.

School environment includes the school building workshop, library, laboratory, playing field and the school surrounding which has great effect on students’ academic performance.

This particular study is of great significance because the result of the study would reveal to educational managers/administrators, principals and teacher’s in Ilorin west local government area of Kwara state, the true effect of school environment on students academic performance among public secondary schools students’

The study is also significance, because it is likely to open and broaden the minds of the government to the role they need to play in ensuring the provision of the necessary facilities needed in the schools environment that can enhance teaching and learning process and aid better academic performance to the students.


Scope of the Study

This research work focuses on influence of school environment on students’ academic performance in 23 public secondary schools in Ilorin West Local Government Area, Kwara State. However, this study was limited to 10 out of 23 selected public secondary schools in Ilorin West Local Government Area, Kwara State. Two hundred respondents took part in the study, who were randomly selected. The t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyse the data collected for the study. A self-developed questionnaire titled “Influence of School Environment on Students’ Academic Performance Questionnaire” (ISESAPQ) was used for the study


Operational Definition of Terms

Student Academic Performance:

Academic achievement represents performance outcomes that indicate the extent to which a person has accomplished specific goals that were the focus of activities in instructional environments, specifically in school, college and university.

School Environment:

A school environment is defined as a school having appropriate facilities, well-managed classrooms, available school-based health supports, and a clear, fair disciplinary policy. There are many hallmarks of the academic, disciplinary, and physical environments of schools with a positive climate.

Influence:

The capacity or power of persons or things to be a compelling force on or produce effects on the actions, behavior, opinions, etc., of others: the action or process of producing effects on the actions, behavior, opinions, etc., of another or others: a person or thing that exerts influence


Chapter Five


Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations

Preamble

This chapter presents discussion, conclusion drawn and recommendations from research carried out on “Influence of School Environment on Students’ Academic Performance in Ilorin West Local Government.


Discussion

This study was carried out to determine the relationship between school environment and students’ academic performance in Ilorin West Local Government were determined in term of well equipped library, adequate sport facilities, enough school furniture, availability of computers, in the school, audio-visual aids for learning, a good conducive environment, accessibility to school facilities, sufficient space for teaching and learning, current materials/books for students in the library, school health facilities (school nurse), fencing of the school/security, having hall for examinations and arrangement of classroom for effective teaching and learning. “Influence of school environment on students’ academic performance questionnaire” (ISESAPQ) were used to gather information from the respondents. Literature was reviewed on the variables of the study. One main hypothesis and four operational hypotheses were formulated and statistically tested using both description and inferential statistics. For the demographic data, frequency count and percentage were employed while t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical tool were employed to analyze the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significant. Two hundred academic staffs were selected in Ilorin West Local Government.

The summary of finding is as follows, that

  1. There was no significant difference in the influence of school environment on students’ academic performance on the basis of age in Ilorin West Local Government.
  2. There was no significant difference on the influence of school environment on students’ academic performance on the basis of gender in Ilorin West Local Government.
  3. There was significant different in the influence of school environment on students’ academic performance on the basis of school type in Ilorin West Local Government.
  4. There was no significant difference on the influence of school environment on students’ academic performance on the basis of experience in Ilorin West Local Government.
  5. There was no significant difference on the influence of school environment on students’ academic performance on the basis of education.

Conclusion

This study has shown that school environment has a positive and significant relationship with students’ academic performance in Ilorin West Local Government. This implies that school environment in term of a good conducive environment, availability of computers, adequate sports facilities, enough of school furniture, well equipped library, current materials/books for student in library, audio-visual aids for learning, availability of learning materials etc will go a long way in improving students’ academic performance in Ilorin West Local Government. In addition to that, effective and efficient of this result would enable the secondary school administrators in Ilorin West Local Government to be able to attain the set goals and objectives of the school at the end of the day.


Recommendations

The following recommendations were made to enhance school environment and to improve academic performance of the students in Ilorin West Local Government.

  1. Kwara State Government should ensure that there is conducive learning environment in this educational system in order to improve academic performance of the students.
  2. Kwara State Government should cater for motivational facilities such as school library, laboratory, sport materials etc which can enhance teaching and learning process.
  3. Academic staff should be motivated to create a good social, psychological and physical climate in the classroom.
  4. School counselor should reflect upon various factors that help students in achieving their academic goals.
  5. School managements should ensure that school are well suited buildings are adequately utilized and teaching aids are being provided to aid students understanding and bring about better academic performance.

Suggestions for Further Studies

Based on the limitation and finding of this study the researcher has the following suggestions for further study:

  1. A replication of this study using a wider geographical area, if possible the whole Kwara state.
  2. Additional instrument could be used in collecting data from respondents like interview and observation.
  3. Another study should be carried out in another zone like North-East example so that the result can be compared

Influence Of School Environment On Students’ Academic Performance In Ilorin West Local Government Area


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Frequently Asked Questions


Does the school environment affect students’ academic performance?

The three researchers, also quoted Glassman (1994), asserting that a comfortable and caring environment among other treatments helped to contribute to students academic performance. The physical characteristics of the school have a variety of effects on teachers, students, and the learning process.

What are the factors that affect student’s academic achievement?

The school environment which include the classrooms, libraries, technical workshop, laboratories, teachers quality, school management, teaching method, peers, are variables that affect student’s academic achievement, (Ajay, 2001 and Oluchukwu, 2000).

Why is the learning environment important for students’ academic performance?

The learning environment remains an important area that should be studied and well managed to enhance students’ academic performance. The issue of poor academic performance of students in Nigeria has been of much concern to the government, parents, teachers and even students themselves.

How do social problems affect students’ academic performance?

The research findings show that the social problems that students exhibit in the university environment have a negative impact on their academic performance. 

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