Influence Of Parental Socio-Economic Status On Career Aspirations Among Secondary School Mathematics Student

Mathematics Education Project Material

Influence Of Parental Socio-Economic Status On Career Aspirations Among Secondary School Mathematics Student


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine theinfluence of parental socio-economic status on career aspirations among secondary school mathematics student in Kokona LGA of Nasarawa State.The study was specifically set tofind out if there is a significant relationship between parental socioeconomic status and the career aspiration of students, determine whether parental level of income influences the career aspiration of mathematics students in secondary school, ascertain whether parental nature of occupation influences the career aspiration of mathematics students in secondary school and ascertain parental educational background influences the career aspiration of mathematics students in secondary school. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of mathematics student in some selected secondary school in Kokona LGA of Nasarawa State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 229 respondents and 210 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that there is a significant relationship between parental socioeconomic status and the career aspiration of students.Furthermore the result of the findings reveals that parental educational background influences the career aspiration of mathematics students in secondary school. Therefore, it is recommended that parents play a key role in career selection process of their children. They provide moral support, discuss, monitor and reward academic progress; encourage children to seek information on careers, and provide learning resources, as wellas sharing relevant learning experiences with their children. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Inthe present era of globalization and technological revolution, education is considered as a crucial step for every human activity and also regarded as the lifeline for efficient and suitable stable development of human society. Education provides the base for socio-economic development. An educational system which is of poor quality should be considered one of the most important factors hindering poor and developing countries from advancing socially and economically. In Nigeria, education is always considered of great importance as documented by almost every regime but still quality of education lacks, in terms of better schools, trained teachers, good infrastructure and needs improvement.

Parental involvement takes many forms including good parenting in the home, including the provision of a secure and stable environment, intellectual stimulation, parent-child discussion, good models of constructive social and educational values and high aspirations relating to personal fulfilment and good citizenship; contact with schools to share information; participation in school events; participation in the work of the school; and participation in school governance. Socioeconomic status affects children’s academic achievement.

According to Uche (1994) children from parents with high socio-economic status are likely provided with high quality private education from nursery up to university level. Given this opportunity, it is likely that such children will be less delinquent than their counterpart from lower socio-economic background. However from an empirical study by Coughin and Vuchimah (1996), there is a relationship between family socio-economic status and juvenile delinquency. Female secondary school students tend to act out as a result of low level of support from their mother while boys tend to act out as a result of low level parental mentoring; however the study concludes that family structure is not a predictor of juvenile delinquency, low parental monitoring did seem to predict higher drug use, Dishon and Loeber (1985). In another study on child rearing style and students’dishonest behavior by Ajake and Bisong (2008), child rearing style is a function of family socio-economic status. Significant difference exist between respondents from autocratic child rearing family and those from democratic homes in lying, stealing and truancy, in each case autocratically reared subjects are more vulnerable to delinquency. Again a significant difference exist between subjects reared under democratic child rearing style and their counterpart reared under the laissez-faire rearing style in lying, stealing and truancy. In each case, those who are brought under the laissez-faire families are the more vulnerable.

Blau and Duncan (1967) and Duncan and Featherman (1972) showed a strong positive correlation between family SES and an individual’s occupational aspirations and attainment. Sewell, Haller, and Straus’ (1957) survey of secondary school seniors showed a positive relationship between SES and educational and occupational aspirations of young women. Sewell and Shaw (1967), in a later study, concluded that for women, SES has a greater effect than intelligence on selection of attendance to and graduation from college.

Okeke(1973) study of illiterate low class families in Nigeria found that their children expressed a desire to engage in better occupations and strive for better education than their parents. The traditional view that factors like age, sex, race, and socio-economic levels determine occupational expectations and attainment should no longer be a stumbling block to counselors. With more attention and support, counselors should be better able to help the low SES to maximize their potentials and capabilities. This does not insinuate an exclusion of the needed help to the high and middle SES.

Extrinsic reward was most significant to low SES. Olayinka (1973) also found that children with low SES view education and occupation as a means tobetter their status and economic conditions, while children with high SES view education and occupation as a means of entering into a profession similar to their parents.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In schools, most of the conservatism found in western education finds it root in most of instructional programmers. Programmes in most schools lack diversification to cater for all career choices of students, most students were left unguided and so are more prone to making unwise choices or no choice at all, until after schooling in most cases, however, students do not make wise choice of subject as a result of lack of sufficient information.

Left unguided, it has been observed that quite a number of students in secondary schools are ill informed of the labour market. They become nervous, worried and anxious. They finish secondary school with the feeling of inadequacy and frustration, they do not have in mind the jobs they want to do, based on this, they lack knowledge that the employers require as entry qualification, and they may not know that, there is a method of application for the job they wish to apply for. This is common because they do not possess the necessary educational and vocational information. Some people like to work in team, others preferred to work alone, vocational guidance must therefore take full account of all these likes and dislikes. Inadequate vocational information in secondary schools in Sokoto state, have left students to decide and pursue any course or job they could find whether or not it is in consonance with their interest, aptitude and ability. Some secondary schools in Sokoto state find it very difficult to organize or administer guidance and counseling programme for students due to lack of professional counselors. The school management which includes the Principal and the heads of departments are not motivating or educating the students to make use of the career masters whereavailable. Moreover Sokoto state government in particular shows little effort towards recognition and establishment of guidance and counseling at professional level. Even in the few schools that possess career masters, their expertise is not fully utilized.

Kithyo and Petrina (2002) argue that boys schools tend to be more equipped and oriented towards science and technology. Boys in mixed schools are also encouraged to enroll and perform well in these subjects. Girls schools do not offer technology subjects such as engineering; instead they offer domestic sciences and secretarial subjects. By the time the students come to choose careers, they have internalized gender norms (Kithyo and Petrina, 2002).

Research indicates that children from low-SES households and communities develop academic skills more slowly compared to children from higher SES groups (Morgan, Farkas, Hillemeier, &Maczuga, 2009). The school systems in low-SES communities are often under resourced, negatively affecting student’s academic progress (Aikens &Barbarin, 2008). There also exist the conflicts between the individual free choice of occupation and that of the Nations manpower needed, and there are also conflicts between individual choice, parents wish, and friend’s advice.

Nigeria is moving from pre-industrial to an industrial country. Industrialization paved way to technological development which will increase the need for skilled human labour and will require all the power and more skill that can be obtained. Training children through education will make them be aware of these potentialities.

The focus of this study is therefore to make a critical examination of the influence of parental socio-economic status on career aspirations among secondary school mathematics student in Kokona LGA of Nasarawa State


1.3 Objectives of the Study

This study aimed at finding out influence of parental socio-economic status on career aspirations among secondary school mathematics student inKokona LGA of Nasarawa State. base on the following;

  1. Find out if there is a significant relationship between parental socioeconomic status and the career aspiration of students
  2. Determine whether parental level of income influences the career aspiration of mathematics students in secondary school.
  3. Ascertain whether parental nature of occupation influences the career aspiration of mathematics students in secondary school.
  4. Ascertain parental educational background influences the career aspiration of mathematics students in secondary school.

1.4 Research Questions

The major questions this study intends to address are;

  1. Is there a significant relationship between parental socioeconomic status and the career aspiration of students?
  2. Does parental level of income influences the career aspiration of mathematics students in secondary school?
  3. Does parental nature of occupation influences the career aspiration of mathematics students in secondary school?
  4. Does parental educational background influences the career aspiration of mathematics students in secondary school?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between parental socioeconomic status and the career aspiration of students.
  • Ha: There is a significant relationship between parental socioeconomic status and the career aspiration of students.

1.6 Significance of the Study

Choosing a career is one of the hardest decisions to make in life. It is believed that the role of socio-economic status on career aspiration and education is important in the technological societies because the allocation of social position relies heavily on higher education; the better educational background, the higher position to be reached in office. With this condition, the need of higher educational level in Sokoto metropolis increase rapidly. Therefore, educational and career aspiration of senior secondary school students is an important phenomenon to be studied. We are going to outline this importance in regard to some related aspect that the study will be effective to.
It is hoped that the findings of this study will help the students in the sense that it can be used to provide information for maintaining student’s motivation in both academic and social integration to support career development during the child’s study. It can also help the student in the process of choosing a career of his choice.
It is hoped that this study will help parents to understand that their children already have in mind their desired career aspiration. What is left for them is to support and guide them financially, and give them motivational support for them to be able to attain their goal.

Society is associated with children vocational aspiration. Reviewing an extensive body of research, Watson and Mc Mahon (2005) concluded that children learn about the vocation by interacting with their social environment. This study might open the mind of the society and make them understand the career aspiration of their individuals which might trigger the society to support some less fortunate students in their educational development.
Schools and teachers sometimes shape perception about vocation. This study might help in letting the school and teacher to be aware of their student’s choice of career and to avoid any form of discouragement, rather the students should be encouraged and supported. This study will also state the importance of guidance and counseling which may persuade schools and teachers to introduce or reestablish their guidance and counseling services.
This study may help educational stakeholders in the process of employment that is their employment would be in form of merit and not randomly so as to maintain further expenses. They would be speared the trouble of training their new staffs.

It is hope that these findings will help the government to understand that students have their aspired careers, this may bring less expense of resources in educational prospects if the student is held within what they want to become in future. It is hoped that the findings can be used to examine the trend of educational career aspiration of senior secondary students of Sokoto metropolis.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study seeks to examine the influence of parental socio-economic status on career aspirations among secondary school mathematics student in Kokona LGA of Nasarawa State. Specifically the study is carried out to find out if there is a significant relationship between parental socioeconomic status and the career aspiration of students, determine whether parental level of income influences the career aspiration of mathematics students in secondary school, ascertain whether parental nature of occupation influences the career aspiration of mathematics students in secondary school and ascertain parental educational background influences the career aspiration of mathematics students in secondary school. The study will be delimited to some selected secondary schools in Kokona LGA of Nasarawa State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Socio-economic Status:

Is an economic and sociological combined total measure of person’s work experience and of an individual’s or family’s economic and social positionin relation to others.

Career:

Is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as a person’s “course or progress through life (or a distinct portion of life)”.

Aspiration:

Is a longing for and striving after something higher than oneself or ones current status. Salawu(1993).

Career Aspiration:

This refers to the future ambition of an individual on the type of job he/she wishes to obtain in future.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the influence of parental socio-economic status on career aspirations among secondary school mathematics student in Kokona LGA of Nasarawa State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the influence of parental socio-economic status on career aspirations among secondary school mathematics student in Kokona LGA of Nasarawa State. The study is was specifically carried out to find out if there is a significant relationship between parental socioeconomic status and the career aspiration of students, determine whether parental level of income influences the career aspiration of mathematics students in secondary school, ascertain whether parental nature of occupation influences the career aspiration of mathematics students in secondary school and ascertain parental educational background influences the career aspiration of mathematics students in secondary school.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 210 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent aremathematics student in some selected secondary school in Kokona LGA of Nasarawa State.


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. There is a significant relationship between parental socioeconomic status and the career aspiration of students.
  2. Parental level of income influences the career aspiration of mathematics students in secondary school.
  3. Parental nature of occupation influences the career aspiration of mathematics students in secondary school.
  4. Parental educational background influences the career aspiration of mathematics students in secondary school.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Parents play a key role in career selection process of their children. They provide moral support, discuss, monitor and reward academic progress; encourage children to seek information on careers, and provide learning resources, as well as sharing relevant learning experiences with their children.
  2. Ministry of Education should therefore harness parents ‘aspirations by educating them on career choice so that they can stir secondary school students to choices that align with the areas of interest, talents and abilities.
  3. The principals of secondary schools should arrange to sensitize parents during Parent Associations (PA) meetings, and also come up with policies and mechanisms for involving parents on matters of career choice of students.
  4. The study also recommend the need for school BOM to foster a concerted effort and corroborations with parents, teachers and students in ensuring an informed career choice among secondary school students.

Get Complete Project Material

6,000 Naira

The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦6,500 to the Account Below

Zenith BankAcc No: 1225513212
Samphina Academy
Current Account

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card


FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($25)

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  1. Payment Details

  2. TOPIC: Influence Of Parental Socio-Economic Status On Career Aspirations Among Secondary School Mathematics Student

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


Need a Different Topic? Perform a Quick Search



List of Related Works

Click on Any Topic to Preview the Content

samphina.academy

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.