The Influence Of Parental Education On Communication Pattern Of Children In Public Primary Schools

Primary Education Project and Semina Material

The Influence Of Parental Education On Communication Pattern Of Children In Public Primary Schools


Abstract


Theoretically, one would expect parental involvement to be more effective for school success when parents are more educated. But empirical evidence, mostly based on U.S. datasets, provides inconsistent findings. This paper examines the association of parent-child communication, a form of parental involvement, and academic achievement by levels of parental education in public primary schools. The results indicate a positive interaction of parent-child communication and parental education in 5 primary school systems. The interaction strength varies across educational systems, but no clear pattern emerged for national income indicators. Only weak evidence of a stronger interaction for lower income and higher income inequality was found, which could suggest that students reap greater rewards of parent-child communication when faced with an adverse national economic environment.


Table Of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgment
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the study
  • 1.4 Research Hypotheses
  • 1.5 Significance of the study
  • 1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
  • 1.7 Definition of terms
  • 1.8 Organization of the study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review


Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 sources of data collection
  • 3.3 Population of the study
  • 3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
  • 3.5 Validation of research instrument
  • 3.6 Method of data analysis

Chapter Four

Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation

  • 4.1 Introductions
  • 4.2 Data analysis

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation
  • Appendix

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study.

Good communication skills continue to be the foundations of learning, emotional development and socialising throughout a young person’s schooling and onward into the workplace. Young people need effective speech, language and communication skills in order to have a wide range of life choices. For most young people, communication pattern continues to develop throughout the school years and into adulthood. They develop the skills they need to solve problem, build effective relationships, negotiate and tell jokes. Hence, there is a link between parents’ and children’s communication patterns.

Several recent studies found that parents with low literacy levels are less likely to help their children with reading and writing (Williams, Clemens, Oleinikova, and Tarvin, 2003; Parsons and Bynner, 2007); _ feel less confident in doing so (Williams etal.,2003); are less likely to have children who read for pleasure (Parsons andBynner, 2007); are more likely to have children with lower cognitive and communicative skills (De Coulon, Meschi and Vignoles, 2008). these links have been challenged.

The context provided by parents and their consistent support might be more important than any transfer of skills [for their children’s literacy development] (Auerbach, 1989, p.171). Parental education level has an impact on young children’s communication pattern

Parents’ level of education correlates with the cognitive development of babies between 12 months and 27 months of age (Roberts, Bornstein, Slater and Barrett, 1999).Despite the importance of communication, some parents education has in one way or the other influenced their children communication pattern.

Parental education has a significant influence on children’s communication pattern well into adolescence and adulthood. parents continue to be a vital source of support socially and emotionally as well as academically. Parents often have different views of young people’s communication strengths and needs because of their knowledge of them over time, so maintaining an effective relationship between home and school is important. However this is often difficult when, typically, contact with school becomes less as pupils move through primary school.

The home is crucial. Parents have the greatest influence on the achievement of young people through supporting their learning in the home rather than supporting activities in school. Early intervention is vital. The earlier parents become involved in their children’s literacy practices, the more profound the results and the longer-lasting the effects. Children learn long before they enter formal education. Parents are a child’s first educator. A child’s family and home environment has a strong influence on his/her communication pattern and educational achievement. This influence is stronger during the child’s early years but continues throughout their school years.

Parents reading to babies and young children has a strong impact on children’s communication pattern. Parents’ reading to their children in the pre-school years is regarded as an important predictor of literacy achievement (Weinberger, 1996). Hence an uneducated parent may not be able to read to their children. This parental activity is associated with strong evidence of benefits for children such as communication growth, reading achievement and writing (Bus, Van Ijzendoorn and Pellegrini, 1995; Brooks, 2000), the enhancement of children’s language comprehension and expressive language skills, listening and speaking skills, later enjoyment of books and reading, understanding narrative and story (Wells, 1987; Crain-Thoreson and Dale, 1992; Weinberger, 1996),

Parental involvement in their child’s reading has been found to be the most important determinant of language and emergent literacy (Bus, Van Ijzendoorn and Pellegrini, 1995). Children who are read to at an early age tend to display greater interest in reading at a later age (Arnold and Whitehurst, 1994). Story reading at home enhances children’s language comprehension and expressive language skills (Crain-Thoreson and Dale, 1992). Oral language developed from parent/child reading predicts later writing development (Crain-Thoreson, Bloomfield, Anthony, Bacon, Phillips and Samwel,1999).

Parents who introduce their babies to books give them a head start in school and an advantage over their peers throughout primary school (Wade and Moore, 2000).

Many background variables affect the impact of the family and home environment (such as socio-economic status, , family size, etc.) but parental attitudes and behaviour, especially parental education in home learning activities, can be crucial to children’s achievement and can overcome the influences of other factors. Put succinctly in a question form, the problem of this study is: what is the influence of parents education on communication pattern of primary school student in Lagos metropolis


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Primary school students life is no doubt a time for speech and language development, hence, communication pattern should be of paramount interest to both parents of the children and their teacher. In many circumstances now, the primary school students in Nigeria fail to understand the need for good communication pattern and parents and has failed also to sensitize the primary school children on the need for proper communication pattern.

Schools also has failed to integrate communication pattern as part of curriculum of primary schools in Nigeria. Hence ignoring the need and the roles good communication pattern to a child even through his/her career in adulthood.


1.3 Purpose Of The Study

The general purpose of the study is to investigate the influence of parent education on communication patterns of public primary school students of Lagos metropolis.


1.4 Objective Of The Study

Specifically, the study sought to:

  1. Determine the influence of parental education on their childrens’ communication pattern
  2. Ascertain the difference in communication patterns between children that are read to by parents and their peers that are not read to.
  3. Determine the influence of parent-child communication patterns on the in-school children’ academic achievement.

1.5 Research Questions

In order to realize the above objectives, the following research questions were raised.

  1. To what extent do parental education influence children’s communication pattern?
  2. What is the difference between the communication patterrn of children that are read to by parents and their peers that are not?
  3. What is the influence of parent-child communication patterns on their primary school children’ academic achievement?

1.6 Research Hypotheses.

  1. There is no significant difference between parents education and children communication pattern.
  2. There is no significant difference between communication pattern of children that are read to and their peers that are not.
  3. There is no significant difference between parent-child communication pattern and their primary school children academic achievement.

1.7 Significance Of The Study

The study has theoretical significance as it lends credence to Albert Bandura’s social learning theory which sees human relationship as a basic unit of learning through observation, imitation and modelling. Parents and significant others in the child’s social life should therefore realise that the child learns more through observation and modelling. This study helps to endorse the parents education as it influences children communication pattern.


1.8 Limitation Of Study

This study is carried out Kosofe local government in Lagos metropolis, which is located in South West region of Nigeria in West Africa. The study will be limited to primary 5 pupils in selected schools in Kosofe local government.


1.9 Operational Definition Of Terms:

1. Parents

A person who is a father or mother; a person who has a child.

2. Education
  • The process of receiving or giving systematic instruction, especially at a school or university.
  • An enlightening experience.
3. Parental education

The process of receiving or giving systematic instruction, especially at a school or university by parents.

4. Communication

Communication means transferring messages from one to another and it has several forms such as intrapersonal, interpersonal, group and mass communication. It is also the act or an instance of communicating; the imparting or exchange of information, ideas, or feelings.

5. Communication Patterns.

A set of behaviours by which people habitually seek to convey meaning to another


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to reiterate that the objective of this study was to examine influence of parent education on communication pattern of children in public primary schools.

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given.

In this chapter, certain recommendations are made which in the opinion of the researcher are drawn from the findings of the study.


5.2 Summary

This study was undertaken to examine influence of parent education on communication pattern of children in public primary schools. The study opened with chapter one where the statement of the problem was clearly defined. The study objectives and research hypotheses were defined and formulated respectively. The study reviewed related and relevant literatures. The chapter two gave the conceptual framework, empirical and theoretical studies. The third chapter described the methodology employed by the researcher in collecting both the primary and the secondary data. The research method employed here is the descriptive survey method. The study analyzed and presented the data collected in tables and tested the hypotheses using the chi-square statistical tool. While the fifth chapter gives the study summary and conclusion.


5.3 Conclusion

Family Communication Patterns is a powerful aspect of family communication that is based on a sophisticated model of social cognition and has showed to be relevant to a number of important family processes, such as communication apprehension (Elwood & Schrader, 1998), conflict and conflict resolution (Koerner& Fitzpatrick, 1997, 2002c), resiliency of children (Fitzpatrick &Koerner, in press), social self-restraint and social withdrawal (Fitzpatrick, Marshall, Leutwiler, &Krcmar, 1996), enactment of family rituals (Baxter & Clark, 1996), effects of parents’ work environments on family communication (Ritchie, 1997), children’s influence on family political discussions (Saphir& Chaffee, 2002), and self-orientation in family conversation (Koerner&Cvancara, 2002). Although impressive in its scope, this research has barely scratched the surface of the proverbial iceberg, and we expect the Family Communication Patterns to play an important role in our and our colleagues’ investigation and understanding of family communication and family processes in the future. In our opinion, the most promising direction that research on Family Communication Patterns can take involves the integration of family communication patterns with family communication schemata.

Like other relationship type schemata, family communication schemata involve complex, hierarchically integrated mental representations that family members have of themselves, their family members and their family relationships. Included in family communication schemata is the procedural knowledge of how to achieve agreement and a shared social reality that determines family conversation and conformity orientation (Koerner& Fitzpatrick, 2002a). As such, family communication schemata have the potential to provide an integrative framework not only for research on family communication patterns but also for other research on family communication behaviors, such as communication standards, attachment, and parenting styles. It is our hope that such research will allow family communication scholars to develop a comprehensive model of family communication that goes far beyond just family communication patterns.


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