Influence Of Psycho-Social Adjustment On Broken Home Toward Academic Performance Of Secondary School Students In Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria

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Influence Of Psycho-Social Adjustment On Broken Home Toward Academic Performance Of Secondary School Students In Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria


Abstract


Family is the smallest, most sensitive and important social system which is furnished and facilitated by a society as a larger social system. The family, being a powerful influence on the child’s development and important primary agent of socialization could in no doubt enhance or hinder the academic achievement of the child depending on the social climate in the family. This study seeks to assess influence of psycho-social adjustment on broken home toward academic performance of secondary school students in Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria. There were a total of three hundred (300) identified respondents that belonged to broken families that were selected to participate in the study. The researchers used descriptive- survey research method design to probe the pupil’s knowledge with regards to the topic, and it employed modified questionnaire and direct observation in collecting data from the field. It was found out that age, sex, number of siblings, and person stays with has no direct influence to the pupils’ behavioral development, and however, academic success of the pupils depends on their psycho-social adjustment. This study concluded that the attitude and psycho-social adjustment of the learner affects their academic performance.

 


Table of Content


Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Question
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisation of the Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 The Concept of a Home/Family
  • 2.3 The General Role of the Home
  • 2.4 Family and Children Academic Performance
  • 2.5 The Broken Home
  • 2.6 Causes of Broken Home
  • 2.7 Effects of Broken Homes on Children
  • 2.7.1 Broken Home and Children Health
  • 2.7.2 Broken Home and School Drop-Out
  • 2.7.3 Broken Home and Children’s Academic Performance
  • 2.7.4 Broken Homes And Children’s Psychosocial Adjustment
  • 2.8 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.8.1 Frustration – Aggression Theory
  • 2.8.2 Relative Deprivation Theory
  • 2.8.3 The Looking Glass Self Theory
  • 2.8.4 Maslow Theory of Motivation

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population
  • 3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique
  • 3.4 Instrument for Data Collection
  • 3.5 Validity of the Instrument
  • 3.6 Reliability of the Instrument
  • 3.7 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.8 Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Result
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

The family is the child’s first place of contact with the world. The child as a result, acquires initial education and socialization from parents and other significant persons in the family. Agulana (2000) pointed out that the family lays the psychological, moral, and spiritual foundation in the overall development of the child. Structurally, family/homes is either broken or intact. A broken home in this context is one that is not structurally intact, as a result of divorce, separation, death of one of parent and illegitimacy. According to Frazer (2004), psychological home conditions arise mainly from illegitimacy of children, the label of adopted child, broken homes, divorce and parental deprivation. Such abnormal conditions of the home, are likely to have a detrimental effect on school performance of the child he asserts. Life, in a single parent family or broken home can be stressful for both the child and the parent. Such families are faced with challenges of inadequate financial resources (children defense find 2004). Schults (2006) noted that if adolescents from unstable homes are to be compared with those from stable homes, it would be seen that the former have more social, academic and emotional problems. Rochlkepartain (2003) is of the opinion that the family and its structure play a great role in children’s academic performance. Levin (2001) states that parents are probably the actor with the clearest un-dimentionals interest in a high level of their children’s academic performance. To some extent, there is simple evidence to show the marital instability brings about stress, tension, lack of motivation and frustration obviously, these manifestations act negatively on a child’s academic performance.
Johnson (2005) asserts that children of unmarried parents /separated families often fail and are at risk emotionally. However, this may not be completely applicable in all cases of broken homes. Some children irrespective of home background or structure may work hard and become successful in life. Moreover, Ayodele (2007) stated that the environment where a child finds himself/herself goes a long way in determining his learning ability and ultimately his academic performance in school. Generally, the home has been identified as an overwhelming factor affecting students’ performance academically. It would appear, then, that broken homes may present a very serious danger to the emotional, personality, and mental adjustment of the young adolescent. This impinges on students’ academic achievement. Other variable to consider in this study is the personality development of the child. We define personality as the sum total of the man or woman, as he or she impresses other men and women. We must learn what part personality plays in the three main areas of human life activities: love and marriage, career, and social relations. According to Freud, the personality is a trinity consisting of id, ego and superego. The id is a reservoir of psychic energy and the source of the human instincts. It furnishes the power that sustains a person’s activities. The ego is a special part of the id which keeps the individual in touch with the outside world, and finds outlets for the expression of his instincts. The superego is a kind of moral censor which passes judgment on the individual’s strivings according to the standards which he has acquired from his parents. It makes him feel guilty when he goes against those standards, and proud of himself when he lives up to them. According to Jung, the personality consists of six parts: the ego, the personal unconscious, the collective unconscious, the persona, the anima, and the shadow.
The essence of Adler’s theory of personality is the doctrine of a creative self, which asserts that man makes his own personality out of the raw materials of heredity and experience. Adler’s conception of the nature of personality thus coincides with the popular idea that man can be the master, and not the victim, of his fate. Alder says that the individual’s style of life or law of movement is an expression of his total personality. The style of life is the individual’s characteristic way of reacting to the situations that confront him in life. It is pertinent therefore, to understand the basic principles of development and personality development. Personality development is the developing a personality cult so as to create a strong positive impression about self with the targeted group, or in general; and more pertinent aspect of such personality are to maintain and prove in a long run. It therefore, calls for social development of the children in school. Children need to be helped to achieve satisfying social relations with their peers and adult members of the community. Piaget has distinguished three stages of social development in children- Egocentric. (This is the first stage where the child is impervious to social stimulation from without), Social communication (at this stage the child makes a conscious effort to enter into real social communication) and the Reciprocity and mutual respect between persons. Piaget observed that in the children he studied, the sequence of these stages of social development varies with different socio- economic groups, cultures and sometimes gender. The school and the home must provide conditions favourable for social development of children to excel in their academic pursuit.

It could recall that adolescence is a transitory period between childhood and adulthood. During this period, an individual is seen neither as a child nor as an adult. Hall(1904) claimed that adolescents are characterized by emotional instabilities and hyper-activities, which cause them to experience storms and stress. Erickson (1965), opined that identity formation creates tension in the adolescents to the extent that some of them become confused about their personality. According to Brown, Berriel and Russel (2006). Adolescence refers to the period of growth between the ages 12 and 21 years which shows very rapid social expansion. It is the era of peer group when the child spends most of his days with others of his age. It is the “transition period” from childhood to adulthood. It can be likened to “a bridge” which children have to cross in order to get to the final stage of human development because it is often characterized by significant physical and physiological changes. The period of adolescence between two extremes in the continuum of human growth and, developmental stages (childhood and adulthood) often puts the youngsters in dilemma of how to meet the society’s expectations. Coping with adolescents in Nigerian schools demand a thorough understanding of the peculiarities of this age group which according to Durojaiye (1972) is an era of identity crises when the young person begins to ask such question as “Who am I? Where am I? Crow and Crow (1962) on the other hand refer to children at adolescence as the “terrible teens” They need the help of understanding adults in coping with the various physiological and psychological changes that they experience which give rise to a host of other problems. The period of adolescence is very important to the development of an individual. Any laxity on the part of parents’ in assisting and guiding the adolescents may result in academic backwardness and development of unwholesome behavous, the foundation of what a person becomes in the society is laid in the home and at the initial stage of life. Parents therefore have important roles to play in ensuring that the youths acquire the appropriate social, psychological, moral and academic development. They are required to be alive to their responsibility in providing sex education for their children at home. However, the school through the Parents Teachers Association could assist in enlightening parents on their roles in helping adolescents experience a smooth transition into adulthood.

Secondary school students that are from broken homes are likely not to perform well and are usually withdrawn, shy and anti-social among their mates. The psychologists theorize that individual who is emotionally healthy is the one who has learned to cope effectively with himself and his environment since the environment is in a constant state of flux and the adolescent is continuously developing and changing; psychological effectiveness or good mental health is an ongoing process and not static achievement. The term mental health is really a description of behavior. If a person’s social and personal behavior appears to be reasonably well integrated, he/she appears to be reasonably happy. If the society approves of his/her behavior, his/her means of coping therefore, with himself and his environment may be more effective. Thus he/she may be psychologically healthy or well adjusted (Mickelson, 2001).

Academic performance is the seen as the knowledge attained or skills, shown in the school subject. To indicate such achievement, test scores or marks are assigned by the teachers. It is the school evaluation of the classroom work on the basis of the grades awarded. Academic performance according to Akinboye(2004) is of two types i.e positive and negative (poor) performance. Habits, family background, perseverance, attitudes, interest all these affect academic achievement in school. He concluded that if these variables are modified and attitude changed positively, then the level of individuals’ academic performance would improve.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

There is a global awareness of the Importance of the home environment on students’ academic achievement. In Nigeria, most home are not intact as a result of issues of incompatibility of the couples, death of a parent and the quest for the oversea trips to make more money, and at times marital infidelity. This has resulted in the separation of couples and children.In some states in the federation, this is quite clear, in that most young ladies abandon their homes, and embark on oversea trips with a view to making money. Some men who travel abroad, abandon their homes and would not communicate with the families back-home so children from such homes are in dilemma, especially in terms of adjustment. Chador (2008) notes that the environment in which the students come from can greatly influence his performance in school. The effects of broken homes may impact greatly on the internal organization of the family and by extension; effect a child’s emotion, personality and academic achievement.

Bearing in mind the role of the family in a child’s education, the failure of the family to perform its duties could hinder the child’s academic achievement. Any nation that is desirous of advancing technologically will no doubt ensure that the future of her future leaders (the adolescents) is well guided, protected and guaranteed. Finally, a single parent faces doubled responsibilities requiring time, attention and money of the parent. Hence, less attention is paid to the education of the child. The teachers commonly describe children from single parent as more hostile, aggressive, anxious, fearful, hyperactive and distractive than children from intact family (Nwachukwu 1998). Life in a single parent family or broken home can be stressful for both the child and the parent. Such families are faced with challenges of inadequate financial resources (children defense find, 2004). As noted [6], in order for self-control to be taught, a parent must be able to monitor their child’s behavior, recognize their inappropriate behavior as deviant, and punish them accordingly. The problem for single parent is they may not have the enough time to monitor their child’s behavior, and they may not have the means to discipline them. Many single-parent mothers are forced to work long hours and therefore allow their children to do a lot more without any interference. They are also not necessarily aware of their child’s misbehavior and their performance in school. This study therefore seeks to assess influence of psycho-social adjustment on broken home toward academic performance of secondary school students in Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The aim of this study is to assess influence of psycho-social adjustment on broken home toward academic performance of secondary school students in Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria. The specific objectives hence are:

  1. To determine the teachers’ assessment of the psycho-social adjustment of secondary school students living in a broken home in Damaturu, Yobe State
  2. To assess teachers’ assessment on the academic performance of secondary school students living in a broken home in Damaturu, Yobe State
  3. To determine the relationship between psycho-social adjustment and academic performance of secondary school students living in a broken home in Damaturu, Yobe State

1.4 Research Question

The following research questions are formulated to guide this research:

  1. What is the teachers’ assessment of the psycho-social adjustment of secondary school students living in a broken home in Damaturu, Yobe State?
  2. What is the teachers’ assessment on the academic performance of secondary school students living in a broken home in Damaturu, Yobe State?
  3. What is the relationship between psycho-social adjustment and academic performance of secondary school students living in a broken home in Damaturu, Yobe State?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • HO1 There is no significant relationship between psycho-social adjustment and academic performance of secondary school students living in a broken home in Damaturu, Yobe State
  • HO2 There is no significant impact of broken homes on students’ psychosocial adjustment in Damaturu, Yobe State

1.6 Significance of the Study

The result of the study would be of great benefit to guidance counsellors as well as teachers; unmarried adults, government and policy makers, parents as well as the world of academics The result of the study would assist teachers and guidance counsellors on the nature of the problem of students from broken homes which will enable them to design programmes to help these students adjust better in school and in the larger society.

The findings will also assist adolescents to thoughtfully and honestly work out their philosophy of marriage before they consummate it. The findings and recommendations of the study will alert educational authorities in various levels of government to become aware of the problems faced by students from broken homes, so that they will plan ways of helping them. In addition, it will aid parents to realize the problems they create for their students when they divorce.

Finally, the result of the study would add to the existing literature on the influence of psycho-social adjustment on broken home toward academic performance of secondary school students.


1.7 Scope of Study

This research will be restricted to primary schools in Ikorodu LGA of Lagos State, Nigeria. Emphasis is on examining the head teachers’ managerial skills and students learning outcomes in Ikorodu LGA of Lagos State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

As the researcher carried out this study, there are some vital things which may tend to limit the researcher on the study some of which are:

Time:

Time is a factor which limits an individual to do what you want. The researcher has a lot to carry on with little time.

Finance:

During the course of this study, the researcher tends to spend money more than he bargained for at the end of the day.

Inadequate Information:

At times, the information being disclosed to the researcher is little or not sufficient-enough and the researcher is to strive and source for information from all directions.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Psycho-Social Adjustment:

Psychosocial adjustment or adaptation refers to people’s capacity to adapt to the environment, which implies that the individual has sufficient mechanisms to feel good, integrate, respond adequately to the demands of the environment, and achieve his or her objectives

Broken Home:

A family in which the parents are divorced or separated.

Academic Performance:

Is the measurement of student achievement across various academic subjects. Teachers and education officials typically measure achievement using classroom performance, graduation rates and results from standardized tests.

Students:

Student is primarily a person enrolled in a school or other educational institution and who is under learning with goals of acquiring knowledge, developing professions and achieving employment at desired field.

Secondary School:

Learning institution which comes after the primary school for children over eleven years where systematic training and instructions takes place.

Senior Secondary School:

The last three years in the secondary school that comes after the first three years. That is the last three years in secondary school that comes after junior secondary or basic education. It is usually for children over 14 years.


1.10 Organisation of the Study

This research work will be organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows;

  • Chapter one will be concerned with the introduction, which will consist of the (overview, of the study), background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two will highlight the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three will deal on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four will concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Lastly, Chapter five will contain the summary, conclusion, and recommendations of the study.

Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

The main purpose of this research was to assess influence of psycho-social adjustment on broken home toward academic performance of secondary school students in Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria.The background of the study was clearly articulated and the statement of the problem was clearly made along with purpose of the study. Some research questions and hypothesis were also drawn to guide the study.

This study also discussed some theories that are related to the problem on hand and also clarify concepts that enhance understanding of the problem under review via literature review. Theories like the frustration-Aggression theory, Relative Deprivation theory, looking glass self theory and Maslow’s theory of Motivation were discussed in relation to the study. The concept of home was explained and the general role of the home was also discussed. The concept of broken home, its cause and effects on children’s health and general academic performance were also discussed under the conceptual frame-work. Some empirical works previously carried out in this area were also revealed.

The research design, area of study, population of study, sample and sampling technique, instrumentation, validation and reliability of instrument, method of data collection and analysis to be used were also discussed.

After carrying out the research, data was presented, analyzed and findings were discussed. Recommendation, conclusion, limitations and suggestion for further study shall be offered in due course.


5.2 Conclusion

It was found out that age, sex, number of siblings, and person stays with has no direct influence to the psycho-social adjustment, and however, academic performance of the secondary school students depends on their psycho-social adjustment. Therefore, it was concluded that the attitude and psycho-social adjustment of the learner affects academic performance.


5.3 Recommendation

Based on the findings of this study, the following are recommended;

  1. There should be an action plan implementation in school in order to help pupils under broken family achieve academic success; a peer facilitating group, team building, trainings and symposia should be included in the school guidance program to cater the behavioral and academic needs of the pupils;
  2. The school should create peer facilitating group spearheaded by a guidance counselor/ adviser to have a regular monitoring and assistance for pupils with special educational needs.
  3. It is obvious that secondary schools should have guidance services with a competent counselor to counsel students from broken homes, child raised by single parent and parents who do not pay adequate attention to their children and wards’ education and those students experiencing challenges in schools.
  4. There is need for personal social, group counseling and individual counseling in schools where students with challenged homes are counseled. And students should develop positive self-concept in life to assist them in their academic achievement.

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