Influence Of Political Campaign Radio On Voters Preference Of Candidates In Bende Local Government Area Abia State

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Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication


I humbly dedicate this work to God Almighty who has given me the gift of life, good health, protection, knowledge and above all wisdom to make this work a reality.

To my parents …………… for giving me both moral and financial support throughout my Bsc time. And also to my sisters, ………………… and to my brothers ……………


I am very thankful to God Almighty for his grace upon me. To my academic mentors in the persons of ……………, my project supervisor for educating me on the act of project writing and method of its researchers and also to other lecturers who have taught me in the course of writing this project.

I equally appreciate the effort of my family members and all those other in making sure that I am a useful member of the society.

May God bless and sustain them all in their pursuit or strive to attain their life goal.


This study will examine the influence of radio political campaign messages on the electorates’ voting behavior in Bende L.G.A, Abia – Nigeria, with a focus on the 2019 general elections. It seeks to ascertain the extent that the electorates in Bende L.G.A, Abia – Nigeria were exposed to radio political campaign messages, as well as the extent to which such messages influenced their voting decisions.

Equally, the study claims that Bende L.G.A, Abia people are religiously and ethnically attached to their leaders. Accordingly, the study seeks to determine whether or not there is relationship between radio political campaign messages; interference of the opinion leaders on the voters’ behavior leading to turn out into participating during the elections; and the outcome of the elections result. To achieve this, the study offers the survey method with the questionnaire as research instrument.

The research was launched on the premise of multi-step flow of communication theory. The findings indicate, among other things, that the majority (90.0%) of electorates in Bende L.G.A, Abiawere exposed to political campaign messages on radio. Explaining further, respondents (58.3%) said they listen to political party related campaigns and were influenced by them while casting their ballot.

The findings further revealed that respondents (65.5%) were influenced by opinion leaders in their choice of political parties or candidates during elections as they perceived their advice/instruction as credible. In light of the findings, it was concluded that political campaign messages aired by local radio stations were an essential factor in the political decisions of the electorates in Bende L.G.A, Abia. Similarly, it was recommended that producers of political campaign messages should make optimum use of their right sense of judgment in packaging their messages to avoid deception on voters.

And, that opinion leaders while interpreting the messages to opinion followers should always check the reality or otherwise of the messages produced by parties and candidates to avoid misleading their followers.

Table Of Contents

  • Approval Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract

Chapter One:Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the study
  • 1.6 Scope of the study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the study
  • 1.8 organization of the study

Chapter Two:Review Of Related Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Review
  • 2.1.1 Brief history of radio development in Nigeria
  • 2.1.2 Mass Media and Elections in Nigeria
  • 2.1.3 The Radio and Voters’ Electoral Choice in Nigeria’s Election
  • 2.1.4 Concept of political advertising
  • 2.1.5 Taxonomy of Political of Advertising.
  • 2.3 Empirical Studies

Chapter Three:Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research design
  • 3.2 Area of study
  • 3.3 Sources of Data
  • 3.4 Sampling and sampling technique
  • 3.5 Population of the study
  • 3.6 Instrumentation
  • 3.7 Data collection
  • 3.8 Method of data analysis

Chapter Four:Results And Discussion

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Demographic analysis
  • 4.3 Discussion of findings

Chapter Five:Conclusion And Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix
  • Questionnaire

Chapter One


1.1 Background To The Study

The preparation for the conduct of the Nigeria’s 2019 general elections has witnessed a rise in the use of radio as a means of airing political campaign messages. Even, before then, a proliferation of radio stations in the entire country was witnessed. The radio stations that were mainly local stations otherwise known as FM stations were used to air political campaign messages by the government, political parties and candidates.

After the conduct of 2011 general elections in Nigeria, Utor, (2011, p. 39) conducted a research in order to find out the reason for lack of participation by the citizens. His findings showed that voters in Nigeria have low levels of political knowledge and information. Moreover, he recommended the use of radio as the channel of disseminating political campaign messages while targeting audience. Buttressing this, Jibo (1996, p. 127) suggest the importance of focusing on the influence of radio political campaign messages. He found out that radio as a medium can help in enhancing the political information awareness of the Nigerian voters.

Modern day politics demand that political parties serve as a platform through which politicians contest for different elective positions. And in order for these electorates to participate, Adibe (2019, p. 7) observed that they (electorates) are mobilized to vote candidates into various offices. These mobilizations are done through production and airing or publishing of political campaign messages that aimed to educate and influence voters to act during the elections. Supporting this position, Adaba (2019, p. 13) observed that, as Nigerians conducted their 2019 general elections, such political communication in the form of various campaign messages were witnessed. He asserts, that “Radio, which is one of the most frequent medium used by campaign organizers and political parties, witnessed such presence of political campaign messages even higher.”

Today, voters in Nigeria come across various political campaign messages through listening to radio. Pate (2014, p. 3) in a result of a nationwide study carried out by the National Bureau of Statistics in 2011 showed that Nigerians are heavily dependent on radio as major source of public information. The study titled:Access to Information and Communication Technology revealed that (80%) of Nigerians have access to radio, though there exist a demographic variation in ownership rates especially among the genders.

A result of exposure to medium of the radio shows that (39%) of women listen to the radio at least once a week, while (55%) of men listen to the radio for the same period. In terms of educational background, it was established (66%) of women with a secondary education or higher listens to the radio at least once a week, as compare with (23%) of women with no education. In men, age barrier determines the level of listening to the radio. For example, men aged 45 – 59 and above (61.6%) listen to radio more than other age brackets.

Furthermore, residency equally shows difference in exposure and usage to the radio. Urban women that listen to radio comprises (52.2%) against rural women (30.2%). In the same vein (62.2%) of men living in urban areas listen to radio as against (48.8%) of those living in rural areas. It is important to note that, according to the cultural settings of Nigerian culture, rural dwellers believe more in interpersonal communication as means of receiving information.

Agencies like the National Orientation Agency (NOA); civil societies like the European Union (EU) and African Union (AU) that serves as election observers, among others; electoral bodies like the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC), in Nigeria were all aware of the pervasiveness of the radio. These bodies, among others, involved radio in enlightening citizens about the political system. With this development, Obot (2009, p. 56) showed that audience members got to know about aspirants and candidates for various elective posts as well as the manifestoes of political parties mostly through the medium of the radio.

Additionally, Ukwu (2007, p. 165) stressed that radio as a medium used in Nigeria’s political process had witnessed development in producing knowledge as regards to choice and voting. On this, Obeta (2007, p. 123) offers a piece of advice that any person or group of persons and even government that ignore the role of radio in their life is courting some danger because radio reportage on the political life alone is crucial to its survival and growth. Nigeria is a country that can be described as a nation, where people are mostly guided by their ethnic affiliation and identity. This identity led to the proliferation of local media outfits especially local radio stations.

These local radio stations give all the various community leaders in the locality advantages by allowing them to speak to their ethnic community members or tribal members. This is one reason that makes local radio stations more patronized by the various community members. And this also allows community leaders to speak to their co-community members directly.

In Abia, were this research is conducted the proliferation of local radio stations has gone up. These stations usually speak to their listeners mostly in their local language. The stations cover local events like farmers’ programs, etc. This is the reason why during electioneering campaigns, electoral actors i.e. the political parties, candidates and electoral regulatory bodies engage these community leaders to explain to people their political messages.

In a study, Kolawole (2019, p. 51) established that majority constituting (59%) of the respondents confirmed that they did not search for information on who to vote, meaning that most of them voted on the advice or instruction of their leaders. The study, an analysis of the influence of opinion leaders on the voting decision of rural voters:an evidence from Ayetoro, Ogun – state of Nigeria, showed that (75%) of the respondents believed their community and religious leaders more than other sources of political information.

Abia people are very attached to listening to local radio more than any other medium. A study conducted by Sanda (2014, p. 11) found that in Nigeria and Abia in particular, people listen to radio more than any other form of media. Buttressing this, Belli (2013:23) asserts that, “radio gives enlightenment to a lot of people. It gets to people more than any other kind of media”. In all corners of Abia state, you find a farmer working on his farm and at the same time listening to radio or meat seller while frying his meat for customers but listening to his radio.

Even women that stay at home preparing for daily meals listen to radio. It is on this basis, this research study seeks to establish the extent to which political campaign messages aired on radio by politicians and other political stakeholders targeted at potential voters, influenced the voting pattern of Abia electorates during the conduct of Nigeria’s 2019 elections.

1.2 Statement Of The Problem

To state a problem one need to go through three stages:1- to identify it based on primary symptoms 2- to do a preliminary explorative research to make the problem known so you are sure it is not constructed but it really exist 3- to explain it thoroughly. Radio as a medium of communication influences how people experience their political life by its regular broadcast of news material in current affairs, politics and other areas, Morgan, (2011, p. 139). Radio is still the best way for political parties and candidates to influence people, (ibid, p. 143). In Nigeria, the political institutions were in the past employed the use of traditional means of communication to share their political campaign messages to potential voters.

However, in recent times, there is a shift from defending much on use of direct or face-to-face meetings, and instead embark on the use of mostly local radio stations to send political campaign messages to the populace, especially potential voters. Abia state which is the main focus state of this research witnesses the proliferation of local radio stations both state-owned and privately-owned stations.

Government at all levels struggles to control the political sphere in the state using radio as a means of disseminating their messages during and after elections. This development saw the establishment of many radio stations in comparison to other forms of media, both in Abia and across Nigerian state.

The issue is whether the huge political campaign messages by the parties, candidates and other political institutions being aired on local radio have bearing to creation and sustenance of awareness of a party and/or its candidate(s) for election. Furthermore, it is a question for determination whether or not there is a relationship between radio political campaign messages; interference of the opinion leaders on the voters’ behavior leading to turn out into participating during the elections; and the outcome of the elections result.

1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The main objective of this study is to examine the influence of political campaign radio on voters preference of candidates in Bende local government area, Abia state.

The specific objectives of this study are to:

  1. To find out the extent to which radio political campaign messages influence voters behavior during the 2019 general elections;
  2. To examine the influence of other political campaign techniques used by political parties to influence the decision of voters to their favor;
  3. To determine whether frequent exposure to both pro and against candidates radio political campaign messages influence voters’ decisions on the election day;
  4. To investigate the extent of the influence of opinion leaders among voters during elections;
  5. To examine the correlation between the influence of radio political campaign messages and the opinion leaders in relations to the voters’ behavior and election outcomes.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. To what extent do the radio political campaign messages influence voters’ behavior during 2019 elections in Abia – Nigeria?
  2. How do political campaign techniques other than radio used by political parties influence the decision of voters to their favor?
  3. Does frequent exposure to the positive or negative radio political campaign messages influence voters’ decision in favor or against candidates or political parties?
  4. To what extent do opinion leaders influence voters’ electoral behavior of their subordinates during elections?
  5. What is the correlation between the influence of radio political campaign messages and the opinion leaders in relations to the voters’ behavior during elections and the elections outcome?

1.5 Significance Of The Study

The past two decades witnessed increased use of political advertising in Nigeria as a tool for mobilizing electorate’s support for elections (Achor and Moguluwa, 2012). Prior to and during 2019 election in Bende Local Government Area, Abia State, as in other parts of Nigeria, political parties employed advertising to sell their parties’ manifestoes and candidates. Given the heated political atmosphere that pervaded Abia State prior to the elections, it was not quite clear whether the crafted political advertising messages significantly influenced the voting public.
This study will also serve as study material to academicians and researchers carrying out research on topics related to this study.

1.6 Scope Of The Study

The study used the opinions of eligible and registered voters in the last general elections regarding the Influence of political campaign radio on voters preference of candidates choice. For objectivity, this was balanced with the views of scholars in political campaign. The study was therefore limited to 2019 election in Bende Local Government Area, Abia State.

1.7 Limitation Of The Study

Financial constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

1.8 Organization Of The Study

The study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one deals with the study’s introduction and gives a background to the study. Chapter two reviews related and relevant literature.

The chapter three gives the research methodology while the chapter four gives the study’s analysis and interpretation of data.

The study concludes with chapter five which deals on the summary, conclusion and recommendation.

I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic

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How to nail it on the head during your project / seminar defence

You are through with writing that project / seminar. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.

Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.

Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.

Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.

Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.

Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.

Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.

Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.

These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.

The structure of a good project work

Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are

1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.

4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.

5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.

Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic

Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.

Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.

There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?

If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.

Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?

  1. The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
  2. The project topic itself must be meaningful.
  3. The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.

What do I mean by variable?

Well I am deriving my point from the area of project writing; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.

Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.

Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.

I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.

What do I mean by your topic being assessable?

Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.

If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.

Structure of a Seminar Paper

I feel like there is a lot of stress out there among grad students about writing seminar papers, especially when we’re told that our goal should be to make an original contribution to the field. That idea can be quite intimidating when we’re just starting out. It feels like you’ve asked us to jump off the deep end of the pool and we don’t know how to swim.

I think part of the problem is that we’re still working out how to structure seminar papers.** Each paper we write is another step closer to a successful, effective, and effective paper; however, we’re still flailing our arms (and other miscellaneous body parts) around because we’re uncertain of exactly how to go about it. I realize, of course, that there is no one right answer. However, below is my suggestion at sticking your toes in the water.

Section #1 — Introduction

Provide a little bit (or a lot) of motivation for the reader to read your entire paper. Failing that, your reader should know what the paper is going to be about by reading your introduction.

Paragraph #1 — Get some attention.

  1. Provide a context by citing a recent text in the field — the point that is cited may or may not be the main point of the text — it is what jumped out at you.
  2. Set-up broader context of what you’re going to do

Paragraph #2-?? — Define issue and the gap.

  1. Define issue and any key terms
  2. Limit scope as necessary
  3. Establish significance of issue
  4. State problem by defining the gap
  5. Explain how present research attempts to fill the gap
  6. Outline contributions (readers will see lit review for more detail.)
  7. End with thesis and preview organization of the rest of the paper

Section #2 — Literature Review

Give some credit where credit is due.

  1. Indicate the current state of the issue/problem/topic
  2. Define or qualify terms
  3. Engage sources in conversation with each other (don’t just copy in annotated bib)

Section #3 — Argument / Discussion

As stated in the Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing:wallow in those complexities!!

  1. Examine issue
  2. Argue how issue can be mitigated, mediated, or mashed
  3. Provide evidence and support
  4. Make some lively commentary along the way

Section #4 — Conclusion

We’re almost done. Don’t quit now.

  1. Summarize research question
  2. Qualify argument/discussion if you need to
  3. Explain where we go now
  4. End well

Section #5 — Works Cited

Double check

Is everything listed on the works cited?

Tips: it’s ok to use sub-headings to keep yourself organized.

Tips On How To Know What Your Supervisor Is Looking Out For In Your Project

Apparently all schools/colleges ask their undergraduates especially the final students to write their final year project before they are certified to be graduates. These projects are mostly discovery activities geared towards problems solving or basically to make new discoveries or better still have a better understanding of a problem with the aim of proffering better solutions.

With this assigned task an undergraduate will need an advisor, a counselor or a supervisor to guide and direct this activity for a desired result and a successful ending and of course, in return the supervisor have factors to look out for in a student project, so that the aim of the project writing will not be defeated.

As a final year student planning to write your final year project, there are some factors you need to consider when trying to have a good working relationship with your supervisor and you must have the below tips at your fingertips to know what your supervisor look at for in your project.

Selecting the right topic or title:

The supervisor would want to know how knowledgeable one is, in a chosen topic and how far one can go with the topic by asking one diverse questions which could be simple or a bit tough. So one thing is to choose a right topic and another thing is to be knowledgeable about the said topic.

The relevancy of the project topic to the degree course:

This is one of the important things a supervisor looks out for in a project. A final year project must have a purpose and objectives and most importantly be problem solving and must be related to the course of study. So a project topic should be relevant and interesting.

The realistic plan for the project:

A project supervisor will always look at how realistic a project topic is. Will the project aims be achieved and at the specified time. If it will outlived the specified time such topic might be dropped and a new topic adopted to run the set time and fulfill its purpose.

Quality of research materials available:

Another factor a supervisor will consider in project writing by a student is the quality of the materials available for research on the chosen project topic, can materials and information be readily available and are those materials of high standard and convincing not just bogus and fictitious analysis but materials that research has be carried out by scholars related to course of study. So a source of materials used for a project is very important and most supervisors look out for this.

The funding channels:

Almost all project writing needs a good amount of funding to achieved the desired aim, A supervisor would always want to find out how the project will be funded, so as not to have hitches when the project is on. So to have a smooth working relationship with ones project supervisor, the funding of the project must be considered and revisited from time to time. Because a supervisor will look out for this aspect too.

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