The Influence Of Non-Financial Incentives On Teacher Performance In Rural Primary Schools In Lagos State
This study focused on the influence of non-financial incentives on teacher performance in rural primary schools in Lagos state as case study. The study is was specifically focused on examining the influence non-financial incentives have on teachers’ performance in rural primary schools in Lagos state, finding out the relationship between non-financial incentives and teacher performance in rural Primary Schools and Suggest ways to enhance the provision of non-financial incentive in promoting teacher performance in rural primary schools. The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are staff in rural primary schools in Lagos state. A questionnaire developed by the researcher based on percentage and frequency table was used for the study. The researcher made in necessary findings and conclusions were drawn in the last chapter of this study. However, the study recommended that other non financial incentives like lectures, seminar, symposium as well as recreational facilities, such as club with sporting facilities, entry bar and other recreational facility that would help staff unwind after work should be designed and adopted. This will facilitate efficiency and increase productivity in rural primary schools in Lagos state.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
Many developed countries’ education programs provide monetary and non-monetary rewards for recruiting and maintaining teachers to serve in remote and isolated rural areas. Rural areas have more complex living and working environments than urban areas, according to studies on the teaching profession in developed countries (McEwan, 1999; Mulkeen, 2005). Many teachers in rural areas, for example, face social alienation, personal safety threats, high workloads, and difficult living conditions. Bad working environments and little extra pay have become a significant setback in recruiting and inspiring teachers to succeed at a high level in the classroom.
According to studies by Muze (1987), and Sumra (2003), inadequate working conditions for teachers without additional pay have been a major factor in the teaching profession losing more manpower to other professions than it has gained. According to educational policy, remuneration and compensation packages have often been a source of controversy, protests, and discontent among workers in higher education institutions, especially where the appropriate rewards are not provided (MHEST, 2007). As a result, it can be inferred that teacher working conditions in Lagos state rural primary schools are failing to attract academically capable young women and men, while also failing to include certain incentives to improve teacher results.
Teachers’ working arrangements currently differ from country to country. Teaching is a well regarded, well-paid, and prestigious career in many developing countries. Teachers in Japan, for example, have considerably higher incomes, pensions, and bonuses than teachers in other developing countries (Kaneko, 1992). Teachers in developed countries have a low status, their incomes are often low, their incentive programs are unpredictable, and their working conditions in isolated, rural areas are usually bad and unappealing. According to SIDA (2000), teachers’ wages in developed countries are insufficient to meet their families’ basic needs.
Teachers’ stressful working environments are distinguished by two factors: changeable and unchangeable components (McEwan, 1999). The modifiable reasons are those that can be quickly improved by education policymakers, such as a lack of adequate accommodation, a high Teacher-Pupil Ratio (TPR), and a lack of basic school inputs and utilities, such as libraries, classrooms, power, sanitary, and water services, all of which make teacher success incredibly difficult. Both rural and urban schools are affected by the variable factors. Unchangeable causes, such as environment, lack of public transportation, and physical distance, have a significant impact on rural schools. These factors are difficult to change and are outside the influence of educational policymakers. Non-native rural teachers feel estranged from their families and are seen as strangers by the rural society. Public transportation can be inadequate, unreliable, or unavailable. There may be a lack of facilities in rural schools, such as educational opportunities for teachers’ students, job opportunities for teachers’ partners, and entertainment and shopping centers.
1.2 Statement of Research Problem
Employee welfare is one of the most needed factor that stimulate productivity in any establishment. This welfare can come in monetary or non-monetary form just to appreciate a work well done.
Individuals in an organization have so many needs that motivates them to work such as Abraham Maslow Hierarchy of Need Theory itemized them into physiological needs, safety needs, love and belonging needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs.
Non-financial/non-monetary incentives are the types of rewards that are not a part of an employee’s pay. Typically, they cost the company little or no money, yet carry significant weight. As companies continue to make cuts to employee compensation, non-financial incentives for employees are more crucial than ever. These includes status, organisational Climate, career Advancement Opportunity, job enrichment, employee Recognition Programme, Job Security, Employees’ Participation, and Employees’ Empowerment to mention but a few. Failure of school administrator to offer incentives to teachers will undoubtedly jeopardize their efforts to deliver high-quality service. This in turn creates lack of enthusiasm among teachers which has a direct impact on their efficiency (Sumra, 2004 & Davidson, 2005). Non-financial incentives has been a central element that has been overlooked in many organizations including the academic system. According to a World Bank study on teachers’ working conditions, “In the absence of resources to do better, more teachers are actually delivering far fewer and poorer quality instruction than they are capable of, according to the service. Teachers’ demotivation is a significant contributor to students’ abysmally low academic outcomes in primary and secondary school” (World Bank, 2001). These non-financial incentives has a huge negative impact on how well the teachers perform their duties. Hence, this necessitate this study.
1.3 Objectives Of The Study
- To determine the influence non-financial incentives have on teachers’ performance in rural primary schools in Lagos state.
- To find out the relationship between non-financial incentives and teacher performance in rural Primary Schools.
- Suggest ways to enhance the provision of non-financial incentive in promoting teacher performance in rural primary schools.
1.4 Research Questions
- What is the influence of non-financial incentives on the performance of teachers in rural primary schools in Lagos state?
- What is the relationship between non-financial incentives and teacher performance in rural Primary Schools in Lagos state?
- What are the ways to enhance the provision of non-financial incentive in promoting teacher performance in rural primary schools in Lagos state?
1.5 Hypothesis of the Study
- Ho: There is no significant relationship between non-financial incentives and teacher performance in rural Primary Schools in Lagos state.
- Hi: There is a significant relationship between non-financial incentives and teacher performance in rural Primary Schools in Lagos state.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This research is in accordance with the fourth Sustainable Development Goal, which emphasizes access to high-quality education. This research would be especially useful to policymakers in designing and implementing strategies that will empower teachers to increase their results. Various restricting factors to teacher work satisfaction will be highlighted in this report. This research would aid in the development of a more effective motivational approach for teachers. Finally, the thesis is intended to add to the current body of expertise in the field of teacher job encouragement and encourage more studies in other states on non-incentive as a motivation strategy for teachers.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study focuses only on the non-financial incentives and its relationship in influencing teachers’ performance in rural primary schools in Lagos state.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
This study was constrained by a number of factors which are as follows:
- Financial constraint, was faced by the researcher ,in getting relevant materials and in printing and collation of questionnaires
- Time factor: time factor pose another constraint since having to shuttle between writing of the research and also engaging in other academic work making it uneasy for the researcher.
1.9 Operational Definition Of Terms
This simply refers to any other benefit asides monetary incentives given to an individual in order to encourage so said person to perform better.
Simply refers to an underdeveloped area.
Rural Primary School:
A primary school which is located in an underdeveloped area.
1.10 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on the influence of non-financial incentives on teacher performance in rural primary schools in Lagos state as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was on the non-financial benefit as a motivating tool for teachers performance in rural primary schools in Lagos state. The study is was specifically focused on examining the influence non-financial incentives have on teachers’ performance in rural primary schools in Lagos state, finding out the relationship between non-financial incentives and teacher performance in rural Primary Schools and Suggest ways to enhance the provision of non-financial incentive in promoting teacher performance in rural primary schools..
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are staff in rural primary schools in Lagos state.
In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.
- There are functional non-financial incentives for teachers in rural primary schools in Lagos state.
- Non-financial incentives has affected teachers performance in rural primary schools in Lagos state positively.
- There is a relationship between non-financial incentives and teachers performance in rural primary schools in Lagos state.
- The specific non-financial incentives adopted by the rural primary schools in Lagos state so far include; provision of working tools and equipment, recognition through praise for significant work done, encouragement to make suggestions about work, provision of protective work devices, safety plan including provision of first aid, provision of recreation and relaxation centers, end-of-the year cocktail party and award night and job security.
Based on the findings the researcher recommends;
- Since non-financial benefit schemes are preferred as methods of motivating operatives in the Nigerian than financial incentive schemes, rural primary schools in Lagos state should emphasize these incentive schemes to increase motivation, morale and productivity.
- The management of rural primary schools in Lagos state should also ensure compliance and innovation in terms of initiating of non-financial benefit schemes to increase productivity.
- Other non financial incentives like lectures, seminar, symposium as well as Recreational facilities, such as club with sporting facilities, entry bar and other recreational facility that would help staff unwind after work should be designed and adopted. This will facilitate efficiency and increase productivity.
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