Influence Of Motivation On Secondary School Students Academic Performance In Ilorin Metropolis
This study was carried out to analyse the influence of motivation on students’ academic performance in five selected secondary schools in Ilorin Metropolis.
Five schools within the area were sampled. Influences of motivation on students’ academic performance were discussed. These include meaning of motivation, importance of motivation and theories of motivation. This study is therefore an attempt at investigating the influence of motivation in secondary schools in Ilorin Metropolis. Two hundred questionnaires were used for data collection.
The finding reveals that the inadequate number of qualified teachers has not been a problem in teaching in the schools but inadequate teachers and motivation have influence on students’ academic performance in secondary schools were offered. Among these are: Government should take motivation of teachers very important to pursue their education to higher level in order to achieve standard academic performance of the students in our schools.
Also government should make provision for regular in-service training of teachers in order to make them have more knowledge that will be of benefit to their development in their professional career.
Table of Contents
- Title Page
- Table Of Contents
- List Of Tables
- Background of the Study
- Statement of the Problem
- Purpose of the Study
- Research Questions
- Research Hypotheses
- Delimitation and Scope of the Study
- Significance of the Study
- Operational Definition of Terms
Review of the Related Literature
- Meaning of Motivation
- Importance of Motivation
- Theories of motivation
- Expectancy Theory of Motivation
- Requirements of a Good Motivational System
- Relationship between Motivation and Performance
- Appraisal of Literature Reviewed
- Research Design
- Population of the Study
- Sample and Sampling Techniques
- Research Instrument
- Validity of the Instrument
- Reliability of the Study Instrument
- Procedure for Data Collection
- Method of Data Analysis
Results and Discussion
- Data Presentation
- Discussion of Findings
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
List of Tables
- Table 1: Analysis of Respondents by Qualifications
- Table 2: Analysis of Respondents by Years of Cognate Teaching Experience
- Table 3: Chi-square test on significance difference in school
- Table 4: Chi-square test on significant difference in schools 5
1.1 Background to the Study
Motivation related to the drives, desires, needs and forces that move individual towards the achievement of a goal.
Therefore, motivators are those things and situation that induce and sensitize individuals to perform a specific task. Motivation has something to do with the force that maintains and after the direction, quality and intensity of behaviour.
Hence, various definitions of motivation reveal three important ingredients of motivation. These are:
- What energizes (initiates) human behaviours such as inner state of mind needs of state of disequilibrium etc?
- How was the behaviour is directed, that is, activities involved in meeting the needs?
- How the behaviour can be maintained or changed. A positively directed behaviour has to be maintained with a negatively directed behaviour needs to be changed?
Motivation may either be an internal or external force. Adegbite (2003) related that internal force is innate and it has the tendency to push or drive an individual to greater achievement. External forms, on its own, may be inform of the whip of the task maker. They may equally be in the form of social pressures or forces which “attracts or repels”. For instance, an individual may be drawn to strive to attain what others have attained or something comparable. It should be noted however, that most actions are motivated by more than one driving or drawing force. This project focuses on motivation as a tool of agent of activities. No matter how careful management may forecast, formulate policies and plan elaborate organization structure, the success of its planning is ultimately in the hands of motivated and committed workers at all levels of the organization. Management must therefore not only plan, but also lead an inspire those upon whom it relies to implement its policies and makes the organization to function effectively.
Educational organization cannot achieve its goal if the workers are not thoroughly motivated. By and large, motivation is a central issue that permits all aspect of teacher and as it relates to teaching and learning. Designing a good motivation programme will therefore lead to increase in productivity in any educational setting.
Investigation conducted reveals that students of some schools are performing academically, while some fail in their studies.
- The questionnaires as to why is it that some student in some school are academically sound?
- Can we say this student have better potentials than their counterparts in other schools?
A cursory look at the situation above reveals that, students that are academically sound are better equipped, treated in terms of facilities, infrastructural and other essential amenities as against their counterparts in other schools, who lack the necessary material to aid teaching/learning.
This research work therefore looks into how motivational factors encouraged the students to perform better and suggests how schools can motivate teachers and students to be more productive, innovative and effective during the teaching and learning process.
The importance to the development of education cannot be overemphasis. For example, current development on school academic performance has been known to be dwelling a dowry slope step. Many research finding (Yusuf 1999, Olokoba 2003) said reports from our examination councils revealed poor academic results across all levels. Even students in the tertiary institutions are not left out of the problem.
Many methods have been used to find out the causes of poor academic performance in schools. Most of the researchers, have however, concluded that teachers mostly touched the performance of students or performance.
It is also a fact that teachers’ welfare are neglected for examples, teachers salaries and allowances are not paid regularly. The teachers’ promotions are also delayed. Olokoba (2003) reported that teachers’ payments of allowances such as leave bonus are made a public concern through the radio and television. Besides, teachers are not allowed to have say on issues that related to their welfare.
1.3 Statement of the Problem
The major problems of this research are to identify the effect of motivation on academic performance of students in Ilorin South, Kwara State. It has been stated by experts in management that employees are usually motivated by higher level and need satisfaction such as; a job well done, recognition and self actualization.
It now makes more sense than ever to motivate employee with money and money substitutes, such as benefits, employers must re-evaluate pay policies constantly and try to keep in touch with employees’ personal circumstance.
Organizational goals can only be achieved through the joint effort of the workers and the management-employees (teacher) may refuse to put in their bestif they are not adequately rewarded and denied comfortable working conditions.
An employee (teacher/may also refuse to put in his/her best, if he/she is not promoted at the right time, if he is not giving opportunity for advancement. A well motivated worker or student will feel he is having a real impact on the organization. This means that all those who are responsible for the managements of any ministry of organization must be integrated into the system; factor that will motivate people to contribute effectively and efficiently to the success of the organization should be encouraged. A manager does this by creating a conducive environment for people to act undesirable ways. Managers motivate their subordinate is to say that there is no gain saying in the fact that any nation or state that toys with education of its citizenry, toys with its future growth and development. Unfortunately, the present state of educational development can for a sober reflection because it’s usually results to crises which affect the management of secondary schools in the state.
Therefore, there is need to motivate teachers to put in their best in teaching and learning process. Educational goals are achieved through the effective integration of human and materials resources. The human aspect however requires a more careful consideration and approach as different things satisfy different groups of subordinates.
Also, negative human factors are contributing to the fallen standard of education generally as a result of motivational materials that can make our classroom teachers performed effectively and efficiently. Therefore Kwara State Government has desired to take bull by the horn and take concrete step forward salvaging the educational sector from total collapse – (Budget speech on the programmes and policies of good government of Kwara State of Nigeria, this research therefore, is setout to investigate how motivation enhanced performance or productivity of students in Ilorin South Kwara State.
- Are there adequate provisions of welfare facilities to teachers and students in Ilorin Metropolis?
- Are there adequate provision of equipment and facilities in the schools in Ilorin metropolis?
- Is there any provision of in-service training for teachers in Ilorin Metropolis?
- Does government recognize the effort of teachers in Ilorin metropolis either by means of performance of long service awarded?
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this research is to examine the extent to which teachers in secondary schools were motivated as a result of some motivational factors that make them to put in their best in discharging their duty efficiently and adequately. Also for any organization to succeed, the personal functions of attracting motivating and retaining high level of employees should be spell out because whatever the nature of the job they do, only the contended and well motivated workers and would participate fully in making an organization attain its goals.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions will guide the conduct of the study.
- Is there any significant difference on the opinion of male and female teachers on the adequate provision of welfare facilities to teacher (motivational factor) on students’ academic performance in schools?
- Is there any significant difference in the opinion of male and female teachers on the influence of adequate or conducive teaching learning environment on academic performance of students in schools?
- Is there any significant difference on the opinion of male and female teachers on the influence of provision of in-service training to teachers on academic performance of student in schools?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
Three hypotheses will be tested in the study.
- There is no significant difference on the opinion of male and female teachers on the adequate provision of welfare facilities to teacher (motivational factor) on students’ academic performance in schools.
- There is no significant difference in the opinion of male and female teachers on the influence of adequate or conducive teaching learning environment on academic performance of students in schools.
- There is no significant difference on the opinion of male and female teachers on the influence of provision of in-service training to teachers on academic performance of student in schools.
1.6 Delimitation and Scope of the study
This study will be limited to Ilorin metropolis five out of seven secondary schools will be sampled. The information required for this study will be limited to senior secondary schools. They are in better position to know the type and quantity of resources that serve as motivators that are available, that have been used in the schools, and the students in the senior class of the selected secondary schools.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The importance of this research work is to help in improving the condition of service and performance of teachers and students in secondary schools in Ilorin metropolis.
The significance of this research work is to enhance adequate 1provision of welfare facilities to teachers and students in Ilorin metropolis, so that the aims and objectives of education, will be achieved.
The research work proffers solutions on how to prove conducive teaching learning environment in secondary schools in Ilorin metropolis so that teachers may discharge their duties effectively in the classroom.
This research work tends to analyse some of the motivational factors that can enhance teachers and students performance in the class, such as promotion, salaries, wages, job enrichment and positive reinforcement.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
Thievalf et al (1981) define motivation as those inner drives that activate or move an individual to action. Motivation as a concept which has been used in several ways to explain why people behave as they do.
This is the notable action that tends to simply the level of achievement made in a give task or responsibility. Nature of the task is related to motivation and motivation to performance is task without difficulty.
Is the education received after primary school. Also it is the education that prepares one for higher educational system e.g. N.C.E., Polytechnic and university.
They are the leaders of civilians and freedom. They are the greatest contributions to our country progress. They groom our political leaders to struggle for our country to attain independent, teachers are character moulders, because they teach and train the younger ones who will be leaders of tomorrow and without teachers we cannot get individual educated people in the country.
These are the pupils in the school that serve as the input and product of educational institution. Also they are in the school to gain knowledge an some skills and vocation to enable to live a meaning of full life and contribute to the development of the society in all its ramifications.
Is the activity which helps learners to learn using every materials that are available and for effective, suitable teaching. Also consideration is given to the nature of a child, the goals.
Means to gain knowledge or skill in the study, practice of taught, learning occurs only when you study or you’ve taught or practice particular skill that can lead to a change in behaviour, that is relatively permanent. This changes could be traced to exposure to environmental conditions as well as.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
This chapter deals with the summary, conclusion and recommendation based on the analysis and discussion in chapter four.
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of motivation on students’ academic performance in five selected secondary schools in Ilorin Metropolis.
Data were collected from two hundred (200) randomly selected. Qualified teachers has not been a problem in teaching in the schools but inadequate teachers and motivation have influence on students’ academic performance in secondary schools were offered. Among these are: Government should take motivation of teachers very important to pursue their education to higher level in order to achieve standard academic performance of the students in our schools.
This study ahs brought the light, the influence of teachers’ motivation and how of ten it affects students’ academic performance in secondary schools.
However, from the result of the finding of teachers with teaching qualification and years of experience they are more on the ground – with this, we can say that inadequate number of qualified teacher has not been a problem in the teaching in the schools but their efficiency and effectiveness can be retarded by the degree of motivation that the government has fore the teachers. Maslow (1943) who propounded: physiological need, safety need, social need, self-esteem need and self-actualization.
It can also be concluded that government did not motivate teachers on satisfactory wages because many teachers comment that the wages are not conducive for teachers, instead, teachers were living uncomfortably. Finally, the teachers did not receive high professional standard boosters, which did not allow the teachers to contribute effectively and efficiently on the job. This inadequacy can be attributed to insincerity of government to educational needs interm of provision of equipment, facilities and other motivational factors to aid teaching and learning in educational institutions.
From the foregoing survey, one can say with confidence that adequate supply of staff with the right professional qualification and good experience and teachers’ motivation is of paramount importance in achieving effective teaching and learning, which influence the students’ academic performance in secondary schools throughout the country, it is therefore suggested that:
Government in this country especially in Ilorin metropolis should make sure that they take motivation of teachers as very important to help them pursue their education to higher level in order to achieve, standard academic performance of the students in our schools.
Government should see that satisfactory high salary is provided for teachers and giving them special allowances for teaching profession; government should also see to the teacher’s regular promotion, implementation of teachers’ salary structure (TSS) and regular upward salary review. It is also recommended that good teaching aids should be provided for our schools in order to aid teaching and learning for standard structure academic performance. Good office with adequate furniture should also be provided by the government of teachers so as to achieve maximum realization of educational goals and objectives.
Government should have provisions for adequate school facilities (e.g. classroom and library), regular opportunity for excursion is also very important as it attacks, attention of students, teachers, psychologists, employers and other researchers. From indications, it shows that reasonable student – teacher ratio, free hand to discipline erring students, also contribute to standard achievements of academic performance or productivity – employers ought to know the techniques for motivating their employers inorder to facilitate effective performance and increase productivity.
Government should also have provision for regular in-service training for teachers in order to make them have more knowledge which will be of use to their development of their professional career.
Regular study leave with pay is also part of it, access to far and near professional conferences, seminars and workshop that attract handsome monetary allowance can also contribute to effectiveness teachers. Functional professional ethics also helps employers to encourage employees to device means of satisfying their various needs in a desirable manner. Therefore, government should try to use different motivational strategies to promote teaching and learning process in educational system.
Finally, on the basis of the delimitation of the study, it is suggested that a similar research be carried out in other states and local government area of the federation or comparison. Also studies could be conducted into the impact of motivation on the student’s academic performance in the junior secondary school certificate examination. Similar studies should be conducted on the influence of teachers’ motivation on the students’ academic performance in the secondary schools used in this study as well as in other part of the country.
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Frequently Asked Questions
How does motivation influence academic performance?
Hypothesized model for motivation influences performance Our hypotheses were: A relative autonomous or self-determined motivation leads to a good study strategy and high study effort, which leads to better academic performance, i.e. the study strategy mediates the influence of motivation on academic performance.
Does motivation matter in education?
Motivation has been shown to positively influence study strategy, academic performance, adjustment and well-being in students in domains of education other than medical education (Vansteenkiste et al. 2005).
Does relative autonomous motivation affect academic performance?
To determine whether Relative Autonomous Motivation (RAM, a measure of the balance between AM and CM) affects academic performance through good study strategy and higher study effort and compare this model between subgroups: males and females; students selected via two different systems namely qualitative and weighted lottery selection.
What are the motivational profiles of medical students?
Motivational profiles of medical students: Association with study effort, academic performance and exhaustion. [PMC free article][PubMed] Kusurkar R, Kruitwagen C, Ten Cate TJ, Croiset G. Effects of age, gender and educational background on strength of motivation for medical school.