Influence Of Multimedia Aids In Teaching Agricultural Science In Secondary School (A Case Study Of Ganye Local Government Area, Adamawa State)

Agricultural Education Project and Seminar Material

Influence Of Multimedia Aids In Teaching Agricultural Science In Secondary School (A Case Study Of Ganye Local Government Area, Adamawa State)


Abstract


The study examined the influence of multimedia aids in teaching agricultural science in secondary school. The study found that they were not adequate for full ICT integration in the teaching and learning process due to the fact that in most schools some multimedia equipment was very few. The majority of teachers and students alike reported to have had some form of ICT training however, they demonstrated low level of confidence in performance of several skills. The study concluded Agricultural Science Teachers should realize that a lot of changes are going on in education and the business world and therefore should not wait for school authorities to monitor or direct them on the right thing to do. They should develop themselves and constantly use e-Learning tools as teaching strategies in teaching tasks. This will help them to develop professionally, keep abreast of modern technology, improve academic performance


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Purpose of the Study
  • 1.4 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Scope of the Study
  • 1.7 Research Questions
  • 1.8 Organization of the study

Chapter Two:

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Review
  • 2,2 Theoretical Review
  • 3.3 Theoretical studies

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research design
  • 3.3 Target population
  • 3.4 Sampling techniques and sample size
  • 3.5 Research instruments
  • 3.6 Validity of research instruments
  • 3.7 Reliability of research instruments
  • 3.8 Data collection procedures
  • 3.9 Data analysis techniques
  • 3.10 Ethical considerations

Chapter Four:

Data Analysis and Result Presentation

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Data Analysis
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.5 Discussion of findings

Chapter Five:

Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • 5.4 Recommendations for further study
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

The breath-taking developments in technology advancement (e-learning) are continuously revolutionizing the instructional process not just through introduction of technological devices but by making 360 degrees shift in the instructional pendulum, from teacher-centered to learner centered instruction.

Electronic learning is an inclusive term that describes educational technology that electronically or technologically supports learning and teaching. Naidu (2006) described e-Learning as incorporating all educational activities that are carried out by individuals or groups working online or offline, and synchronously or asynchronously via networked or stand alone computer and other electronic devices. Electronic learning is concerned with learning through any electronic medium that may or may not be connected to the internet. Electronic learning is basically the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) to enhance and support teaching and learning (Ipaye, 2011).

Electronic learning tools are those electronic learning devices that can be use to enhance and support teaching and learning. Brown and Voltz (2005) viewed Multimedia tools to include: multi-media, internet, and blended learning, Electronic learning has an advantage of enabling students to learn from anywhere and anytime. It also provides a one-stop service for Agricultural Science Teachers and lecturers in order to create and deliver educational content quickly, effectively, and economically (Bupo & Ndinechi, 2015).

The primary role of these Multimedia tools for teaching strategies was to provide effective and efficient ways to improve teaching and learning in Agricultural Science in secondary schools. Therefore, multimedia are needed because they involve the combination of the various digital media types such as text, sound, CD-Rom, video dice, hypermedia software, video camera, interactive radio, multimedia projector, digital projector and virtual library among others into an integrated application or presentation to convey a message or information to an audience.

The use of under listed multimedia for teaching would aid a business educator organizes his/her course content in such a way that enhances experience of the students. Ogunsola and Adesoye (2006) asserted that multimedia add new dimension to learning experience because concept is easier to present and complemented with image and animation.

Blended learning is a combination of computer, internet and digital media with established classroom forms that require the physical copresence of the teachers and students (Naidu, 2006). It helps Agricultural Science Teachers to acquire learning on face-to-face mode while enjoying the fruits of the far available items like computer, plasma screen, power point, educational software, and virtual classroom among others. Many schools have utilized blended learning tools for teaching strategies, however; the extent to which they are used is still unknown. The importance of these blended learning is that, it is a means to a learning encounter in which faceto-face or the traditional teacher-learner instruction is combined with technology-mediated instruction. To be successful in utilization of Multimedia, teaching and learning could appropriately involve the use of telecommunication (Horton & Horton in Bupo (2012).

Telecommunication is a means of exchange of information over significant distance by electronic means. Some Agricultural Science Teachers in schools have been provided with this Multimedia tools but the extent to which they are used is still unknown while in some schools they are not. Horton and Horton in Bupo (2012) pointed out that the use of mobile smart phones, interactive television, podcasting, video conferencing, computer aided assessment and satellite cable among others will improve learner-centered learning. There seem to be uncertainty in how Agricultural Science Teachers utilize telecommunication tools for teaching strategies.

Electronic Learning tools for teaching strategies by Agricultural Science Teachers is pivoted by training and retraining given to Agricultural Science Teachers. Training is the process of developing skills, habits, knowledge and attitudes in employees for the purpose of increasing the effectiveness of the employees in their present positions as well as preparing them for future positions in the service, while retraining means providing additional training to people who are already trained, in order to further enhance their productivity, that is competence to handle contemporary challenges in their professional areas (Cole in Otuka, 2010). This can be done through in-service trainings, conferences, seminars, and workshops on the use of e-Learning mode for the process of teaching and learning. Kling in Bupo (2012) noted that the use of e-Learning is affected by level of training and retraining of Agricultural Science Teachers on the use of information communication technology devices.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The call for influence of Multimedia tools as teaching strategies by Agricultural Science Teachers in instructional delivery is to infuse and inject efficiency and effectiveness in curriculum implementation. The importance of Multimedia is enormous. It is gaining knowledge and experience through the use of electronic devices such as computers, television, and internet among others. Naidu (2006) conceived e-Learning as incorporating all educational activities that are carried out by individuals or groups working online or offline, synchronously or asynchronously via networked or stand-alone computer and other electronic devices. It provides a range of tools that can significantly extend and enrich teacher’s instructional strategies and support student learning.

However, observation shows that Multimedia tools as teaching strategies are in place. For teachers to utilize them they may require some inducements such as training and retraining. According to Brown and Voltz (2005), Multimedia tools as teaching strategies as multimedia, internet, blended learning if they are in place, while Ziewer and Seidi (2011) named telecommunication, training and retraining of Agricultural Science Teachers. Generally, in Agricultural Science, Multimedia tools as teaching strategies are adopted by teachers if they had training experience. There appears to be inadequate fund available to schools for training of their teachers in e-Learning skills and also insufficient number of equipment and electronic devices.

Therefore, the inability of Agricultural Science Teachers to utilize these Multimedia tools as teaching strategies could result to teaching and learning continuing to be teacher–centered rather than learner-centered. It could also hinder collaborative, active and lifelong learning. It is from this background that the present study is carried out to determine the extent of influence of Multimedia tools as teaching strategies by Agricultural Science Teachers in secondary schools in Adamawa State Nigeria.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study s to assess the influence of multimedia aids in teaching agricultural science in secondary school


1.4 Objectives of the Study

  1. Multimedia as teaching tools for e-Learning by Agricultural Science Teachers in secondary schools in Adamawa State Nigeria.
  2. Internet as teaching tools for e-Learning by Agricultural Science Teachers in secondary schools in Adamawa State Nigeria.
  3. Assess the extent Agricultural Science Teachers in secondary schools in Ganye Local Government utilize multimedia as teaching tools for e-Learning
  4. The ways teachers and students integrate multimedia in teaching and learning agricultural science?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The findings would benefit teachers by providing a vast number of resources that can assist them in teaching and planning for different avenues through which students can learn best. This would enable the teacher to make request for appropriate resource materials to authorities responsible for e-Learning strategies.

The findings would benefit government through the Ministry of Education to decide on modalities for training and order for efficiency and effectively use of the new instructional mode to achieve the objectives of Agricultural Science. This would enable government to organize sensitization programme on the need for compulsory implementation of e-Learning in Agricultural Science.

Finally, the findings of this study would be a useful reference source for future researchers. This would also serve as a guide to them for research on strategies for enhancing e-Learning in their area of concern.


1.6 Scope of the Study

The study focused on extent of influence of Multimedia tools as teaching strategies by Agricultural Science Teachers in secondary schools in Adamawa State, Nigeria. The scope of this study covered both public schools inAdamawa State Nigeria. The independent variables were restricted to Agricultural Science Teachers gender, type of institutions and ownership of institutions.


1.7 Research Questions

  1. How is Multimedia used as teaching tools for e-Learning by Agricultural Science Teachers in secondary schools in Adamawa State Nigeria?
  2. How is Internet used as teaching tools for e-Learning by Agricultural Science Teachers in secondary schools in Adamawa State Nigeria?
  3. What is the extent Agricultural Science Teachers in secondary schools in Ganye Local Government utilize multimedia as teaching tools for e-Learning?
  4. What ways do teachers and students integrate multimedia in teaching and learning agricultural science?

1.8 Organization of the Study

The study is organized into six chapters.

  • Chapter one covers; background to the study, statement of the problem, general objective of the study, specific objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, limitation of the study, delimitations of the study, operational definition of terms and organization of the study.
  • Chapter two covers review of related literature arranged as per study objectives and explained from global, regional and narrowing to Nigerian situation while identifying research gaps through local studies done, summary of the literature review, theoretical framework and conceptual framework.
  • Chapter Three covers research methodology which includes: introduction, research design, target population, sampling techniques and sample size, data collection instruments, validity and reliability of research instruments, data collecting procedures, data analysis techniques and ethical considerations.
  • Chapter four covers research results of the study.
  • Chapter five covers discussions and interpretations of research findings.

Chapter Five


Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

Based on the findings of the study, it was concluded that Agricultural Science Teachers in secondary schools in Ganye LGA utilized multimedia and internet training and retraining of Agricultural Science Teachers as teaching tools for e-learning at moderate extent as a result of insufficient training and retraining given to them. The outcome of the study also revealed that gender, type of institutions and ownership of institutions did not affect the extent of utilization of e-learning tools as teaching strategies by Agricultural Science Teachers as an instructional delivery in secondary schools in Ganye LGA. However they were not adequate for full ICT integration in the teaching and learning process due to the fact that in most schools some multimedia equipment were very few for instance desktop and laptops computers and LCD projectors. The majority of teachers and students alike reported to have had some form of ICT training however, they demonstrated low level of confidence in performance of several skills. Generally there is low extent of multimedia integration by both teachers and students and the implementation of ICT integration policy was hampered by various challenges that need to be addressed.


5.2 Implications of the Study

Findings of this study have serious implications on teaching Agricultural Science courses. It was assumed that all the Agricultural Science Teachers in Ganye LGA are meant to inculcate in the students positive learning through the use of appropriate teaching tools for e-Learning in Agricultural Science. That the majority of them utilized e-learning tools for teaching strategies mentioned above to moderate extent and small extent which means that they are still strongly attached to the traditional method of teaching. This, as stated earlier will retrogressively result in the production of Agricultural Science graduates who will be inadequately to able work with the new instructional mode where skill acquisition is demanded. Thus, it will cause poor performance of Agricultural Science graduates in the world of work, difficulty in getting employment or even survive as future Agricultural Science Teachers after graduation.

Another implication of this study is that every business educator should attend regular in-service education so as to keep abreast of current and future innovations in teaching. This implies that all categories of Agricultural Science Teachers (both serving and newly recruited) should attend regular refresher courses, so as to update and equip themselves with current technology advancement especially new instructional delivery strategies.


5.3 Recommendations

Based on the findings and conclusion drawn from the study, the following recommendations are made:

  1. Agricultural Science Teachers should realize that a lot of changes are going on in education and the business world and therefore should not wait for school authorities to monitor or direct them on the right thing to do. They should develop themselves and constantly use e-Learning tools as teaching strategies in teaching tasks. This will help them to develop professionally, keep abreast of modern technology, improve academic performance of Agricultural Science graduates and bridge the gaps that exist between what is taught in school and what is obtainable in business world.
  2. In–service training programmes such as seminar, in–service course, conferences and workshops on the use and operation of new learning technologies should be made compulsory for all practicing Agricultural Science Teachers and lecturers from secondary schools in Ganye LGA to enable them develop up-to-date e-Learning competences, knowledge, and skills.
  3. Agricultural Science Teachers in secondary schools in Ganye LGA should basically be involved in the use of these e-learning tools as teaching strategies from great extent to a very great extent in the education process.

5.4 Limitations of the Study:

Accessibility of some of the colleges of education in remote areas of the State affected the completion of this study on record time, because the research assistants could not get to the locations on time due to bad roads. Another limitation encountered in the study was that Agricultural Science Teachers in some of the secondary schools were hesitant to fill the questionnaire. Many of them felt it was a waste of their time and this led to the researcher pleading with them that the questionnaire was for research purpose only. Finally, the study was limited to accuracy of information got from the respondents, as indicated by their objectivity in completing the questionnaire items.


5.5 Suggestions for Further Study

The results of the present study suggest that further studies could be undertaken in the following areas:

  1. Assessment of Agricultural Science Teachers’ use of e-learning facilities in secondary schools in Anambra State.
  2. Assessment of the adequacy of e-learning facilities in secondary schools in Ganye LGA.
  3. Perceived effective e-learning tools as strategies by secondary school business studies teachers in Anambra State.

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