Influence Of Programme Department On Operations Of Broadcast Media
The study investigated the influence of programme department on operations of broadcast media. The study was anchored on Situational Management Theory and System Management Theory. A survey research method was adopted in which questionnaire were administered to the respondents to elicit responses from respondents. Descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage) was used to analyze the data that were collected. The study find out that programme department of OSBC highly impacted on the operations of station. Also, Programme department of OSBC highly corporate with other departments for effective operations of OSBC. Equally, majority of respondents said ownership influence is most challenge that hampering programme department of OSBC in discharging its operational functions. Thus, large number of respondents noted that the challenge (ownership influence) really hampering program department operation to a high extent. The study recommended that more new programs should be developed and showcase, so that their audience will have fresh contain regularly. Audience research need to be carried out in order for them to be able to know which program is doing well and which one need to be improved. Programme department need to always showcase interesting programme that is attractive enough so that more sponsors and advertisers will fall in love with it.
1.1 Background to the Study
The hallmark of a television station is the ability to have programs that will endear it to its viewers; this is because good programs are what distinguishes one station from another, whenever a station is mentioned, what engages the mind is ‘programs’ because what the large chunk of viewers understand is that a television station is established to beam out good programmes, news inclusive. Where such programmes are coming from is immaterial (Ogunsola and Olayinka, 2021).
According to Ogunsola and Olayinka (2021), program department is the unit of the station that oversees the content creation for the station. Program department takes control over various programmes that feature on the station, be it in-house programme, commercial programme or syndicated ones, either on live mode or recorded format.
Zeepedia (n.d) write that television program (US), television programme (UK) or simply television show is a segment of programming in television broadcasting. It may be a one-off broadcast or, more usually, part of aperiodically returning television series.
It should be noted that programming department, in conjunction with the production and news departments, acquires and schedules programs that the audience consumes, which in turn allows the sales department to create revenue, which in turn allows the general administration department to facilitate station operations (Encyclopedia, 2019). The programming department is responsible for filling the entire broadcast day with programming and is therefore saddled with arguably the most challenging job in television.
According to Encyclopedia (2019), programming is second only to general administration in terms of operating expenses. The department, if its station is affiliated with a network, needs almost 25 percent of the total budget of the station to function. However, an independent station may give as much as half of its total operating budget to the acquisition of programs.
Encyclopedia (2019) equally noted that program department may consist of a program director, a videotape librarian, a ratings researcher, an acquisitions staff, a continuity standards staff, and on-camera personalities for use in locally originated programs. The program director, helped by the acquisitions personnel, may obtain the majority of the programming of a station from syndicators and other program suppliers. If a station is affiliated with a major television network, then programming will have the luxury of choosing how much programming it will schedule from the network. In a larger market, viewership research may be conducted to help the program director select a programming plan that will attract a substantial audience.
Community feedback also aids in planning decisions. However, all decisions concerning program acquisition are ultimately controlled by the amount of revenue gained from sales and the resulting budget allotted the programming division. Another responsibility of programming besides program acquisition is program creation. Many stations produce public-affairs programming in order to meet their public-interest obligations. The programming department is usually given the job of preparing and producing these programs.
According to Zeepedia (n.d) noted that there are varieties of programs which includes but not limited to Animated series, Awards shows, Celebrity Shows, Children’s television shows, Comedies, Comedies without laugh tracks, Cooking shows, Comedy-drama television series, Fantasy programs, Game shows, News programs, Reality programs, Satirical news programs, Science fiction sitcoms, Sketch comedy shows, Soap operas, Talk shows and Musical shows. It is against this background that the study investigated the impact of program department on operations of Osun State Broadcasting Corporation (OSBC).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
One of the most important departments in every broadcast media is program department because it generates and fill the airtime with contents except news and current affairs programs. Thus, the success of every broadcast media station lies in the passionate power of program department.
It is against this backdrop that the study investigated the impact of program department on operations of Osun State Broadcasting Corporation (OSBC).
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of the study is to examine the influence of programme department on operations of broadcast media; specifically, the study aims;
- To investigate the impact of program department on the operations of OSBC.
- To ascertain the extent at which program department of OSBC corporate with other departments especially news and current affairs department for effective operations of OSBC.
1.4 Research Questions
- To what extent has program department of OSBC impacted on the operations of station?
- To what extent has program department of OSBC corporate with other departments especially news and current affairs department for effective operations of OSBC.
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study is essential to serve stakeholders in broadcast media sector with the needed insight on the relevant and important of program department to the entire operation of broadcast media.
The findings of this study will also serve as an addition to existing literature on the topic for students and researchers who like to carry out similar research while, the material formed bulk literature that exist in the field of mass communication, journalism and media studies, etc that students and researchers can lay hands on when carrying out research related or similar study like this.
Apart from contributing to research literature on the subject matter, this study among other things may also provide empirical information on the extent to which program department is hallmark in broadcast media.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The research which investigated the impact of program department on the operations of Broadcast media was narrowed in scope to Osun State Broadcasting corporation (OSBC). OSBC is selected due to the fact that all program department of every broadcast media have similar functions. Thus, it will be impossible to study all broadcast media houses in Nigeria due to limited time, resources and other logistics.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
I wish to express my difficulties which I encountered when collecting information through the questionnaires
The present fuel price increase was a major limited as it made transportation to these banks and libraries quite difficult.
Besides times and financial constraints, some other factors that militated against this research projects includes:
1. Lack of Books:
The scope of its work was electively affected because of scarcity of books in the relevant areas.
2. Attitude Constraints:
In the case of the questionnaire, some blatantly refused to collect it to gill while those that collected tool a lot of time to fill the required answers. Some fill them haphazardly.
3. Bureautic Constraints:
Under this limitation concrete attempt made to interview or reach top official failed because of redtaptism in running official engagements and procedures in releasing the official or secret of the company.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
This to the overall contributions of program department on Osbc operations.
This is a department that is responsible for all other programmes aside news and current affairs Contents of broadcast media operation.
Operations of Osun State Broadcasting Corporation:
This refers to the running of OSBC channel with varieties of programs activities within it broadcast hours.
1.9 Organizations of the Study
The chapter one consist of the introductory part of the study which includes the study background, the statement of the research problem, the study objective and scope of the study.
The second chapter is a critical review of other literatures relevant to the study and its objectives including the theoretical framework for the study. While the third chapter is methods of data collection, sampling and data analysis used in conducting the study. The fourth chapter centres around the research findings including an analysis of how it relates to previous findings. The fifth chapter consists of the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations base on the study objectives.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on the influence of programme department on operations of broadcast media, Programme department of OSBC as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was on the influence of programme department on operations of broadcast media, Programme department of OSBC as case study. The study is was specifically focused on examining the impact of program department on the operations of OSBC and ascertain the extent at which program department of OSBC corporate with other departments especially news and current affairs department for effective operations of OSBC.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are staff of rogramme department of OSBC.
With respect to the analysis and the findings of this study, the following conclusions emerged;
The study found out that programme department of OSBC highly impacted on the operations of station. Also, Programme department of OSBC highly corporate with other departments for effective operations of OSBC. Equally, majority of respondents said ownership influence is most challenge that hampering programme department of OSBC in discharging its operational functions. Thus, large number of respondents (48.3%) noted that the challenge (ownership influence) really hampering program department operation to a high extent.
Based on the findings the researcher recommends that;
- That journalist (media men and women) of both public and private owned media strive to be objective. Although it is hard to report the news without bias entirely, it is still important to aspire to do so because of the effect it can have on the public’s opinion of the press. This agrees with the view of Graber (1989) and Davis (1992) that media play an influential role as intermediaries between political leaders and the public (Graber, 1989; Davis, 1992).
- Broadcasters should place more priority on performing their social responsibilities than on dancing to the tune of their employers. They should come to the understanding that by distorting news and information to suit the need of their owners (government or private individuals, they will be misleading the public, which constitute their primary constituency.
- Professional bodies of journalist such as theNUJ should ensure that journalists working in both public and privately owned media house strictly adhered to the Code of ethics of objectivity, balance and fairness etc. so as to increase confidence in the profession of journalism.
- Journalists working in either public or private owned media should learn to uphold the integrity of the profession and desist from the habit of collecting bribes commonly known as the brown envelope syndrome, which can lure them into slanting news and information to suit the interests of the person offering them money while neglecting the public interest and the need of the public to know the fact and truth.
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