Influence Of Outdoor Political Advertising On Delta State Residents’ Political Behaviour

Project and Seminar Material for Political Science

Influence Of Outdoor Political Advertising On Delta State Residents’ Political Behaviour


Abstract


World over, political aspirants adopt the use of diverse campaign strategies such as political advertising in order to sensitize the electorates to vote in their favor. These advertisements often present an exaggeration of what the society stand to gain by voting for the aspirant, as well as antagonize the opposition party. In view of the 2007 elections in Nigeria, the mass media has been flooded with advertising messages from numerous political parties. It is based on this that this study sought to investigate the influence of political advertising on voting behaviour of residents of rural community’ in Nigerian through a survey of 120 respondents from sapele Local government area. The Findings reveal that the electorates perceive political advertising to be deceptive; however, some of the electorates affirm that it informs their voting decision, while the ethnicity and political party to which political aspirants belong determine the voting decision of majority(47.8%) of the electorates. Therefore, it is concluded that political advertising has a positive influence on the voting decision of a fraction of Nigerian electorates, but the ethnicity and political party to which these aspirants belong are of higher influence.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

The use of political advertising as a campaign strategy by political parties in Nigeria has become a trend over the years. Political parties employ the services of creative agencies to package persuasive messages of propaganda to create awareness of the beautiful benefits electorates stand to enjoy should they cast their votes in favour of the party. McNair (2003 p.97), defines political advertising as the purchase and use of media space, paid for at commercial rates, in order to transmit political messages to a mass audience. Also, the Texas Ethics Commission defines political advertising as a form of communications that support or oppose a candidate for nomination through the use of pamphlets, billboards, fliers, bumper stickers, newspapers, magazines, radio, television, and the internet.

The past two decades have witnessed a surge in the use of political advertising in Nigeria. According to Opeibi (2004) as cited by Olujide, Adeyemi and Gbadeyan(2011), prior to these periods, political parties employed the use of political rallies, personal contacts and speeches to sensitize electorates’. However the development and diversification of the mass media has caused political parties to capitalize on these media through political advertising in order to record a wider reach of their target audience. Political advertising has metamorphosed into a lucrative business for advertisers and celebrities alike who receive huge sums of naira to conceptualize, produce, and indorse these advertisements especially through the broadcast media.

Statistics show that there is a low turnout in voting by Nigerian electorates. According to the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (2011), out of a population of 81, 691, 751 people who were of voting age in 2011, a total of 73, 528, 040 electorates registered to vote, but only 21,074, 621 actually voted. Despite the low voting by Nigerian electorates, politicians continue to expense large sums of money on political advertising messages that are mostly geared to bring to the public information about the opposition that are negative and antagonistic resulting from the fear of losing the election.

It is based on this premise that this study sought to investigate the influence of outdoor political advertisement messages on the voting decision of electorates in Lagos State using sapele Local government area which is one of the densely populated areas. The essence of this study is to awaken electorates on the need to exercise their civic duty at the 2015 elections.


1.2 Statement of the Research Problem

The zeal to pilot the affairs of the state and by extension, ensure strict compliance to acceptable pattern of shared norms which Defleur etal (1971:448) describe as “consensus” which gave rise to modern government. And while some individuals in the society assume leadership position by forcefully imposing it on themselves, as in the case of fast fading authoritarian states others attain the same goal through popular election. The later alternative is common feature of democratic variant of governance allow the members of any society while latitude of freedom to choose their leaders. Again it gives the citizens equal participation in the process of public decision making.
Irrespective of the varying philosophies and the attending economic ideologies that tends to differentiate various human societies every nation aspires to project, promote and protect her socio-politically and economic interests through the effective use of mass media (radio) organs.

As a result of this, Schramm and Roberts (1978: 635) argue “… each of the various forms of political power can be characterized in terms of information distribution which it allows, of how communication channels are controlled, of how and to whom information is made available”. Lasswell’s (1936) conception of politics as “a game of who gets what, when and how” still guides the political drives of most Nigerians.

The burden of this study therefore is to critically examine the influence of outdoor political advertising on the voting behaviour of the electorate of sapele Local government area.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

This study is to analyze the influence of outdoor political advertising on the voting behaviour of the rural residents of sapele Local government area. It is also an attempt to find out how the radio political messages determines the voting behviours of the Sapele electorates or otherwise.

  1. To determine the extent outdoor political advertising influence the electorates to vote during the 2019 election.
  2. To determine if outdoor political advertising make a particular political candidate preferable to voters.
  3. To evaluate if outdoor political advertising make a particular political party preferable to voters.

1.4 Research Questions

Three research questions will be used for the purpose of this study. They are;

  1. Does outdoor political advertising create political agenda among the electorate of sapele Local government area?
  2. Does outdoor political advertising make a particular political candidate preferable to voters?
  3. Does outdoor political advertising make a particular political party preferable to voters?

1.5 Hypothesis of the Study

The following hypothesis was formulated and tested;

  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between outdoor political advertising and creation political agenda among the electorate of sapele Local government area.
  • Hi: There is a significant relationship between outdoor political advertising and creation political agenda among the electorate of sapele Local government area

1.6 Significance of the Study

The result of this study will be useful to policy formulators and implementers for devising viable political campaign policies that will be in line with the socio-cultural and political orientation of the rural residents or electorates.
This study will also help the government and its agencies in making policy decisions on the best way to channel political education to the rural electorates or votes for effective participation in the electoral process.

Besides, the study will immensely enhance media organizations to understand the appropriate way of structuring information for its rural audience and assist them in knowing the most effective medium of political information dissemination available to rural residents. It will also be useful to Nigerian media practitioners, communication experts, politicians, political science students, as well as other members of the public, to improve their knowledge and skills in the area of utilizing the mass media for the execution of political campaign or mobilization of rural residents.

Finally, it will serve as a veritable reference material for scholars and students of political communication.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This research work will be limited to political advertising in Nigeria as well as the assessment. Some of the questionnaires prepared and distributed to respondents were not all returned so that a complete analysis of the respondents be presented.

Finally, a full analysis and access to essential documents articles and soon were not made available to the researcher.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.


1.9 Operational Definition of Terms

a. Marketing:

According to Kotler in his book marketing management. the millennium edition (2007).
Marketing is a social process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and what though exchange process.

The American Marketing Association defines marketing as the process of planning and executing the conception, paring production and distribution of ideas goods and services to create exchange that satisfy individual and organization goals. Dictionary of Marketing Terms (1992).

b. Politics:

Nnoli (2000) in depriving politics has this to say politics is about power influence interest and value. It is refers to all these activities which are directly or indirectly associated with the seizure of state power the consolidation of state power and use of state power.

c. Political Marketing:

Orsaah (2002) in his article on the emergence of political marketing in Nigeria sees functions and the use of marketing system methods or strategies for attainment of political goals.

He continues that specifically political marketing is the use of marketing techniques in politics to influence the voting (buying) decision of the electorate (consume).

d. Aspirant:

This is a person or individual seeking political office before and during primaries (Orianwote, 2000).

e. Candidate:

This is a person or individual nominated after the conduct of primaries to represent a particular political party in the election proper (Orianwote, 2000).

f. Campaign:

This is defined as a carefully planned and coordinated series of promotional effort build around a candidate.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on influence of outdoor political advertising on delta state residents’ political behaviour, sapele Local government area as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on The influence of outdoor political advertising on delta state residents’ political behaviour, sapele Local government area as case study. This study is to analyze the influence of outdoor political advertising on the voting behaviour of the rural residents of sapele Local government area. It is also an attempt to find out how the radio political messages determines the voting behviours of the sapele electorates or otherwise and to determine the extent outdoor political advertising influence the electorates to vote during the 2019 election.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are staff of sapele Local government area.


5.3 Conclusions

With respect to the analysis and the findings of this study, the following conclusions emerged;
Based on the findings, it is deduced that despite the fact that most Nigerian electorates perceive political advertising as deceptive, it has a positive influence on the voting decision of a faction of Nigerian electorates, however, it is not the sole reason why they cast their votes; as the ethnicity, and the political party to which electorates belong have a higher level of influence on the voting decision of Nigerian electorates.


5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings the researcher recommends that;

  1. There is need for the Independent National Electorate Commission (INEC) in collaboration with the Advertising Practitioners Council of Nigerian (APCON) to regulate the use of political advertising by stipulating standards for political advertising in areas of: message content, and time. This will restore some sanity in the manner with which the use of deceptive and antagonistic messages is utilized.
  2. Electorates should be not allow themselves get carried away by political advertising messages; rather they should cast their vote for aspirants who have true intentions and have the potentials of developing the country. This they can determine by considering the areas of contributions made by the aspirant especially if he/she has a previous political history, and for such aspirants without political history their response at the Debates can be a good bases for judgment.

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