Influence Of Polygamy On Behaviour Patterns Of In-School Adolescent As Expressed By Secondary School Teachers In Ilorin Metropolis

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Influence Of Polygamy On Behaviour Patterns Of In-School Adolescent As Expressed By Secondary School Teachers In Ilorin Metropolis


Abstract


The main purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of polygamy on the behaviour patterns of in-school adolescent as expressed by secondary school teachers in Ilorin metropolis. The study also investigated whether or not there would be significant difference on the perception of respondent on the basis of gender, religion, marital status and educational qualification.

Descriptive survey research procedure was adopted for the study. The purposive sampling and stratified random sampling techniques were used to draw a sample of 100 secondary school teachers in Ilorin metropolis Kwara state. The purposive sampling was used to select ten secondary schools in Ilorin metropolis. The main research instrument employed for data collection was “Influence of Polygamy on Behaviour Patterns of Adolescent Questionnaire” (IPBPAQ). Five research questions were raised and four research hypotheses formulated and tested.

Data collected were computed using frequency counts, percentages, t-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha level.

The findings of the study indicated that there is no significant difference in the influence of polygamy on the behaviour patterns of in-school adolescent as expressed by the respondents on the basis of gender, religion, marital status and educational qualification.

It was recommended that there is the need for stake holders, especially the school counsellors and teachers to give adequate attention to students’ developmental challenges and adolescents in secondary school should be exposed to counselling that will help them resolve family issues that could cause emotional problems. More so, students from polygamous homes should be helped to develop positive self image and handle overzealous attitude that could lead to unnecessary competition among siblings.


Table of Contents


  • Title Page
  • Approved Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgements
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • Background to the Study
  • Statement of the Problems
  • Research Questions
  • Research Hypotheses
  • Purpose o f the Study
  • Significance of the Study
  • Scope of the Study
  • Operational Definition of Terms

Chapter Two:

Review of the Related Literature

  • Preamble
  • Concept of Polygamy
  • Concept of Behaviour Pattern
  • Concept of Adolescence
  • Characteristics of In-School Adolescents behaviour
  • Influence of Polygamy on the Behaviour patterns of In-School Adolescents
  • Summary of the Reviewed of Literature

Chapter Three:

Methodology

  • Preamble
  • Research Design
  • Sample and Sampling Procedure
  • Instrumentation
  • Psychometric Properties of the Instrument
  • Procedure for Administration and Data Collection
  • Procedure for Scoring the Instrument
  • Method of Data Analysis

Chapter Four:

Results

  • Preamble
  • Descriptive Data
  • Hypothesis Testing
  • Summary of Findings

Chapter Five:

Discussions, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • Preamble
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • Recommendations
  • Suggestions for Further Studies
  • References
  • Appendix

List of Tables


  • Table 1: Distribution of Respondents by Gender
  • Table 2: Distribution of Respondents by Religion
  • Table 3: Distribution of Respondents by Marital Status
  • Table 4: Distribution of Respondents by Educational Qualification
  • Table 5: Rank Order Analysis of Influence of polygamy on Behaviour Patterns
  • Table 6: Mean, Standard Deviation and t-value indicating the Influence of polygamy on Behaviour Patterns
    of In-school Adolescents in Ilorin Metropolis on the Basis of Gender
  • Table 6: Mean, Standard Deviation and t-value indicating the Influence of polygamy on Behaviour Patterns
    of In-school Adolescents in Ilorin Metropolis on the Basis of religion
  • Table 7: Mean, Standard Deviation and t-value indicating the Influence of polygamy on Behaviour Patterns
    of In-school Adolescents in Ilorin Metropolis on the Basis of Marital Status
  • Table 8: ANOVA showing the Influence of polygamy on Behaviour Patterns of In-school Adolescents in Ilorin Metropolis on the Basis of educational Qualification

Chapter One


Introduction

Background to the Study

Polygamy is a marriage which includes more than two partners (Zeitzen, 2008). When a man is married to more than one wife at a time, the relationship is called polygyny, and there is no marriage bond between the wives. When a woman is married to more than one husband at a time, it is called polyandry, and there is no marriage bond between the husbands. If a marriage includes multiple husbands and wives, it can be called group marriage (Zeitzen, 2008).
The term is used in related ways in social anthropology, socio-biology, sociology, as well as in popular speech. In social anthropology, polygamy is the practice of a person’s making him available for two or more spouses to mate with. In contrast, monogamy is a marriage consisting of only two parties. Like monogamy, the term is often used in a de facto sense, applying regardless of whether the relationships are recognized by the state. In socio-biology and zoology, polygamy is used in a broad sense to mean any form of multiple mating.

In the last two decades, polygamy has been considered as an important issue public, political, and academic arenas (Elbedour, 2004). Polygamy in particular constitutes one of the distinctive features of the marriage in many countries and while its frequency may be declining, it is still widely practiced (Kincaid, 2003).

The Sub-Saharan Africa is the major global region where the practice remains widespread, accounting for about 20-50 percent of all marriages (Caldwell & Caldwell, 1990). Although polygamy has been practised all over the world for many centuries, there is an argument whether polygamy is appropriate or inappropriate to our society. Some believe that polygamy is very helpful to career women who might have to work late, then go home, and take care of their children or husband. Conversely, majority believe that polygamy is inappropriate as it has a huge negative effect to the family. The common effect of polygamy is making a conflict among wives. In polygamy, conflict among wives usually arises in the management of family. It is difficult for family management especially to arrange and sharing the task. On the other hand, it is difficult for husband to be fair to his wives. (Altman & Gmat, 1996).

Kincaid (2003) observed that in polygamous family, children also might lose their respect to their parents. The paper attempts to examine the overall effect of polygamy on family and society. Too many, polygamy is seen as an inappropriate relationship because they believe that polygamy oppresses women and children, but there are also those who believe that polygamy is appropriate and beneficial to society. Polygamy is always associated with problems and bad effects like jealousy, strife, murder and disparities.

Behaviour pattern can be described as a psychological construct that helps in defining an individual’s likely disposition towards an event such as examinations (Parker, Spears & Jones, 2002). Behaviour pattern refers to the unique and distinctive characteristics which sets a person apart from another (Sanni, 1999). Aspect of Behaviour pattern include one’s qualities or attributes, the way one really is, one’s general habitual behaviour, politeness, submissiveness and so on (Olowonirejuaro, 2008).

One way of classifying personality characteristics is through the use of the Type A and Type B behaviour patterns. According to Sanni (1999), the concept of Types A and B behaviour pattern dated back to the 19th century. Meyer Friedman, an American Cardiologist, noticed in the 1940’s that the chairs in his waiting room got worn out from the edges. He hypothesized that his patients were hard driving, impatient people, who sat on the edge of their seats when waiting. They were labelled “Type A” personalities. Type A Behaviour Pattern personalities are workaholics, always busy, driven, somewhat impatient and so on.

The Type A behaviour pattern is a set of behavioural responses to life or challenges of the environmental variables more often aggravated by situations which constitute significant changes in our lives (Rosenman & Chesney, 1982).
Friedman and Rosenman (1974) defined Type A individual as a person who is aggressively involved in a chronic, incessant struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time, and if required to do so, against the opposing efforts of other things or other persons. They went further to explain Type A behaviour traits to include the following: extreme ambition and competitiveness, impatience, time pressure and a high degree of propensity to anger and hostility.

The behaviour pattern B individual denotes a person who is more ‘relaxed’ in his or her approach to life, somewhat opposite to Type A (Rosenman & Friedman, 1974). With regards to time, the Type B individual is not in a hurry. He tends to be friendly and often competes with himself, believing that he can always do better than before. He is intuitive, spontaneous and patient. When it comes to change, he sees it as a rhythm of the universe and believes that all change is inevitable. He is open to criticism and tries to make others feel accepted and at ease. When he is angry, he uses humour subtly to make his point and his anger is in most cases directed against issues and not at persons. He is supportive of others and more likely to express positive feelings, so he has a lesser chance of anxiety related disorders.

Behaviour patterns among the adolescents cannot be understood without considering some factors like gender and family background. It has been contended that the gender factor is of paramount importance to cognitive, affective and behavioural actions of individuals. Ossal (2004) reported that there are biological based differences in brain components of males and females which account for men’s higher spatial, numerical and independent cognitive styles. In other words he was of the opinion that boys and girls behave differently because of variations in their psychological constitution along gender lines without much consideration to environmental influences.
The family is one of the primary groups of social organization where a child first receives the informal type of’ education. Everyone starts life in a family, irrespective of the kind of family. The family, as a major unit of socialization is very vital for the development of a child. It is with this unit the child first identifies himself before the ethnic group, or the society at large (Moors 2003).

According to Moors (2003), family background could be of various types. Generally, there are the extended and nuclear family patterns. The extended family includes a span of three generations within the total household. The nuclear family comprises basically the father, the mother and the children. In addition to the types of families mentioned above, some family are polygamous. The pattern or type of training given to child within a family system affects his/her personality make up. This has to do with the type of rearing techniques that a family adopts. It also has to do with the role played by the father and the mother i.e. child rearing procedure.

It has been observed by Sears, Maccoby and Levin (2003) that many variables like the family type, family child rearing practices, birth order and socioeconomic status of the parent affect the personality of the individual in the school. Various families show different attitudes towards their children and both the favourable and unfavourable attitudes of parents have effects on the personality characteristics of their children in school.

The aim of this study is to find out the influence of polygamy on the behaviour patterns of in-school adolescents as expressed by secondary school teachers in Ilorin Metropolis, with a view to investigating the relationship that exist between polygamy and behaviour patterns of in-school adolescents.


Statement of the Problem

Polygamous family is characterised by unhealthy rivalry and competitions which in turn may have a lot influence on childrearing practices and behaviour patterns of young children. In the view of Ipaye (1993), polygamy leads to marriage which tears families apart and in many cases children are worst hit. It leads to change in hope of children, misbehaviour and delinquency, in assertiveness and lack of confidence. It appears that this unfortunate conflict situation in polygamous homes poses great influence on the behaviour of young children which in turn affect every aspect of their life pursuit.

Researches have been carried out on factors responsible for polygamous marriage among men as expressed by adults in Ilorin metropolis by Afolabi (2012), the findings of the study revealed that the most common factor responsible for polygamous marriage includes health factors, religious factors, social factors and economic factors.
Also Ajiboye (2004), carried out findings on the influence of polygamy on the academic performance of student in Oke-Ero Local Government Area of Kwara State. The findings of the study revealed that polygamous family has adverse influence on the student performance.

A fairly more encompassing study is however needed to be carried out on the influence of polygamy on the behaviour patterns of in-school adolescent. This is to know the influence of polygamy on the behaviour dispositions of in school adolescents and consequences on their later life.


Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated in order to guide the direction of the study:

  1. What is the influence of polygamy on the behaviour patterns of in-school adolescents?
  2. Is there significant difference in the influence of polygamy on the behaviour patterns of in-school adolescents has expressed by secondary school teachers on the basis of gender?
  3. Is there significant difference in the influence of polygamy on the behaviour patterns of in-school adolescents has expressed by secondary school teachers on the basis of religion?
  4. Is there significant difference in the influence of polygamy on the behaviour patterns of in-school adolescents has expressed by secondary school teachers on the basis of education qualification?
  5. Is there significant difference in the influence of polygamy on the behaviour patterns of in-school adolescents has expressed by secondary school teachers on the basis of marital status?

Research Hypotheses

In order to give the research a better focus, the following null hypotheses were formulated to be tested in the study:

  1. There is no significant difference in the influence of polygamy and the behaviour patterns of in-school adolescents as expressed by secondary school teachers on the basis of gender.
  2. There is no significant difference in the influence of polygamy and the behaviour patterns of in-school adolescents as expressed by secondary school teachers on the basis of religion.
  3. There is no significant difference in the influence of polygamy and the behaviour patterns of in-school adolescents as expressed by secondary school teachers on the basis of educational qualification
  4. There is no significant difference in the influence of polygamy and the behaviour patterns of in-school adolescents as expressed by secondary school teachers on the basis of marital status.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to find out the influence of polygamy on the behaviour patterns of in-school adolescents as expressed by school teachers in Ilorin Metropolis. The study also examined whether or not variables such as gender, religious polygamy has any influence on the behaviour patterns of in-school adolescents as expressed by school teachers in Ilorin Metropolis.


Significance of the Study

The findings of this study would assist students, parents, teachers, counsellors, school administrators, future researchers and the society at large to know the influence of family structure on the behaviour patterns of in-school adolescents. The findings will help students have more understanding of themselves and their behaviour dispositions towards schooling and other activities.

The study would also expose parent to the influences of family structures and child rearing practice on the personality and behaviour disposition of adolescent.

The study will assist teacher to know the influence of family structure on student personality and academic performance thereby treating each student as a unique individual.

School counsellors stand to benefit tremendously from the result of the study because a good knowledge of the findings would assist them in counselling students on how to identify themselves. This study is capable of exposing parental role in the behaviour disposition of students and with proper counselling; the desirable behaviour of the students could be enhanced through the use of behaviour modification strategies.


Scope of the Study

The scope of this study is limited to secondary school teachers in Ilorin Metropolis. Ten secondary schools would be sampled from within Ilorin Metropolis. Respondents would be randomly selected from each school to make a total of two hundred teachers (100) that would be used for the study. The variable that the researcher used in carrying out the study in includes gender, various ages, religion and school type.


Operational Definition of Terms

The following terms have been operationally defined for the purpose of this study:

Polygamy:

Marriage which includes more than two partners.

Behaviour Pattern(s):

These are behavioural characteristics which can be used to classify human beings into Type A and Type B groups.

Family Type:

Family background in terms of polygamy or monogamy.

Polygamous Family:

A home that consist of the husband, two or more wives In-school Adolescents: young children in secondary school.


Chapter Five


Discussions, Conclusions and Recommendations

Preamble

This study investigated the influence of polygamy on the behaviour pattern of in-school adolescents in Ilorin. The study also examined whether or not the variables of gender, religion, marital status and educational qualification have influence on the perception of teachers as regards the influence of polygamy on behaviour patterns of in-school Adolescent. A total of 100 respondents participated in the study and four null hypotheses were postulated and tested at .05 alpha level. The discussions, conclusions, recommendations and the implications of the findings are contained in this chapter.


Discussions

The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of polygamy and the behaviour patterns of in-school adolescents as expressed by secondary school teachers in Ilorin metropolis. The results of the study indicated that the proportion of male who responded to the questionnaire was 52%, while female respondents made up 48%.
The proportion of Christian’s respondents was 34%, the proportion of Muslims was 66%. The proportion of married respondents was 71 %, the proportion of singles was 29%. Lastly the proportion of B.Ed holders was 26%, B.Sc was 29%, HND was 14% while the proportion of NCE holders was 39%. Analysis of the fifteen items on the questionnaire revealed the influence of polygamy on behaviour pattern as it is contained in sections B of the instrument, out of all the items in section the B Item 6 which states that “enhanced competitiveness”, ranked first with a mean score of 3.30. This conforms with the view of (Elbedour, Bart, & Hektner, 2003) that Children of polygamous marriages exhibit higher levels of envy, conflict, emotional stress, tension, insecurity and anxiety than children of monogamous marriages. They have a more negative self-concept, perhaps because of increased competition among mixed siblings for an important place in the family. Item 1 which states that “fast driving ambition” ranked second with a mean score of 3.18. Item 3 which state that “time consciousness” also ranked second with a mean score of 3.18. This in line with the views of Al-Krenawi etals (1997) and Elbedour, Onwuegbuzie & Alatamin (2003) that adolescents usually do not feel themselves to be stigmatised and do not perceive their family structure to be disadvantaged. They tend to be more resourceful and better equipped to adjust to any adverse circumstances.
The first hypothesis stated that there is no significant difference in the influence of polygamy on the behaviour patterns of in-school adolescents as expressed by secondary school teachers on the basis of gender. The hypothesis was accepted, thus both male and female respondents view child rearing practice in the polygamous family in the same way.

The second hypothesis stated that there is no significant difference in the influence of polygamy on the behaviour patterns of in-school adolescents as expressed by secondary school teachers on the basis of religion. The hypothesis was accepted; this means that Christian and Muslim respondents are similar in their perception of the influence of polygamy on the behaviour pattern of in school adolescent.

The third hypothesis stated that there is no significant difference in the influence of polygamy on the behaviour patterns of in-school adolescents as expressed by secondary school teachers on the basis of marital status. The hypothesis was accepted; this means that single and married respondents are similar in their perception of the influence of polygamy on the behaviour pattern of in school adolescent.

The fourth hypothesis stated that there is no significant difference in the influence of polygamy on the behaviour patterns of in-school adolescents as expressed by secondary school teachers on the basis of educational qualification. The hypothesis was accepted; this means that respondents from different educational background are similar in their perception of the influence of polygamy on the behaviour pattern of in school adolescent.


Conclusion

This study investigated the influence of polygamy on the behaviour patterns of in-school adolescent as perceived by secondary school teachers in Ilorin metropolis. Variables such as gender, religion marital status and educational qualification were used to determine the difference or otherwise among the respondents. The following conclusions were drawn from the findings:

  1. There is no significant difference in the influence of polygamy on the behaviour patterns of in-school adolescents as expressed by secondary school teachers on the basis of gender.
  2. There is no significant difference in the influence of polygamy on the behaviour patterns of in-school adolescents as expressed by secondary school teachers on the basis of religion.
  3. There is no significant difference in the influence of polygamy on the behaviour patterns of in-school adolescents as expressed by secondary school teachers on the basis of educational qualification.
  4. There is no significant difference in the influence of polygamy on the behaviour patterns of in-school adolescents as expressed by secondary school teachers on the basis of marital status.

General Recommendations

Based on the result of the findings and all that has been discussed in this study, it was recommended that adolescents in secondary school should be exposed to counselling that will help them resolve family issues that could cause emotional problems as well as to help students from polygamous homes develop positive self image and handle overzealous attitude that could lead to unnecessary competition among siblings.


Suggestions for Further Studies

  1. Further research in this area could involve other secondary schools in Kwara State to make it truly representative of the secondary schools in Kwara state.
  2. Further research in this area could involve studies on influence of polygamy on in-adolescents behaviour patterns in other secondary school in Nigeria.
  3. Effect of polygamy on child rearing practices in Nigeria e.t.c.

Influence Of Polygamy On Behaviour Patterns Of In-School Adolescent As Expressed By Secondary School Teachers In Ilorin Metropolis


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Influence Of Polygamy On Behaviour Patterns Of In-School Adolescent As Expressed By Secondary School Teachers In Ilorin Metropolis


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