Influence Of Nigerian Home Video Films On Criminality
The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of Home Video films on criminality. The new media that have assumed positions of importance in Nigeria today are the home- videos, computers, facsimile and statutes disc video. Against this backdrop, the researcher adopts the historical, descriptive and analytical approaches as its method of reflecting on how the video films phenomenon- emerged in Nigeria and what issues the Nigerian video films Industry busy-themselves with. It concludes by canvassing the government and other stakeholders in West Africa should explore the huge potentiality of the home video films industry in creating employment opportunities and redressing contemporary social challenges.
The work has shown that most Nigerians regular viewers of Home video films watched about twenty four films monthly. The Nigerian Home Videos do not portray any traditional African values and that the movies do not safeguard traditional African values like honesty, hospitability, modesty etc. There is too much display of sex- related immorality (Nudity, prostitution etc) in the Home movies. It concludes by canvassing the government and other stakeholders in West Africa should explore the huge potentiality of the home video films industry in creating employment opportunities and redressing contemporary social challenges.
Table Of Content
- Title page
- Certification page
- Table of content
- 1.1 Background Of Study
- 1.2 Statement Of The Problem
- 1.3 Objectives Of The Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypotheses
- 1.6 Significance Of The Study
- 1.7 Scope/Limitations Of The Study
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Introduction To The New Technology
- 2.2 The Theatre In Nigeria Before The Video – A Brief History
- 2.3 The Emergence Of Video Film In Nigeria
- 2.4 The Home Video Industry In Nigeria
3.0 Home Videos And Movies On The Screen Today
- 3.1 The Nigerian Movies Today
- 3.2 Pornography And Sex
- 3.3 Violence And Criminality
4.0 Data Analysis
- 4.1 Results
- 4.2 Discussion
5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation
- 5.1 Conclusion
- 5.2 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
Nigerian movies, popularly referred to as Nollywood movies, produced by the Nigerian film industry uses formats such as video cassette, video compact disc (VCD), and more recently the digital video disc (DVD), in producing their movies. These Nigerian movies are also shown on some channels such as “Africa Magic”, “Nollywood”, “Magic Africa”, etc, on DSTV, “Cine Africa”, “MYTV”, as well as other cable networks which people subscribe to and which are viewed by the audience through the television, which is classified under the types of media, among others.
The media is evidently seen as one of the agents of socialization, in the study of the society. This means that the media is capable of influencing the attitude, character, lifestyle and culture of individuals either negatively or positively. Therefore, it is important to know what kind of movies are being produced for viewing, since as a result of technology, more and more people in the society, have access to television.
According to Daramola(2005), “The mass media are very powerful socializing agents. The mass media are mainly newspapers, magazines, radio, television and movies. They are impersonal sources and they reach large, heterogeneous and widely dispersed audiences. Their exact role in socialization is controversial but as disseminators of news and entertainment, they are extremely influential. The mass media therefore, especially the television, have been linked by several studies of having great influence upon socialization of children, adolescents and even adults”.
Consciously or unconsciously, people, most especially children and youth, learn different aggressive and violent acts as they constantly watch these movies and most times they end up exhibiting such acts within their neighborhood, in school and within other social gatherings. As they watch movies with violent themes, they are likely to exhibit various criminal acts like bullying, kicking, raping and other delinquent behaviors. (Oslow, 2003)
The themes of these movies are indeed broad and covering Nigerian, African, and universal issues such as, the evils of polygamy, extra marital affairs, elopement, different forms of rituals, cultism, betrayal, marriage, witchcraft, incest, clash of Western and traditional cultures, landlords and tenants, widowhood, teenage pregnancy, drug trafficking, campus life, tribal conflicts, religious conflicts, organized crime, murder, etc (Akpabio, 2003:138-139).
Some other movies have themes solely based on Christianity and the evils that go on in churches and among pastors, such as those produced by Mount Zion Ministries, for the purpose of spreading the gospel and pointing out the ills that go on even in churches. Some examples include, “Busy but guilty”, “Blood on the altar”, “One careless night”, etc. Many other movies could be educative and portray some Nigerian culture, while others could also be in form of documentaries, showing the history of some Nigerian culture as well as how it has evolved. An example of such documentary movies is “Towards a metaphysics”, produced in 2010. But unfortunately, the most common themes evident in the majority of Nigerian movies includes violence, which umbrellas cultism, murder, rape, aggressive fights, etc, and Romance, which covers sex, nudity and vulgarity or the use of strong language, etc. Another common theme is that of rituals and the use of traditional medicine.
Most of these are evidently negative themes and are therefore malevolent to the development of personality and behavior of its audience members in our contemporary society, especially the youth and children who are still at the primary and secondary stage of their socialization or learning process, and are vulnerable or prone to picking up or adopting attitudes and behaviors from what they observe in the movies.
The portrayal of negative themes has been the base of Nigerian film industry, probably because of the gains gotten from constant patronage from its audience as well as the interest the audience members have in pornography, nudity, violence and the likes. The industry was accused of over-emphasizing negative themes. The National Film and Video Censors Board, (the industry regulatory body), in its guidelines for motion picture producers, called for production to be above board in portrayal of violence, crimes, sex, pornography, vulgarity, obscenity and other sensitive subjects (NFVBC, 2000:107-111).
Today, the nature of most Nigerian movies have grown or evolved from bad to worse, especially on the part of those that portray sex, pornography and vulgarity. From experience, a comparison of older films such as “Outcast 1 & 2” and “Night Out (Girls for sale)” produced between 1999 and 2000 and more recent ones such as “Dirty Secret” and “Men in Love” produced between 2010 and 2011, has proven that the level of the portrayal of nudity, pornography and sex has become worse than before, the actors and actresses are now more comfortable with being nude, while acting.
This is definitely malevolent to some audience members who will develop more interest in pornography and may eventually become addicts. This will not only increase the number of rape reports, but will also give rise to more and more cases of teenage pregnancies, abortion, as well as abandonment of unwanted babies which increases the number of children to be cared for at motherless babies homes.
Another issue is the constant production and distribution of these movies, which goes to show that people actually patronize them by buying the movies for either personal viewing or to rent to people in video shops, in spite of the nature of most of these movies.
Therefore, in trying to find out how home videos can pose as malevolent to our contemporary society, it is also important to find out what the members of the audience think about the nature of some of the themes portrayed in home videos, as well as what their attitudes towards such movies are, since it directly affect them.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
If an investigation or a study is carried out on the category of people that make up the majority of the audience members of Nigerian movies, the result will definitely prove that it is children, adolescents and the youth. The minority will be older people because of the responsibilities of going to work, earning a living and planning a home, which they are faced with. As the youth grow and mature into adulthood, they gradually lose interest in watching movies because they begin to prioritize some things over others and also develop a sense of responsibility (Daramola, 2005).
A study by Liebert and Poulson (1972), cited by Hess at al (1988), reveals that children in Canada begin to watch television before they are three years old. By the age of eighteen, a child will have spent more time in front of the television than anywhere else, including school. In the United States of America, children watch over three hours of television per day.
Schaefer and Lamm (1997) study, also reveal that apart from sleeping, watching television is the most time-consuming activity of young people. The same trend is going on in the Nigerian contemporary society, particularly in the urban cities. It is very common to find children watching movies and videos every day.
Since members of the audience of Nigerian movies also constitute members of the society, and the media, especially television, is also capable of influencing an individual’s behavior, the negative effects of these videos will also indirectly affect the society at large. That is to say that if people adopt some certain behavior as a result of these movies, it could indirectly affect the society by creating social problems such as, increase in rape reports, abortion, over-crowding of motherless babies homes due to unwanted babies, violence, increased crime rates and juvenile delinquencies, e t c.
Therefore, this study seeks to look at the extent of malevolence of Nigerian movies in our contemporary society, by looking at the nature and content of these movies and why it is still being patronized by audience members despite its malevolent nature.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The major objectives of this study, is to ascertain the impact of Nigerian movies on the general society.
The specific objectives of the study are as follows:-
- To ascertain if there is an over-emphasis of negative themes in Nigerian movies.
- To identify the negative effects or disadvantages associated with watching Nigerian movies.
- To find out how Nigerian movies can affect the society indirectly.
- To suggest ways to prevent or reduce the negative effects or malevolence caused by Nigerian movies in our contemporary society.
1.4 Research Questions
This study will seek answers to questions such as:
- Is there an over-emphasis of negative themes in Nigerian movies?
- What are the negative effects or disadvantages associated with watching Nigerian movies?
- How can Nigerian movies affect the society indirectly?
1.4 Research Hypotheses
- Ho; There is no significant relationship between Nigerian video films and criminality.
- Hi; There is a significant relationship between Nigerian video films and criminality.
- Ho; There are no negative effects or disadvantages associated with watching Nigerian movies.
- Hi; There arenegative effects or disadvantages associated with watching Nigerian movies
1.6 Significance of the Study
It is obvious that Nollywood to a very large extent contributes to violence in Nigeria. A worrisome aspect of these films is that none of the film-makersactively canvasses for the discouragement of the negative tendencies acted out on the screen. And the failure by movie producers to make any strong comment against social ills is a short coming of the films that use violence in their messages. The implication is that such films rather than amelioring violent acts in the society tend to aggravate them, Folarin, .
The study looks at the malevolence of Nigerian movies in our contemporary society. The study does not dispute the fact that the television which is one aspect of the media, is also very beneficial to learning and development processes, and as a matter of fact, goes a long way in socializing individuals by helping them blend more easily into the society due to the amount of information passed on to the audience through well-coordinated motion pictures with various contents and storylines.
As a medium of communication, the home videos are influential media and have the capacity of sending a wrong message or impression to the viewing audience especially young people in their vulnerable stages of growth. Moreover, such impression could spell a big problem to the entire society owing to the fact that the youth learn more easily from what they see or observe than from what they hear.
However, as every research work is expected to add to the existing knowledge, this study should serve as a referencing material to students and other researchers who will be carrying out research on related studies.
Also Nigerian film makers will benefit from the information contained here as a yard stick to measure the level of their weaknesses and compare it with the strengths they have which could serve as a guide to correcting their weak points for a better future of their products and the society at large.
This study’s significance is also justifiable on the grounds that it will contribute largely to the understanding of the negative effects of home videos or the malevolent nature of some home videos towards our contemporary society, which would spur film makers to improve on the quality and the contents of the movies produced.
Parents will also become aware or be exposed to the negative effects of movies and how they can influence their children’s behavior both on the long and short run. This would cause them to seek means of controlling their children’s viewing habits and be conscious of what they watch and the themes embedded in these movies. Resultantly, this would reduce the negative impacts, as well as the level of malevolence caused by movie watching in our contemporary society.
Based on various theories, or rather as a result of these theories, film makers will then try to adhere to National Broadcasting Corporation (NBC) laws by differentiating the age ratings for various movies, while the Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation will also try to review and censor the movies before they get into circulation. And the parents on the other hand will ensure that children watch only the movies specified for their various ages.
To conclude, this study is significant because it seeks to investigate these issues of negativity in movie themes and its effects on people and the society at large, as well as identify and proffer possible solutions to curb the problem, by finding out the roots of these problems. Although it may be impossible to completely erase them, the study seeks to discover how the problem can be reduced and controlled.
1.7 Scope / Limitations of the Study
This study on the influence of Nigerian Home video films on criminality.
Limitations of Study
1. Financial constraint
Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
2. Time constraint
The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation
The Nigerian video film industry has grown in leaps and bounds. It has received international acceptance and accolades; at least, it has been tagged Nollywood by the New York Time – magazine for being able to replicate the glamour and glitz associated with Hollywood and Bollywood in West Africa and indeed the whole of Africa. From Nigeria to Ghana, Kenya to South Africa, huge audiences are welcoming the Nigerian video films with open arms.
The researcher like to concede that whichever way one chooses to look at it, though a significant factor in this boom is that the influx is an important testimony to the mood and preoccupation of our time. This in essence embodies an accelerated cultural and artistic development. Apart from upholding cultural values and transmitting same to generations coming, the educative and entertaining values of Home Videos can never be in doubt, more especially the didactic motif.
Movies remain a veritable window to the world and for the world to view any nation. By highlighting positive aspects of our national life, movies help to reinforce positive attitudes, and remain a great tool for mass mobilizations and socialization.
Meanwhile some of the films churned out these days have been elegantly controversial, others are ridiculously bemusing and, if it would not bother on extremity, some are downright stupid. The worst culprits of the latter generation are those hovering around super national themes. Most of these lack substance in the storylines while the thematic concerns are often shallow, ill-treated. They merely catalogue episodes of charm fighting spiced with a generous recitation of – gibberish incantations.
Regardless of the current “reality” movies for the researcher should also, act as inspirational vehicles, driving people towards positive values.
The various Governments of Nigeria and continental African should synergize efforts at supporting the teeming video film industry. The reason being that Nolloywood or Africawood is capable of playing a central role of job creation, youth empowerment, poverty alleviation, ethnic/religions, conflict, resolution and the fight against HIV/AIDS pandemic, if the present artistic, economic, social and cultural structures are effectively and efficiently strengthened.
There’s a need to initiate and drive new multi agency strategy in content development and professionalism in film.
There should be effective monitoring of the agencies responsible for the regulation of the industry.
The film censorship committee should make an effort to ensure that video films sold in the country meet the stipulated standards.
Parents should be educated on the proper films for children and why children must be accompanied by adults when watching certain films.
Parents should be told that video watching is not necessarily superior to other forms of leisure as some parents erroneously believe. Nor should there be an overdose of foreign material if video must be watched. More Nigerian films should be shown in order to teach Nigerian values.
There should also be a balance between video watching and local television watching. Entertainment should not be at the expense of news and current affairs.
Empirical studies should be conducted on various aspects of the video culture such as the effects of violent fare on children’s behaviour. Whether there is a relationship between the video culture and crime and the implications of the video culture for copyright and artistic performance. This is necessary in order to remedy the current near total absence of quantitative and qualitative data on the new technology in Nigeria.
More so, to maintain sanity in the Industry, All the associations in the industry must pull their resources together. Such regulatory bodies as the Censors Board, the Nigerian Video Marketers Association (AGN), the Directors Guild of Nigeria (DGN), the Nigerian Video Marketers Association (NVMA), the conference of motion picture practitioners of Nigeria (CMPPN) and the many others must gear up to the battle ahead. There should be to recess the industry for the purpose of sanity.
Influence Of Nigerian Home Video Films On Criminality
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