The Influence Of Non-Financial Incentives On Teacher Performance In Rural Primary Schools In Lagos State

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The Influence Of Non-Financial Incentives On Teacher Performance In Rural Primary Schools In Lagos State


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Many developed countries’ education programs provide monetary and non-monetary rewards for recruiting and maintaining teachers to serve in remote and isolated rural areas. Rural areas have more complex living and working environments than urban areas, according to studies on the teaching profession in developed countries (McEwan, 1999; Mulkeen, 2005). Many teachers in rural areas, for example, face social alienation, personal safety threats, high workloads, and difficult living conditions. Bad working environments and little extra pay have become a significant setback in recruiting and inspiring teachers to succeed at a high level in the classroom.

According to studies by Muze (1987), and Sumra (2003), inadequate working conditions for teachers without additional pay have been a major factor in the teaching profession losing more manpower to other professions than it has gained. According to educational policy, remuneration and compensation packages have often been a source of controversy, protests, and discontent among workers in higher education institutions, especially where the appropriate rewards are not provided (MHEST, 2007). As a result, it can be inferred that teacher working conditions in Lagos state rural primary schools are failing to attract academically capable young women and men, while also failing to include certain incentives to improve teacher results.

Teachers’ working arrangements currently differ from country to country. Teaching is a well regarded, well-paid, and prestigious career in many developing countries. Teachers in Japan, for example, have considerably higher incomes, pensions, and bonuses than teachers in other developing countries (Kaneko, 1992). Teachers in developed countries have a low status, their incomes are often low, their incentive programs are unpredictable, and their working conditions in isolated, rural areas are usually bad and unappealing. According to SIDA (2000), teachers’ wages in developed countries are insufficient to meet their families’ basic needs.

Teachers’ stressful working environments are distinguished by two factors: changeable and unchangeable components (McEwan, 1999). The modifiable reasons are those that can be quickly improved by education policymakers, such as a lack of adequate accommodation, a high Teacher-Pupil Ratio (TPR), and a lack of basic school inputs and utilities, such as libraries, classrooms, power, sanitary, and water services, all of which make teacher success incredibly difficult. Both rural and urban schools are affected by the variable factors. Unchangeable causes, such as environment, lack of public transportation, and physical distance, have a significant impact on rural schools. These factors are difficult to change and are outside the influence of educational policymakers. Non-native rural teachers feel estranged from their families and are seen as strangers by the rural society. Public transportation can be inadequate, unreliable, or unavailable. There may be a lack of facilities in rural schools, such as educational opportunities for teachers’ students, job opportunities for teachers’ partners, and entertainment and shopping centers.


1.2 Statement Of Research Problem

Employee welfare is one of the most needed factor that stimulate productivity in any establishment. This welfare can come in monetary or non-monetary form just to appreciate a work well done.

Individuals in an organization have so many needs that motivates them to work such as Abraham Maslow Hierarchy of Need Theory itemized them into physiological needs, safety needs, love and belonging needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs.

Non-financial/non-monetary incentives are the types of rewards that are not a part of an employee’s pay. Typically, they cost the company little or no money, yet carry significant weight. As companies continue to make cuts to employee compensation, non-financial incentives for employees are more crucial than ever. These includes status, organisational Climate, career Advancement Opportunity, job enrichment, employee Recognition Programme, Job Security, Employees’ Participation, and Employees’ Empowerment to mention but a few. Failure of school administrator to offer incentives to teachers will undoubtedly jeopardize their efforts to deliver high-quality service. This in turn creates lack of enthusiasm among teachers which has a direct impact on their efficiency (Sumra, 2004 & Davidson, 2005). Non-financial incentives has been a central element that has been overlooked in many organizations including the academic system. According to a World Bank study on teachers’ working conditions, “In the absence of resources to do better, more teachers are actually delivering far fewer and poorer quality instruction than they are capable of, according to the service. Teachers’ demotivation is a significant contributor to students’ abysmally low academic outcomes in primary and secondary school” (World Bank, 2001). These non-financial incentives has a huge negative impact on how well the teachers perform their duties. Hence, this necessitate this study.


1.3 Objectives Of The Study

  1. To determine the influence non-financial incentives have on teachers’ performance in rural primary schools in Lagos state.
  2. To find out the relationship between non-financial incentives and teacher performance in rural Primary Schools.
  3. Suggest ways to enhance the provision of non-financial incentive in promoting teacher performance in rural primary schools.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the influence of non-financial incentives on the performance of teachers in rural primary schools in Lagos state?
  2. What is the relationship between non-financial incentives and teacher performance in rural Primary Schools in Lagos state?
  3. What are the ways to enhance the provision of non-financial incentive in promoting teacher performance in rural primary schools in Lagos state?

1.5 Significance Of The Study

This research is in accordance with the fourth Sustainable Development Goal, which emphasizes access to high-quality education. This research would be especially useful to policymakers in designing and implementing strategies that will empower teachers to increase their results. Various restricting factors to teacher work satisfaction will be highlighted in this report. This research would aid in the development of a more effective motivational approach for teachers. Finally, the thesis is intended to add to the current body of expertise in the field of teacher job encouragement and encourage more studies in other states on non-incentive as a motivation strategy for teachers.


1.6 Scope Of The Study

This study focuses only on the non-financial incentives and its relationship in influencing teachers’ performance in rural primary schools in Lagos state.


1.7 Limitations Of The Study

The only limitation faced by this study was insufficient time to broaden the reach of this study.


1.8 Operational Definition Of Terms

Non-Financial Incentives:

This simply refers to any other benefit asides monetary incentives given to an individual in order to encourage so said person to perform better.

Rural:

Simply refers to an underdeveloped area.

Rural Primary School:

A primary school which is located in an underdeveloped area.


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