Influence Of Principals Leadership Style In Senior Secondary Schools Teachers’ Job Performance In Port Harcourt City Local Government Area In Rivers State

Educational Management Project and Seminar Material

Influence Of Principals Leadership Style In Senior Secondary Schools Teachers’ Job Performance In Port Harcourt City Local Government Area In Rivers State


Abstract


This study focused on the influence of principals’ leadership styles on teachers’ performance in senior secondary schools in performance in Port Harcourt City Local Government Area In Rivers State. The study was guided by three(3), researh objectives and research questions. The study population comprised 60 secondary schools in the study area. Out of this population, a sample of 60 senior secondary schools was taken and selected through the stratified random sampling technique. Out of 7460 teachers (including principals) in the schools, a sample of 2040 teachers was selected through the stratified random sampling technique. This sample was made up of 240 principals and 1800 teachers. Two instruments were used to collect data for the study. These were the principals’ leadership style questionnaire and the teachers’ job performance questionnaire. The data collected were analyzed using frequency counts, percentages, correlation matrix and the t-test. It was found that the democratic leadership style was the most commonly used leadership style among principals of senior secondary schools in the State. Teachers’ job performance was also found to be at a moderate level in the schools. Teachers’ job performance was found to be better in schools having principals using autocratic leadership style than in schools having principals using democratic or Laissez-faire leadership styles. It was recommended that school principals should imbibe a mixture of autocratic and democratic styles of leadership in their school administration in order to enhance better job performance among teachers. The use of the Laissez-faire leadership style should be discouraged among school principals as it could not bring a better job performance among teachers.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The Principal has key tasks to perform in realizing the objectives of secondary education. Apart from creating a comfortable teaching and learning atmosphere in the school, he is to provide effective leadership and enhance job performance among the teachers. The term job performance is a multidimensional concept that has been used in organizations all over the world. It is used to describe tasks done by workers in their various organizations. Ijaiya (2020), defined job performance as the overall expected value from employees behaviours carried out over the course of a set period of time. Akinyemi (2016), saw job performance as that entire worth of an employees’ conduct which he performs over a certain period of time.

It is widely agreed that job performance consists of complicated series of interacting variables pertaining to aspects of the job, the employee and the environment (Akinyemi, 2016). Job performance is usually associated with good and comfortable working conditions. Meeting the expectation and needs of the employee results in high job performance while depriving them of these expectations leads to low outcome in the workplace. One of the most important resources used in education is the teacher. The importance of a teacher as a facilitator of learning process to achieve learning outcomes cannot be overemphasized, especially due to his roles in the impartation of knowledge in a morally acceptable manner.

Job performance of teachers could also be seen as those duties in the school implemented by a teacher at any specified time which is geared towards accomplishing the daily school and classroom tasks as well as the set goals and objectives of education. Furthermore, job performance of teachers could be measured through annual report of their activities in terms of performance in teaching, lesson preparation, and presentation, mastery of subject matter, competence, teachers’ commitment to job and extra-curricular activities. Other areas of assessment include effective leadership, supervision, monitoring of students’ work, motivating students’ interest, class control and disciplinary ability of the teachers (Adeyemi, 2016).

Leadership plays an important role in the school effectiveness and school improvement. Leadership is the ability to influence others so that they will willingly and enthusiastically accomplish the organizational goals. Leadership is defined as the ability to get things done with the support and cooperation of other people within the institution, organization or system (Obilade, 2018). Ukeje & Okorie in Okorie (2019) opined that leadershipis the process of influencing, directing and coordinating the activities of other people in an organization. Put together, school leadership can be viewed as the Principal’s ability to influence teachers, students and parents so that they can willingly and cooperatively contribute towards the achievement of the school objectives. The type of leadership that is at play in our educational institution varies due to the fact that an individual (leader) is not only responsible for the groups performances, but also actively seeks the collaboration and commitment of all the group members (stakeholders, parents, etc.) towards the achievement of the group objectives for a particular task.

Leadership styles of principals are those patterns of behavior used by them to influence the group members’ (teachers, students and parents) performances. It varies from one institution to another as no two educational leaders (Principals) can administer their educational institutions in the same manner. Leadership style is the attitude in which a leader uses to provide direction, implements plans, and motivates people so as to achieve organizational objectives. It can be seen as a peculiar way of leading people.

In recent years, leadership styles have become an important topic of study in the field of management and many researchers consider leadership style as an important variable that influences how individuals perform in organizations. The preferred leadership styles identified by Bass are transformational, transactional and laissez-faire. These leadership styles have been found as an important predictor of organization performance. There are various leadership styles that exist, which are autocratic, democratic, charismatic, transactional and laissez-faire leadership styles.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Principals, as instructional leader, focus on helping teachers to improve their classroom performance and make academic instruction as their schools top priority. In one wayprincipals need to have the theoretical knowledge, skill and adequate experiences in school leadership and management and/or should have a profile of possession of various training(s) on school leadership and management so as to play active and effective leadership style in school improvement programs.

The relationship between principals’ leadership style and teachers’ job performance has been a subject of controversy by researchers (Adeyemi, 2016). The controversy was centered on whether or not the style of leadership of principals influences the level of job performance among teachers. Common observation in the school system shows that the style of leadership of a principal could perhaps have serious impact onteachers’ job performance.

The problem of this study therefore was to determine what relationship exists between principals’ leadership styles and teachers’ job performance in senior secondary schools.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The Main Objective of the study is to examine the influence of principals leadership style in senior secondary schools teachers’ job performance in Port Harcourt City Local Government Area In Rivers State. The specific objectives include:

  1. Ascertain the leadership style which is most commonly used by school principals in senior secondary school in Port Harcourt City Local Government Area.
  2. Investigate the level of job performance among teachers insenior secondary schools in the Port Harcourt City Local Government Area?
  3. Determine whether there is a significant relationship between principals’leadership styles and teachers’ job performance in seniorsecondary schools.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. Which leadership style is most commonly used by school principals in senior secondary school in Port Harcourt City Local Government Area?
  2. What is the level of job performance among teachers in senior secondary schools in Port Harcourt City Local Government Area?
  3. Is there any significant relationship between principals’ leadership styles and teachers’ job performance in senior secondary schools in Port Harcourt City Local Government Area?

1.5 Statement of the Hypothesis

  • Ho1: There is no significant relationship between principals’ leadership styles and teachers’ job performance in senior secondary schools.
  • Ho2: There is no significant difference in teachers’ performance in schools having principals using autocratic leadership style and schools having principals using democratic leadership style.
  • Ho3: There is no significant difference in teachers’ performance in schools having principals using autocratic leadership styles and schools having principals using Laissez-faire leadership styles.
  • Ho4: There is no significant difference in teachers’ performance in schools having principals using democratic leadership style and schools having principals using Laissez-faire leadership style.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The findings of this research have deep significance for the enhancement of secondary school teachers’ performance and satisfaction by prioritizing inside and outside performance in the study areas. Specifically the result of this research has the following importance for the school principals, teachers, students and others.

First, it may help the school leaders to be aware of the styles against the level of teacher performance and the practitioners’ principals to exercise efficient leadership styles so as to improve teachers’ performance.

Second, it may help the school principals to revisit and enrich with new knowledge, theories, methodologies and practical behaviors leaders need in secondary schools and other institutions of learning in general and secondary schools in particular for their motivating approach to make the teachers more effective.

Thirdly, it may give the clear picture of principal leadership style on teachers‟ level of performance for decision-maker, higher officials of the regional, zonal education office. Fourth the school principal who is in mount exposure to different pressures both internal and external has to constantly review own leadership style as effective guide in performing his/ her task.


1.7 Scope of Study

This study is structured to focus on influence of principals leadership style in senior secondary schools teachers’ job performance in Port Harcourt City Local Government Area In Rivers State. The study will be conducted in selected secondary schools in Port Harcourt City Local Government Area In Rivers State.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

Financial Constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time Constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Leadership:

Is the effort to influence the behavior of individuals or members of a group in order to accomplish schools’, individuals or personal goals.

Leadership Style:

Is the manner and approach in which a principal provides direction, motivating teachers to achieve the designed school goals, objectives and interacts with his or her teachers, students and administrative workers.

Principal:

Refers an individual who is in the position of leadership in a single secondary school.

Teachers’ Job Performance:

Refers to teachers’ commitment, engagement and effort measured by students’ outcome and degree of participation in different co-curricular activities in the schools.

Secondary Schools:

Refers to the school system established to offer two years of generaleducation from grade 9 -10.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings onthe influence of principals leadership style in senior secondary schools teachers’ job performance in Port Harcourt City Local Government Area In Rivers State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the influence of principals leadership style in senior secondary schools teachers’ job performance in Port Harcourt City Local Government Area In Rivers State. The study is was specifically carried out to ascertain the leadership style which is most commonly used by school principals in senior secondary school in Port Harcourt City Local Government Area, investigate the level of job performance among teachers in senior secondary schools in the Port Harcourt City Local Government Area, and determine whether there is a significant relationship between principals’ leadership styles and teachers’ job performance in seniors secondary schools.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 1720 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were teachers and principals of some selected secondary schools in Port Harcourt City Local Government Area.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that principals’ leadership style is a critical variable in teachers’ job performance in senior secondary schools in Rivers State, Nigeria. This is evident in the findings of this study which isolated the style of leadership used by a principal as a function of teachers’ job performance in school.

The significant relationship found in this study between the autocratic leadership style and teachers’ job performance is value added. In some situations, people need to be forced before they could improve productivity.

The findings of this study have therefore led the researcher to conclude that the autocratic leadership style is the best style of leadership that could enhance better job performance among teachers in senior secondary the State.


5.4 Recommendations

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. School principals should imbibe a mixture of autocratic and democratic styles of leadership in their school administration in order to enhance better job performance among teachers. As such, principals could use the democratic style of leadership in some occasions. They should be autocratic in certain situations in order to increase productivity among teachers. The use of the Laissez-faire leadership style should be discouraged by school principals as it could not bring a better job performance among teachers.
  2. The State Ministry of Education should organize regular inspection to schools to monitor the style of leadership used by principals that could enhance better job performance among teachers. This is necessary in order to achieve the objective of secondary education as entrenched in the National Policy on Education.

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