Influence Of Parenting Childrearing Style On In-School Adolescent Deviant Behavior In Ilorin Metropolis

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Influence Of Parenting Childrearing Style On In-School Adolescent Deviant Behavior In Ilorin Metropolis


Abstract


This research work is carried out in order to investigate childrearing styles on in-school adolescent deviant bevehaviour in Ilorin metropolis. This study sought to determine the parenting childrearing styles on in-school adolescent on the basis on democratic, authoritarians, authoritative and laise faire styles (Ilorin metropolis). A self-developed questionnaire tagged questionnaire on parenting childrearing styles on in-school adolescent deviant bevehaviour (PCRTSADB)) was used to collect data from the respondents for the study. Five research hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 alpha level of significance, data collected were analyzed through analysis of variance (ANOVA). From the finding, the study revealed that parental childrearing style can influence in-school adolescents to deviant behavior when children are not allowed to do wrong thing, the wishes of children are treated with maturity and when the children are allowed to express their feelings among others and there were no significant differences in the influence of parental childrearing on in-school adolescent deviant behaviour in Ilorin metropolis on the basis of gender, educational qualification, age, religion and family type. Therefore, the following recommendations were made that counsellors should develop strategies to handle influence of parental childrearing style on in-school adolescent deviant behaviour in Ilorin Metropolis and counsellor should encourage the formation of club that will promote safe and responsible of children against deviant behaviour (peer counselling)


Table of Contents


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgements
  • Table of contents
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • Background to the Study
  • Statement of the Problem
  • Purpose of the Study
  • Research Questions
  • Research Hypotheses
  • Significance of the Study
  • Scope of the Study
  • Operational Definition of Terms

Chapter Two:

Review of Related Literature

  • Concept of Parental Childrearing Styles
  • Concept of Adolescence
  • Childrearing Styles on in-School Adolescents’ Deviant Behaviour
  • Theoretical Framework
  • Empirical Review
  • Summary of Literature of Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • Preamble
  • Research Design
  • Population, Sample and Sampling Techniques
  • Instrumentation
  • Validity
  • Reliability
  • Method of Scoring
  • Administration of the Instrument
  • Method of Data Analysis

Chapter Four:

Data Analysis and Results

  • Data analysis, Presentation and Results

Chapter Five:

Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • Preamble
  • Discussions
  • Conclusions
  • Implications
  • Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


Introduction

Background of the Study

Education is the medium by which an individual achieves success in his/her life, in the society and in the world, and it lays the foundation of personality (Kumar, 2017). According to the Mauritian Ministry of Education and Human Resources (2014), the secondary school provides an education that enables the fulfilment of the four pillars of the Delors Report, namely learning to know, learning to do, learning to be, and learning to live together. It should also provide the adolescent student with the necessary skills that allow him/her to adjust easily and smoothly to the rapid physical, emotional, mental and social changes (Garcia & Santiago, 2017).

Indeed, every child is unique in itself and has its own pace of growth and development. As the child grows up, his emotions and social functioning changes and continues till adolescence. Adolescence is that critical period of human development during which rapid biological, psychological and social changes take place. This period marks the end of childhood and sets the foundation for maturity. Adolescence is defined as the period of transition between childhood to adulthood that involves biological, cognitive, and socio-emotional changes. During this period, parents expect more self-regulation and initiative at the very time that their early teenagers are beginning to experiment with all kinds of risky behaviors (Barber, 2002). Anecdotal evidence and self-report data suggest that, children seem to become progressively self-conscious and concerned with other people’s opinions as they go through puberty and the period of adolescence (Steinberg, 2011).

Adolescents begin to assert more autonomous control over their decisions, emotions and actions, and start to disengage from parental control. At the same time, the school context involves an intense socialization process during which adolescents become increasingly aware of the perspectives of classmates, teachers and other societal influences (Berzonsky and Adams, 2003). Right from infancy, children learn and acquire traits and behaviours that they exhibit throughout their life time. During socialization, parents and significant others in the society endeavour to form children in such a way as to make them acquire worthwhile virtues cherished by the society. It is believed that there are some roles that are better performed by parents which children tend to accept most readily than any other person in their life. Since parental roles are essentially formative, their influence in the socialization of children cannot be over-emphasized. Researchers are of the view that the type of family a child comes from and the parenting style of the child’s parents is likely to influence the child’s social behaviour (Olds & Papilia, 2011; Baltus, 2012). One of the basic components of the society is the family. The family is the first institution of the socialization and from where the child learns cooperation and other social skills. This is the first family unit for the child.

According to Macionis & Plummer (2007), a family unit is a social group of two or more people related by blood or adoption that usually live together. Individuals are born into a family. Eke (2000) defined a family as a social unit or group characterized by common residence, economic co-operation and reproduction. The family therefore includes adults of both sexes, two of whom maintain a socially approved sexual relationship with one or more children biologically owned or adopted. Berndth (2007) stated that, the single parent family has been one of the fastest growing types in most parts of the world. Single parent family has come into existence as a result of divorce, dissertation, death, separation and out-of-wedlock births. Children from such families may suffer from guilt and loneliness, feelings of anger to mention a few. Young ones in single parent families’ contend with intense emotions due to their parents’ abrupt departure or death. For many adolescents, the absence of one of the parent’s seems to have profound negative effect on them. Another family type is the stepparent family, Berndit (2007) pointed out that, this type of family comes into existence as a result of either a parent’s divorce or death. He further stated that children in this type of family are found not to be well adjusted at school. They manifest behaviour problems and perform poorly at school, and their behaviour is like those of single parent families. The Children tend to react negatively if one of their divorced parents remarries and they become part of a new family described as step family. Problem arises because children at this stage of development are expected to be under authority to be carefully monitored. Also in step parent’s family, monitoring is inadequate; the children suffer from a number of behavioural disorders (Berndit, 2007).

Parenting styles are persistent approaches, strategies and standards parents use in bringing up their children. They involve how parents respond to children’s psychological and material needs, and what parents’ demands from their children. Parenting styles are unique and evolve as children develop their personalities (Eriega, 2014; Collins as cited in Olds and Papilia, 2011). Most of the studies on parenting styles have emphasized that the kind of parenting style adopted by parents has monumental impact on children’s attitude, academic achievement, social life and career choice (Maccoby & Martin 2013). This underscores why children raised in entirely different environments with the same kind of parenting tend to exhibit similar characteristics and behaviours. Different parenting styles produce different characteristic traits of children including those demonstrated at school. Research suggests that parenting styles and the quality of a parent and adolescent relationship may have an impact on the social development of adolescents.

An adolescent’s emotions, autonomy, achievement, and identity are all brought about by the parenting style adopted by the adolescent’s parent. The manner in which children are raised is crucial to their total development. The way parents respond to children’s needs and relate with them has a tremendous impact in the development of their personality and their interaction with society resulting to deviant behaviour. Angel (2015) opined that deviant behaviour is any behaviour that lacks conformity and acceptability of people in the society.

Deviant behaviour describes an action or behaviour that significantly contravene from the accepted or prescribed norms of a given society or school. It is a deviation that attracts punishment or sanctions in the society or school. Diche (2016) posited that deviant behaviour is a behaviour that violates the laid down rules and regulations of a given organization or group. He also emphasize that deviant behaviour is a common phenomenon in the life of every human being but, stress that it is rampant among students in schools which has led them in joining secrets cults, and other heinous crimes in the school. Against this background, this study examines the influence of parenting childrearing styles on in-school adolescent deviant bevehaviour in Ilorin Metropolis of Kwara State
Statement of the Problem

Overtime, it is observed that majority of children are engage in deviant behaviour due to parenting childrearing styles of many homes. It is on the duty of every reasonable parent to address the changing behaviour of their children. High increase in deviant behaviour high rate of early school dropouts in both girls and boys, increase in street children and high rate of crime, both in towns and rural settings, can be linked to poor parental childrearing in the early child development (White, 2000). It was also established that majority of the children involved in deviant behaviour, seem to be either staying alone or may be staying far from their families, with their peers. Additionally, they also opt to engage in detrimental lifestyles of drugs, alcoholism, and sexual crimes.

Melgosa, (2002) noted that alcoholic parents with criminal behaviour are strict, too lax or inconsistent with problematic relationships which favour delinquent behaviour in children. Few attempts have been made to clearly outline the major causal factors. Legal framework to substitute the ban on corporal punishment as the problem of indiscipline among students is getting out of hand (Kweyu, 2006.). Little however, has been done to identify the most significant factors, which would enable advocates to arrive at more comprehensive measures to address the problem. Additionally, little research has been done on parenting styles as a factor in deviant behaviour in Nigeria. Since children’s behaviour is greatly influenced by others (parents, teachers and peers). The gap this study intends to fill is that little studies have carried out in Ilorin metropolis on aspect of parenting childrearing styles on in-school adolescent deviant behaviour. Against this background, this study examines the influence of parenting childrearing styles on in-school adolescent deviant bevehaviour in Ilorin Metropolis of Kwara State.


Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated to guide the study.

  1. What is the influence of parental childrearing styles on in-school adolescent deviant bevehaviour?
  2. Is there any significant difference in influence of parental childrearing values expected of adolescent against deviant bevehaviour on bases of gender?
  3. Is there any significant difference in influence of parental childrearing values expected of adolescent against deviant bevehaviour on bases of education qualification?
  4. Is there any significant difference in influence of parental childrearing values expected of adolescent against deviant bevehaviour on bases of age?
  5. Is there any significant difference in influence of parental childrearing values expected of adolescent against deviant bevehaviour on bases of type of school
  6. Is there any significant difference in influence of parental childrearing values expected of adolescent against deviant bevehaviour on bases of type of family?

Research Hypotheses

In other to examine the influence of parenting childrearing styles on in-school adolescent deviant bevehaviour in Ilorin Metropolis of Kwara State. The following null hypotheses are formulated to guide the study.

  1. There is no significance difference in the influence of parental childrearing-on-in-school adolescent of deviant bevehaviour on the basis of gender.
  2. There is no significance difference in the influence of parental childrearing on-in-school adolescent of deviant bevehaviour in Ilorin Metropolis of Kwara State on the bases of qualification
  3. There is no significance difference in the influence of parental childrearing in-on -school adolescent of deviant bevehaviour on the basis of type of school
  4. There is no significance difference in the influence of parental childrearing in-on -school adolescent of deviant bevehaviour based on age
  5. There is no significance difference in influence of parental childrearing values expected of adolescent against deviant bevehaviour on bases of type of family

Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to examine the influence of parenting childrearing styles on in-school adolescent deviant bevehaviour in Ilorin Metropolis of Kwara State.


Significance of the Study

The findings of this study would be useful to parents, students, government, counselors and those that see parental childrearing styles on in-school adolescent deviant behaviour as an important element.

The finding will help parents to understand why it is crucial to train and moderate children behaviour so as to prevent them from being involved in deviant behaviour when they grow up. Looking at the crime statistics, it appears to be on the upward trend and this would be worrying both to the parents and Government authorities. The study would therefore help in equipping and provide knowledge and skills to parents in order to assist them in effective parenting. It would also provide parents with theoretical framework on issues related to parental childrearing styles on deviant behaviour of children.

Moreover, the outcome of the study would be useful to students from an act such as deviant activities and behaviour against parental styles in Ilorin Metropolis. The finding of this study would also serve as instrument for counselors to use in solving problems relating to parental childrearing on in- school adolescent deviant behavior among students in Ilorin Metropolis and beyond. i.e it will help to create discipline in the life of adolescents. When this is done there will be sanity, peace and order, which will enhance the moral tone of the school as well as the society. It will also help the counselor to know the right technique to adopt in modifying negative deviant behaviou. To the teacher-the teacher will equally benefits from the finding of the study because the finding will help them know what is expected of them as they are role model.

Finally, the finding of this study would be useful to government on the need to put in place mechanisms that would prevent deviant behaviour among adolescent on parental childrearing styles in Ilorin metropolis. Finally, the results of the work will be of great help to future researchers. This will be a source of research materials or empirical data for them


Scope of the Study

This study covers the influence of parental childrearing styles on in-school adolescent deviant bevehaviour in Ilorin Metropolis of Kwara State. Parent and adolescent in Ilorin metropolis would be used for the study. Different parental styles, accepted bahavioural values and people to consult in development of better behaviour on in-school adolescent deviant behaviour would be covered in the study. The population for this study parents and adolescent in Ilorin Metropolis. Due to the nature of this study, the actual population could not be ascertaining as the target population are in different place and some may not to what to be available for the study. Simple random sampling technique would be use to select 100 people for the study


Operational Definition of Terms

Parental styles:

Parenting styles are persistent approaches, strategies and standards parents use in bringing up their children in Ilorin Metropolis

Adolescence:

Adolescence is defined as the period of transition between childhood to adulthood that involves biological, cognitive, and socio-emotional changes in Ilorin Metropolis

Deviant behaviour:

Deviant behaviour is any behaviour that lacks conformity and acceptability of people in the society


Chapter Five


Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations

Preamble

The purpose of this study was to find out the influence of parenting childrearing styles on in-school adolescent deviant behaviour in Ilorin Metropolis of Kwara State. This chapter presented discussion, implication and recommendations. The researcher used a-16 items questionnaire to obtain information on the influence of parental childrearing style on in-school adolescent deviant behaviour. The data was subjected to ANOVA and t-test analysis. The entire hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha level of significance.


Discussion

Table 1 shows the distribution of respondents by gender. The results indicated that, out of the 220 respondents that participated in the study, 108 (49.1%) are males while females accounted for 112 (50.9%). This implies that female respondents participated more than male respondent in the study. Table 2 shows the distribution of respondents by educational qualification. The results indicated that, out of the 220 respondents that participated in the study, 156 (70.9%) of the respondents had Primary or Secondary School Certificates, 24 (10.9%) had National Diploma (ND) or National Certification in Education (NCE) or Higher National Diploma (HND), 35 (15.9%) of the respondents had Bachelor or Master’s Degree while only 5 (2.3%) were Ph.D. holders. This implies that respondents with Primary or Secondary School education participated most in the study.

Table 3 shows respondents distribution by age shows that 152 (69.1%) of the respondents were in the age range of 20-23 years old, 44 (20.0%) were in between 31 and 40 years old, while 24 (10.9%) of them were 41 years and above. This implies that respondent with the age range of 20 to 23 years old participated most in the study. Table 4 shows distribution by religion shows that 32 (15.5%) of the respondents were practicing Christianity while 188 (85.5%) were practicing Islam. This implies that respondents who were practicing Islam participated more in the study. Table 5 shows the distribution of respondents by family type. The results indicated that, out of the 220 respondents that participated in the study, 151 (68.6%) are from polygamous family type while 69 (31.4%) are from polygamous family type. This indicates that respondents from polygamous family type participated more in the study.
Results from table 6 above reveals the mean ranking of the influence of parental childrearing style on in-school adolescent’ deviant behaviour. It is observed that items 9, 12 and 10 ranked as top 3. Item 9 (children are not allowed to do wrong thing) ranked 1st with the highest mean score of 3.11; followed by item 12 (the wishes of children are treated with maturity) which ranked 2nd with the mean score of 3.04 while item 10 (when the children are allowed to express their feelings) ranked 3rd with the mean score of 2.93.

The results further reveals that items 6, 8 and 1 were ranked low; with item 6 (actions are not monitored) ranking 14th with the mean score of 2.37, followed by item 8 (the children are not punished for their wrong doings) which ranked 15th with the mean score of 2.33 while item 1 (parents are too harsh) ranked least (16th) with the mean score of 2.03. However, since the grand mean score is greater than the reference standard mean, it can thus be inferred that parental childrearing style has a positive influence on in-school adolescent behaviour. This is supported by Hurlock (2012) that a child who is exposed to such parental style would be honest, polite and careful but may also be shy, docile and self conscious, permissive and sensitive.

The first hypothesis revealed that there is no significant difference in the influence of parental childrearing on in-school adolescent deviant behaviour on the basis of gender. This shows that calculated t-value of 0.11 is less than the critical t-value of 1.96 with a corresponding p-value of 0.07 which is greater than 0.05 alpha level of significance. Since p-value is greater than the alpha level, the null hypothesis is therefore not rejected. This implies that male and female respondents were of the same perceptions regarding the influence of parental childrearing on in-school adolescent. Obidoa, and Ifelunni (2010) revealed that male adolescent involve in deviant behaviour than female counterpart.

The second hypothesis also revealed that there is no significant difference in the influence of parental childrearing on in-school adolescent deviant behaviour on the basis of education. This shows that there is no significant difference in the influence of parental childrearing on in-school adolescent deviant behaviour on the basis of educational qualification (F3, 216 = .74, p > 0.05). Therefore the null hypothesis is not rejected. This implies that educational qualification has no influence of parental childrearing of in-school adolescent’ deviant behaviour. This is also concur by Iwuama (2017) who opined that teachers and counselors who understand those adolescents and their problems can do much to help them make successful transition to adult status.

The third hypothesis there is no significant difference in the influence of parental childrearing on in-school adolescent deviant behaviour on the basis of age. This shows that there is no significant difference in the influence of parental childrearing on in-school adolescent deviant behaviour on the basis of age (F2, 217 = 1.62, p > 0.05). Therefore the null hypothesis is not rejected. This implies that age does not influence parental childrearing of in-school adolescent’ deviant behaviour. Nzewi (2016) supported the finding of this study that adolescents are usually more open with their peers than with adults and often discuss things among themselves that they are reluctant to talk about with an adult in a dyadic relationship

The fourth hypothesis shows that there is no significant difference in the influence of parental childrearing on in-school adolescent deviant behaviour on the basis of religion. The calculated t-value of 1.36 is less than the critical t-value of 1.96 with a corresponding p-value of 0.18 which is greater than 0.05 alpha level of significance. Since p-value is greater than the alpha level, the null hypothesis is therefore not rejected. This implies that religious affiliation does not intervene with parental childrearing on in-school adolescent. Afuape (2010) supported that children brought up in such an atmosphere or sect of religion who do not care about the attitude of children will have the tendency to use drugs to solve most of their problems and develop a positive attitude towards cultism.
The fifty hypothesis shows that there is no significant difference in the influence of parental childrearing on in-school adolescent deviant behaviour on the basis of family type. The calculated t-value of 0.10 is less than the critical t-value of 1.96 with a corresponding p-value of 0.92 which is greater than 0.05 alpha level of significance. Since p-value is greater than the alpha level, the null hypothesis is therefore not rejected. This implies that family type has no influence on parental childrearing on in-school adolescent deviant’ behaviour. Afuape (2010) opined that poor parental background is one of the prominent factors why students join cults. He revealed in his study that many cultists are products of broken homes where parents have little or no time for moral upbringing of their children. In the same vein, Ogunmameru (2004) posited that the collapse of the family institution is a contributing factor predisposing students to join secret cults.


Conclusion

Based on the analysis of the data and interpretation of the results, the following conclusion were drawn

  1. Parental childrearing style influences in-school adolescents to deviant behavior by not allowing the children to do wrong thing; treating the children wishing with maturity and by allowing the children to express their feelings among others.
  2. There were no significant differences in the influence of parental childrearing on in-school adolescent deviant behaviour in Ilorin metropolis on the basis of gender.
  3. There were no significant differences in the influence of parental childrearing on in-school adolescent deviant behaviour in Ilorin metropolis on the basis of educational qualification.
  4. There were no significant differences in the influence of parental childrearing on in-school adolescent deviant behaviour in Ilorin metropolis on the basis of age,
  5. There were no significant differences in the influence of parental childrearing on in-school adolescent deviant behaviour in Ilorin metropolis on the basis of religion.
  6. There were no significant differences in the influence of parental childrearing on in-school adolescent deviant behaviour in Ilorin metropolis on the basis of religion family type.

Implications for Counseling Practice

The findings of this study have implications for counselling practice. The study concluded that parental childrearing style can influence in-school adolescents to deviant behaviour when: children are not allowed to do wrong thing, the wishes of children are treated with maturity and when the children are allowed to express their feelings among others. The implication of the findings is that counsellors can assist children on how to be of good child to their parents and devoid of deviant behaviour in the society. Counselling strategies can be employed to analyse menace of deviant behavour exhibits by children


Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that:

  1. Counsellors should develop strategies to handle influence of parental childrearing style on in-school adolescent deviant behaviour in Ilorin Metropolis
  2. Counsellor should encourage the formation of club that will promote safe and responsible of children against deviant behaviour (peer counselling)
  3. Parents, teachers and school counsellors should work collaboratively to identify and assist students with or prone to deviant beviour before it will have devastating consequences on the upbringing
  4. Government should organise seminars and conferencnes that would deter adolescent from engaging in act of deviant behaviours
  5. The study also recommends that NGO in the state should encourage adolescents to shun act of deviant behaviour through their campaigns and orientations.
  6. Media organisation in the state should assist in broadcasting programmes that would scare away adolescents from an act of deviant behaiour in the state.
  7. The law enforcement agencies should put more efforts in arresting adolescent involve in act of deviant behaviours

Suggestions for Further Studies

This study focused on influence of parenting childrearing styles on in-school adolescent deviant bevehaviour in Ilorin Metropolis of Kwara State. The research would suggest that further studies should be conducted by researchers in future in the state and other parts of the country in Nigeria. The researchers can investigate the following:

  1. Deviant behaviour and academic performance among adolescents
  2. Management of deviant of behaviour among adolescents

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Influence Of Parenting Childrearing Style On In-School Adolescent Deviant Behavior In Ilorin Metropolis

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