Influence Of Parents Occupation And Educational Status On Senior Secondary School Student’s Choice Of Career In Delta Central Senatorial District, Delta State
This study was carried out to examine the influence of parents occupation and educational status on senior secondary school student’s choice of career in Delta Central Senatorial District, Delta State. To achieve this, four significant research quested were posed. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of SS2 students from the selected secondary schools in Delta Central Senatorial District, Delta State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 170respondents while 150 were received and validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency table and mean score. While the hypothesis were tested using Pearson Correlation statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that there is a relationship between parent’s occupation and career choice of senior secondary school students. The findings also revealed that there is a relationship between parents educational status and career choice of senior secondary school students. Furthermore, the study showed there is a relationship between sex and career preference of senior secondary school students. In regard to the findings, the study recommends that parents should cautiously avoid the tendency of pushing their children into pursuing those ‘wishful heights’ in their careers that they were unable to attain in a bid to accomplish their ‘own failings’. And parents should employ the assistance of professional career counsellors in helping their children to make intelligent career decisions in line with their aptitude and abilities.
1.1 Background to the Study
In this era of unemployment, choosing the right career by young adolescents will pave way for employment opportunities for him or her in future. career preference of the young adolescent has become an area of interest because educational planners have become aware of the dangers and frustrations suffered by some adolescents who find themselves in wrong career selection (Alika & Egbochukwu, 2018). According to Agboola (2013), career selection is one of many important choices students will make in determining future plans. This decision might affect them throughout their lives. The essence of who the student is, will revolve around what he or she wants to do with his/her life-long work.
At adolescence stage people make their career related decisions which could have impact and consequences on the individuals vocational future, psychological well-being and even health. The skills needed to make appropriate career decisions are very central to the psychological adjustment of the adolescent. While some adolescents do this with ease, others may have difficulties in making appropriate choices. (Scott, Repucci, and Woodlard, 1995).
Career is a chosen pursuit, a life of work or success in a profession occupied by a person throughout his/her lifetime. In other words, career is the totality of work one does in his life time. (Ipaye, 2010). Career plays a very fundamental and significant role in the life of the individual not only because it determines the pattern of income but also affects the individual’s personality and concepts in life. A Career is the sequence of occupation in which one engages in. Some persons may retain or remain in the same occupation through their life span while others may have a series of life occupations. (Egbochuku, 2016). A career could also be defined as the sum total of life experience including paid or unpaid work, community, volunteer and family activities. Kinanee (2014). Therefore, career can be seen as a product of career preference. Career preference may be defined as the aspect or types of work that people show more interest in and will most likely improves in its, that is work people like doing or like to do; for example, some might prefer to be self-employed rather than work in an office. Egbochuku (2018) believes that the career a person prefers is an expression of the individual’s personality. In the sense that, the choice of career one prefers determines to a large extent, how time will be spent, who will be chosen as friends, what attitudes and values will be adopted, where one will reside and what pattern of family living will be adopted.
In Nigeria, many youths go into unsuitable careers due to ignorance, inexperience, peer pressure, parents and teachers influence and they may also prefer the prestige attached to certain jobs without considering mental abilities and personality traits. Salami, (2000). Consequently, many of them are unsuited for their careers as they usually find themselves in a job where they could not satisfy their needs. When this occurs, they are likely to become frustrated and constitute nuisance to themselves and the society. Such individuals are not likely to contribute meaningfully to the society and ultimately become liability to the nation.
Alika and Osa-Edoh (2009) identified parental attitude, parental income, peer pressure as factors influencing career choice. Student’s careers have equally been studied with different frameworks. Many of them have focused on parents education, occupation or home background (like family income, language or the home activities of the family and work methods). Adeyemo, (2011). Studied variables such as attitude, self-efficacy, self-esteem, self-concept or parents support such as motivation of wards, parental attitudes towards education, the aspiration of parents amidst these factors presumed to have relationship with career preference. Therefore, it becomes necessary to determine which of the factors that could relate with students career preference and of interest to the researcher is parental educational attainment and occupational status.
Parental educational attainment could be a factor that can influence students career preference. Educational attainment of parents refers to the qualification of an individual, that is, level of education acquired by an individual for example, non-formal education, primary or secondary school certificate, Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE) and National Diploma (ND), Higher National Diploma (HND) Bachelor of Science (B.Sc), Master of Science (M.Sc), Masters in Education (M.Ed) and P.hD with a higher level of education parents are more likely to function as a teacher in the home, and provide a balance emotional stability as well as stimulating environment. This implies that the educational background of parents could influence how they structure their home environment and their interaction with their children in promoting their career preference. (Davis, 2005). The study of Alika and Audu (2011) revealed that among the factors that affect career decision making and career development, level of parents education is also significant. In other words, adolescent from a well-educated and higher income family is expected to attain more education and aspire to higher status occupation. This was supported by Musgrave (2000), he opined that a child that comes from an educated home would like to go into career of his/her family and by this, work actively in his/her studies relating to parents occupational status.
Parent’s occupational status is the social and professional position of parent’s occupation in relation to others. In other words, it is the position or status of one’s occupation when compared to other available occupation like the unskilled occupation. Many adolescents enter into different occupation, which they neither have aptitude nor capacity for. This might be due to the fact that their parents want them to either inherit their vocation for maintaining their status or live the life they would have loved to live (Egbochuku, 2008).
The study of Rothman, (2014) shows that the most important factors associated with career preference of children appear to be occupational status which determines their socio-economic status. Similarly, Otto (2010) said that ninety-three percent of secondary school students in his study reported holding similar occupations and values to their parents. This is significant because it dispels the myth that children and adolescents tend to defy their parents’ values and expectations. Instead, it may be more accurate to say that children are quick to adopt their parent’s occupations and values, perhaps without ever exploring their own. This may be due to children’s natural desire to connect with their parents (Poulter, 2016). As a result, they are likely to leave out their career preferences and aspirations while adopting their parental values and occupation especially if the society rates such occupations higher than the others and are treated preferentially by others based on prestige and their unique salary packages. This is the reason why many youths according to Watts and Law (2012) choose career like law, engineering, medicine, banking because most society has rated these group of careers high. This study therefore, seeks to examine the influence of parents occupation and educational status on senior secondary school student’s choice of career in Delta Central Senatorial District, Delta State.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Career decisions tend to pose problem for students in the contemporary society, since it determines the kind of profession that they intend to pursue in life. That is why it is not uncommon for students to get into careers that are not quite suitable to their abilities. Parental educational background on the other hand, tends to be one of the most influential factor in students career preference. More often than not, parents owing to level of education or personal idea tend to put pressure on their wards into taking up family occupations and other careers such as prestigious jobs e.g. Medicine, Engineering, Law and so on, even when they do not possess requisite abilities. Miller, (2010). The tendency may also be there for the children to identify with their parents by taking up their occupations. Moreover, in the traditional African society, there was tendency towards encouraging youths to enter the profession owned by family in order to jealously guide the skill owned by their parents. Kinanee, (2014). As a result of these pressure from parents, the students may end up being dissatisfied, frustrated and unable to be effective on the said job that parents had chosen for them. But, an individual who has chosen career that he/she prefers may derive satisfaction and fulfillment in life and therefore contribute meaningfully towards national development.
In addition to these, a wrong choice is a bane to planning in terms of furthering education or technical training, which one is expected to undergo before actually entering the occupation. It may lead to job insecurity; faulty planning, can mar ones happiness for life and could cause occupational maladjustment. This may also directly or indirectly lead to emotional maladjustment. Secondary school students are likely to encounter conflicts with their parents and crises in their choice of career, if they are not properly guided before choosing their career. Lack of appropriate career information made available to the adolescent and career guidance by parents, teachers and counselors might lead to frustration and unhappy individuals. Therefore, there is need to empirically investigate the influence of parents occupation and educational status on senior secondary school student’s choice of career in Delta Central Senatorial District, Delta State.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The major purpose of this study is to examine the influence of parents occupation and educational status on senior secondary school student’s choice of career in Delta Central Senatorial District, Delta State. Specifically, this study seeks to:
- Determine whether parents’ occupation influences the career choice of secondary school students Delta State.
- Determine whether parents’ educational status influences the career choice of secondary school students in Delta State.
- Determine whether gender influences the career choice of students in Delta State.
1.4 Research Questions
To guide this study, three (3) research questions were raised.
- Does parents’ occupation influence the career choice of secondary school students Delta State?
- Does parents’ educational status influence the career choice of secondary school students in Delta State?
- Does gender influence the career choice of students in Delta State?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
- There will be no significant relationship between parent’s educational attainment and career preference of secondary school students.
- There will be no significant relationship between parents occupational status and career preference of secondary school students.
- There will be no significant relationship between sex of senior secondary school students.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The Nigerian education system is progressively becoming more and more complex. Studies have shown, that Nigerian youths and school leavers are vocationally maladjusted. This seems to suggest faulty vocational education system as school leavers are faced with the problem of inability to relate education to employment opportunities in the world of work. This problem is as a result of inadequate career information and decision making.
Based on this, the research work contains the researcher contributions that would be of help and useful to education planners, authorities, parents, school teachers/educators, guidance counselors and students in senior schools towards helping students to improve on their career choice decision.
It is expected that the result of this study will help the principals and teachers to embark on vocational guidance and counselling programme in other to prepare her students for entry into the world of work, transition from school to work or into t he wider society.
It is also hoped that this study will help the parents to always guide their children towards choosing career congruent to their intellectual abilities. It will also give students the opportunities of seeing their loopholes and knowing how to make amendments in a career decision.
1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
The content scope of this study will cover investigation regarding how parents’ educational attainment and occupational status correlates students career preference. The study will be delimited to selected Senior Secondary School II in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
An occupation or profession, especially one requiring special training, followed as one’s life work.
Career preference is the career field which one prefers or it is a job an individual shows more interest in.
Educational Attainment of Parents:
That refers to the qualification of the parent of an individuals.
This refers the position of the parent in terms of occupation such as civil servant and so on.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on the influence of parents occupation and educational status on senior secondary school student’s choice of career in Delta Central Senatorial District, Delta State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was onthe influence of parents occupation and educational status on senior secondary school student’s choice of career in Delta Central Senatorial District, Delta State.The study is was specifically set to determine whether parents’ occupation influences the career choice of secondary school students Delta State, determine whether parents’ educational status influences the career choice of secondary school students in Delta State, and determine whether gender influences the career choice of students in Delta State.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are SS2 students from the selected secondary schools in Delta Central Senatorial District, Delta State.
Choosing a career is one important decision every youth or individual has to make at some time of their life. However, parents/guardians have become more active in helping their children/wards make the right career choices. And as such has a certain influence on children career choice. In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.
- There is a relationship between parents educational attainment and career preference of senior secondary school students.
- There is a relationship between parent’s occupational status and career preference of senior secondary school students.
- There is a relationship between sex and career preference of senior secondary school students.
The following recommendations were proffered with respect to the findings of the study;
- Parents should cautiously avoid the tendency of pushing their children into pursuing those ‘wishful heights’ in their careers that they were unable to attain in a bid to accomplish their ‘own failings’.
- Parents should employ the assistance of professional career counsellors in helping their children to make intelligent career decisions in line with their aptitude and abilities.
- The place of guidance counsellors in schools should not just be theoretically recognized by the Federal Government of Nigeria, but should also be practically implemented in schools by ensuring that every Nigerian child in secondary school has access to the services of guidance counsellors for adequate career guidance. This can be achieved by establishing guidance and career centres in every local government; ensuring every school has one guidance and counselling unit with at least one qualified guidance counsellor and trainee assistants in secondary schools.
Influence Of Parents Occupation And Educational Status On Senior Secondary School Student’s Choice Of Career In Delta Central Senatorial District, Delta State
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