The Influence Of Politics On The Management Of Secondary School In Nigeria
This study was carried out to examine the influence of politics on the management of secondary school in Nigeria using selected public secondary school in southeast Nigeria as a case study. The study was carried out to find out the extent politics influences the funding of secondary schools in Nigeria, ascertain whether politics influences staff personnel administration of secondary schools in Nigeria, investigate whether politics have a significant influences on the provision of educational facilities in secondary schools in Nigeria, and find out whether politics influences administrative task area of school community relation in secondary schools in Nigeria. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of school administrators in the selected public secondary school in southeast Nigeria. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 119 respondents and 100 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, while the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that politics has a significant influence on the management of secondary schools in Nigeria. Therefore, it is recommended that government in the South-east states should ensure that there are no favouritism in the disbursement of funds in secondary schools and the appointment of finance officers should not be based in politics, this politics is bound to adversely affect the provision of management of funds in secondary schools. To mention but a few.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organization of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background to the Study
The role of politics in the management of secondary schools in Nigeria is always affected by the government interference. This is because politics cannot be separated from school management. The objectives of education, the control, production, process variables, financial and accreditation system are tied inescapably to politics. The concept of politics has been well articulated by educators and social scientists including Ogbonnaya (2009), Okeke (2007) and Uchendu (1995). They all agree that politics is not restricted to political parties but is there in Nigeria banks, markets, and military establishments, commercial and industrial sectors of our economy and even in educational institutions. These experts have variously defined politics. Ogbonnaya (2009) sees it as a subject concerned with attracting, securing and maintaining the wellbeing of a community, state or nation. Okeke (2007) sees it as a device intended for finding solutions to social, economic, political and educational problems by political means. However, Uchendu (1995:2) on the other hand sees politics as the science and act of securing and advancing the temporal welfare of a community organized as a state. The business of politics, therefore, involves both the laying down of general principles and their application to concrete problems. The scope of politics is the temporal wellbeing of the community as a whole. These definitions imply that politics is concerned with attracting, securing and maintains the wellbeing of a community. The definitions also suggest that politics is an instrument for finding solutions to social, economic, scientific, technological and educational problems of a nation. The implication of all of the above is that politics is an unavoidable phenomenon in every society. Politics is all-embracing; it deals with power and power involves elements of decision making, allocating of resources, settlement of conflicts, provision of social amenities as well as the provision and management of education. Hence, no society can think about having an established government without politics. It is the interference of stakeholders including the government, community, members of the school board, school board of governors and the parent teachers association in the management of secondary schools in Nigeria. Politics cannot be separated from secondary school management. The establishment of most secondary schools in Nigeria arose out of increase political awareness of the citizens of these states. It is for this reason that Okeke (2007) stated emphatically that politics plays an important role in decision making, control and governance of secondary schools. Furthermore, Okeke pointed out that politics in education can be looked at as a process of control, decision making, implementation, management, governance and a method by which resources are allocated to different ethnic groups to achieve their aims. The role of politics is heightened in view of the fact that an educational system has political goals and these goals are essential to justify the existence of the system and the political order of society. In other words, the political order initiates good education. It has been observed that politics is capable of having some influences in the management and policies that guide education. Politics may influence policies on funding, staff-personnel administration, provision of basic infrastructure\equipment and school-community relation (Ogbonnaya,2006).When the political influence is favorable to management and the development of education, it is regarded as positive but when the interference of government is inimical to the rules and regulations of the school management, it is negative because the state of objective of secondary education will not be achieved, therefore, teaching and learning will not be effective.
Therefore, politics in the context of this study is a situation where political consideration is given preference rather than due process in which case the running of a school is influenced by the wishes of those in power rather than by established guidelines. In other words, it is a situation where due process is circumvented by pressure from groups of individuals in powerful positions. This undue influence results in school management deviating from normal or formal administrative principles and guidelines, hence, the management of secondary schools is influenced by government interference. Management has so many definitions and has been described in diverse ways. According to Peretomode (1999) management is a set of activities which can be classified as concerned with the process of planning, organizing, controlling, directing and staffing. All these are towards the achievement of the goals and objectives of the organization. Also, management is a way of guiding, leading and controlling the efforts of a group of people towards the realization of their common goals and objectives. (Ezeocha, 2009). Hence, in this context management is the use of materials and non-materials resources in an organization to achieve stated goals. In this present study schools are organized place with rules and regulation guiding the activities of what is going on in order to achieve the desired goals of education.
As government policy and practice, bureaucracy is unavoidable, of course. But the central flaw in the need for structure and hierarchy is that politics prefers leadership characteristics above expertise. As noted by Blasé & Blasé (2002) no politician can possibly have the expertise and experience needed in all the many areas a leader must address (notably in roles such as governor and president). But during the accountability era in education of the past three decades, the direct role of governors and presidents as related to education has increased dramatically – often with education as a central plan in their campaigns. One distinct flaw in that development according to Scribner, Aleman & Maxcy (2003) and Ijaduola, Odumade & Agbajeola (2009) has been a trickle – down effect reaching from presidents and governors to state superintendents of education and school board chairs and members; people who have no or very little experience or expertise as educators or scholars attain leadership positions responsible for forming and implementing education policy. In other words, the faces and voices currently leading the education reform movement in Nigeria are appointees and self-proclaimed reformers who, while often well-meaning, lack significant expertise or experience in education.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Politics can be a vital factor that influences decisions in the management of secondary schools in various situations. Since the government has taken over the control and management of secondary schools, political issues, societal interest and environmental influences on the management of secondary schools have come to the fore. Secondary education has a link with society; hence each segment of society tries to interfere with the management of secondary schools to suit their roles in the society. The belief that politics influences the allocation of funds, staff management, provision of basic infrastructure/equipment and school community relation is common in Nigeria. Political influences have positive and negative impact on teaching and learning in schools. In the society, it seems that the management of secondary schools is a fertile ground for politicking and politicians influence the management of secondary education while the principals, teachers, school board members and board of governors of each school obey them to a fault. This servile attitude makes it impossible for principals and teachers to stand their grounds to make demands for their salaries, allowances, promotions, car loans and conducive teaching environment. They embark on strike actions that often yield nothing worthwhile. Teachers, board of governors of schools, secondary school management boards, staff and principals observe that politics influence secondary school management in areas such as in transfer of teachers, promotion of principals, fund allocation, distribution of facilities, upgrading of schools and conduct of examinations. These observations have no empirical backing so far.
Some secondary schools in Nigeria is known to be doing well with good equipment and adequate infrastructure while others unfortunately suffer serious deprivations. Can the popular belief that there is a significant political interference in the running of secondary schools be substantiated? Although, there are a number of researches directed at politics and its consequences in relation to educational policies and National development, none so far has been specific on the perceived impact of politics and political parties on educational management as a benchmark for improvement. Hence, the main purpose of this study is to examine the influence of politics on the management of secondary school in Nigeria.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of the study is to investigate the influence of politics on the management of secondary school in Nigeria, specifically the study intends to:
- Find out the extent politics influences the funding of secondary schools in Nigeria.
- Ascertain whether politics influences staff personnel administration of secondary schools in Nigeria.
- Investigate whether politics have a significant influences on the provision of educational facilities in secondary schools in Nigeria.
- Find out whether politics influences administrative task area of school community relation in secondary schools in Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions
The study will be guided by the following questions;
- What is the extent to which politics influence the funding of secondary schools in Nigeria?
- Does politics influence staff personnel administration of secondary schools in Nigeria?
- Does politics has a significant influence on the provision of educational facilities in secondary schools in Nigeria?
- Does politics influence administrative task area of school community relation in secondary schools in Nigeria?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
Ho: Politics does not have a significant influence on the management of secondary schools in Nigeria.
Ha: Politics has a significant influence on the management of secondary schools in Nigeria.
1.5 Significance of the Study
The study is significance in a number of ways. The study is of great relevance to the government officers, state school management board, parent Teachers Association (PTA) and the Communities.
The information generated from the results of this study will help government officers understand how politics could influence the school management. This information could help them understand the adjustments necessary in respect of political influence in the administration of the school. The information will help the government evaluate the effectiveness of the policies in school and know whether the policies are in the interest of the communities that own the school. It will help them to make changes where the impact is negative.
The findings of the study will also help the State School Management Board to be aware of the political influence in secondary education and provide the management board with valid and reliable information regarding the problems associated with political impact in school management as well as provide solution to such problems. It will also create awareness in the minds of members of the school management board about the policy decision that affects their management of secondary schools. This information can guide them in the day to day performance of their responsibilities to schools under their care. It can also help them make recommendation to government on necessary improvements in their policies.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope of this study borders on the influence of politics on the management of secondary school in Nigeria. The study further seek to find out the extent politics influences the funding of secondary schools in Nigeria, ascertain whether politics influences staff personnel administration of secondary schools in Nigeria, investigate whether politics have a significant influences on the provision of educational facilities in secondary schools in Nigeria, find out whether politics influences administrative task area of school community relation in secondary schools in Nigeria. The respondents for this study will be obtained among secondary school administrators in south-east of Nigeria.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.
Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Social process which is designed to ensure the cooperation, participation, intervention and involvement of others in the effective achievement of a given or predetermined objective.
1.10 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on the influence of politics on the management of secondary school in Nigeria using selected public secondary school in southeast Nigeria as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was on the influence of politics on the management of secondary school in Nigeria using selected public secondary school in southeast Nigeria as a case study. The study is was specifically carried out to; find out the extent politics influences the funding of secondary schools in Nigeria, ascertain whether politics influences staff personnel administration of secondary schools in Nigeria, investigate whether politics have a significant influences on the provision of educational facilities in secondary schools in Nigeria, and find out whether politics influences administrative task area of school community relation in secondary schools in Nigeria.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were school administrators in the selected public secondary school in southeast Nigeria.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;
- The extent to which politics influences the funding of secondary schools in Nigeria is high.
- Politics influences staff personnel administration of secondary schools in Nigeria.
- Politics has a significant influence on the provision of educational facilities in secondary schools in Nigeria.
- Politics influence administrative task area of school community relation in secondary schools in Nigeria.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.
- Government in the South-east states should ensure that there are no favouritism in the disbursement of funds in secondary schools and the appointment of finance officers should not be based in politics, this politics is bound to adversely affect the provision of management of funds in secondary schools.
- The post primary school management boards in the different states should ensure different eschew preferential appointments of principals as this generate conflict in schools, also the issue of favouritism in the appointment of staff to work in the school system should be avoided since this lead to appointment of mediocrate in the system.
- The states governments should avoid quota system in the provision of facilities and equipment in schools. This is because these leads to differentials in the quality and quantity of schools.
- Politics should be played with caution in the appointment or selection of principal officers.
- Politics should be played with caution in the siting of secondary schools with the full knowledge of the result of the feasilibility study of the environment. This is to ensure the accessibility of the teachers and the students in other to achieve the aims and objective of secondary schools in the federation.
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Frequently Asked Questions
What is the colonial policy on secondary education in Nigeria?
Count Down on Secondary Education in Nigeria One thing that needs to be remembered about the colonial policy on secondary education in Nigeria since its inception in 1959 is that whatever be the kind of defects inherent in the system, the opportunity provided lesson for future education development.
Is Nigeria’s secondary education system British?
Even years after independence, it still can be argued that, the Nigerian secondary education system largely remained British in practice, structure, organization and even in administration.
Is secondary education in Northern Nigeria a process of status reinforcement?
Unlike in southern Nigeria, where the most usual result of the introduction of secondary education is a process of status reserved, in northern Nigeria, the process of status reinforcement is assumed to ensure a guaranteed degree of continuity in the recruitment of dominant groups.
What is the importance of Education in Nigeria?
The structure of secondary school in Nigerian historical perspective Education has been universally accepted as a major indication of a community’s social well-being standard of living and social justice.