Influence Of Local Government Autonomy On Educational Development In Moto Local Government Area Of Kwara State

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Influence Of Local Government Autonomy On Educational Development In Moto Local Government Area Of Kwara State


Abstract


This work titled, “influence of local government autonomy on educational development in Moto local government area of kwara state” A study of Moto local government area of kwara state” was aimed at ascertaining the extent to which state interference in the management of local government revenue constituted the bane to rural development in kwara state, examining the extent to which poor financial management practice in the local government hinders educational development in Moto local government area of kwara state among others. “Fiscal Federation Theory” by Kenneth Arrow in the 1954 was adopted. Survey research design was adopted to study a population of 532 which was reduced to a sample size of 228 using Taro Yameni’s formula. Simple random sampling technique and stratified sampling technique were used. Data for this study were gathered from primary and secondary sources. Questionnaire instrument for data collection was used. For the purpose of analyzing data collected from the field survey, frequency distribution tables and simple percentage techniques were applied while in testing the hypotheses that guided the study, the chi-square(X2) statistical tool was used. This study revealed that State interference in the management of local government revenue has constituted the bane of rural development in kwara state; the financial autonomy of the local governments is being severely interfered with by the state governments principally through the instrumentality of the State Joint Local Government Account. State governments make local government appendages of the state through State Joint Local Government Account (SJLGA) mechanism, among others. The implication being that if the menace persists in the local government system educational development in Moto local government area of kwara state will be jeopardized; hence, this study recommends that State interference in the management of local government revenue menace should be tackled to enhance effective and efficient service delivery in the rural setting, Local government council management should orient its staffers for proper financial management to enhance educational development in Moto local government area of kwara state among other.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Following the advent of Western Education in Nigeria through the missionary societies, primary schools, were locally managed by voluntary agencies with grant in aids from colonial government. Meanwhile conditions for the receipt of grants in and were served and these include adequate organization, average daily attendance tone of the school, adequate and efficiency of teachers, suitability of building and equipment and good sanitation.

During this time, the colonial government directly administered and managed her few government schools and with the spread of western education to various rural and urban settlement native authorities become the managers of primary education in the North. Then by (1929) there were ninety five (95) primary schools in the North managed by native authorities and give missions school managed by the missionary voluntary agency while at the same time, were sixty five government primary schools in the South managed by Colonial government and two hundred and sixty nine mission/voluntary agencies schools that were granted aid and managed by the mission. With the introduction of free education in Western region in (1955) and in eastern region into the area of primary education management, the scheme led to phenomenon increase in primary school enrolment and consequently inadequate funding and poor management device were tried to maintain the system. These include re-introduction of school fees particularly in Moto local government area. Phasing out of grade iii teacher training colleges and absolute closure of some unviable schools. During (1962-1968) plan period, the federal government made formative effect in salvaging the system by giving grants to regional government for primary education and with the civil war of (1967-1970) more damage particularly in terms of infrastructure in Moto local government area was increased by primary education and indeed the enter educational system following the public education educts of no 4 of (1970), the former Moto local government area took over the ownership and management of all primary and secondary schools in the state. This action was subsequently followed by other states of the federation.

Since time immemorial, local government autonomy has been a discussing issue among academic scholars cum researchers. Local government in Nigeria is a product of decentralization and is established by law. As a federal state, Nigeria has three tiers of government (federal, state and local) whose intergovernmental relations (which include political, financial, judicial and administrative) are mainly established by the constitution. Each tier is required to operate within its area of jurisdiction, and any action to the contrary is null and void to the extent of its inconsistency with the law. This is meant to guarantee the autonomy of each tier.

Generally, local government is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a country. In a federal system like Nigeria, local government usually occupies the third tier government. Specifically, local government is a unit of government below the central, regional or state levels established by law to exercise political authority through a representative council within a defined geographical area (Carr 2005)). Local government is also conceived as a system of local administration instituted to maintain law and order, provide limited range of social amenities and encourage co-operation and participation of inhabitants towards improvement of their conditions of living (Diamond, 2001). From the foregoing definitions, it is deducible to note a core variable like socio-economic development which is clearly stated in the definitions. Through local administration, the living condition of the inhabitants will be improved. The role of the local governments as vital tool for rapid socio-economic development of rural, and urban centers have taken a central stage albeit without a corresponding access to prerequisite financial resources to meet this expectation.

Socio-economic development means pure and adequate provision of basic infrastructure such as roads, clinics, schools, potable water and other communal initiatives that benefit the people. Local government is the focus of government efforts at promoting development through purposeful combination of the local (peoples) effort/energies with that of government with the objective of improving socio-economic conditions and encouraging political participation is a key factor in rural development. It represents the objective expression of the energies of mobilized rural communities in concrete and tangible projects as mentioned above. In order to enthrone better local administration, local government has been going through various reforms aimed at strengthening its capacity to effectively operate and play significant developmental roles in national development process (Fatile & Adejuwon 2009). However, the current platform for local government administration in Nigeria started with the 1976 Guidelines for Local Government Reforms. The Guideline gave the present local government system its basic structure and functions as a third tier of government within the Nigerian federal government arrangement (Abada, 2007; Ade, 2012). Unlike the previous local government reforms, the 1976 reform conceptualized local government as operating within a common institutional framework with defined functions and responsibilities in line with national development objectives (Saalah and Stanley, 2011). Indeed, before the reform, local government was merely local administration without formal recognition as tier of government (Andrews, 2012). Very importantly too, the 1976 reform initiated, particularly, the financial and political autonomy of the local government that was further strengthened by the civil service reform of 1988. As well, the provisions of the 1999 constitution as contained in section 7(1) and section 162 (paragraphs, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8) are intended to also guarantee the local government autonomy. The provisions for the autonomy, as they were, are essentially and ostensibly aimed at protecting the local government from unnecessary interference from other tiers of government and to enable it play significant roles in the national development process. However, findings from researches by scholars and observations by practitioners, overtime, point to the fact that the autonomy of the local government is becoming increasingly difficult to realize following particularly, the propensity of the state governments to interfere in the political/administrative and financial affairs of the local governments.

Over decades today, various strategies and methods have been adopted by the successful government of both developed and developing countries for the purpose of good governance and effort at distributing the state resources and implement them at the local level. The federal structure of Nigeria inhibit local government’s ability to mobilize and use revenue to meet their obligation in sustainable manner (Adeyemo 2005). He further acknowledges that, one of the recurrent obstacles of the third-tier system in the country is the dwindling revenue generation as characterized by annual deficits and insufficient funds for meaningful growth and viable project development. The level of these relationships between and within the nation federating units (i.e federal, State and local government) particularly as it relate to revenue sharing has continually remained issues in the front burner of the nation’s polity. The encroachment of local finance by the state government has negatively affected the performance of local government in terms of its constitutional responsibilities. The setting up of state and local government joint account committee, local government service commission, ministry of local government and chieftaincy affairs and other allied agencies at the state level have made local government financial autonomy a mirage in Nigeria (Wada &Aminu, 2014). Meanwhile, Finance and prudent management are the bedrock of effective functioning of local government administration. It is against this backdrop that Asiwaju (2010) argues the local government requires finance to perform their statutory functions; the ability of the local government to do this is largely dependent on availability of fund, coupled with efficient management which constitutes the required catalyst necessary for timely execution and completion of their development projects. Awotokun & Adeyemo (1999), however expresses some reservations that; in recent time, lack of funds has often been attributed as the major handicap which had hindered effective and successful execution and completion of many projects at the local government level. However, experience has shown the contrary that low finance and allocation by the federal and delay release for local government funds by the state government is the bane of local governments’ inability to achieve substantial development in their jurisdiction (Okoli, 2013).

The above analysis in summary, gears towards lending credence to the fact that the encroachment of local finance by the state government has negatively affected the performance of local government in terms of its constitutional responsibilities as noted earlier by (Wada & Aminu, 2014) thereby hindering educational development in Nigeria local government system including Moto local government area of kwara state of kwara state.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The quest for local government financial autonomy is aimed at reversing State government encroachment into local government administration to enable local government to carry out their saddled responsibility effectively and efficiently. The level at which state government controls local council’s financial allocation through appointed committees who are loyalist to the State Governors is a challenge to local government administration towards rural development. The local government reforms have been articulated in a bid to correct excessive state encroachment, abuse of powers and the use of undemocratic leaders and care-taker committee to run the local governments by the state governments in Nigeria. Of all local government reforms deliberately executed to address these anomalies, the 1976 local government reform which recognized local government as a third tier, accords autonomous powers to the local councils and reduced excessive politicking of state over local government in Nigeria’s political system.

Irrespective of the nature and extent of flaws that may characterize local government financial autonomy in principle and practice in Nigeria, it has, for fairly some time, become an important issue for considerations at the National Assembly as recently done; it has been subjected to various critical discourses. The foregoing nevertheless, not much intellectual efforts have been deployed in examining the local government financial autonomy as a vehicle for redressing inordinate usurpation of power and adequate finance of local governments by state governments at grassroots politics in the country. Local government autonomy has to do with the area of finance.

The issue of State Local government Joint Account has been a thorny issue in Local government State relationship in the Fourth Republic.

In view of this; the researcher formulated the following questions to guide the study:

  1. To what extent has state interference in the management of local government revenue constituted the bane to educational development in kwara state?
  2. To what extent has poor financial management practice in the local government hinders educational development in Moto local government area of kwara state?
  3. To what extent will corruption free and local government autonomy enhance educational development in Moto local government area of kwara state?

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to examine the implications of local government autonomy on educational development in kwara state particularly in Moto local government area of kwara state. The specific objectives of this study include:

  1. To ascertain the extent to which state interference in the management of local government revenue constituted the bane to educational development in kwara state.
  2. To examine the extent to which poor financial management practice in the local government hinders educational development in Moto local government area of kwara state.
  3. To suggest ways in which corruption free and local government autonomy will enhance educational development in Moto local government area of kwara state.

1.4 Research Question

In view of the study objective; the researcher formulated the following questions to guide the study:

  1. To what extent has state interference in the management of local government revenue constituted the bane to educational development in kwara state?
  2. To what extent has poor financial management practice in the local government hinders educational development in Moto local government area of kwara state?
  3. To what extent will corruption free and local government autonomy enhance educational development in Moto local government area of kwara state?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:

  • HA1: State interference in the management of local government revenue has constituted the bane to educational development in kwara state.
  • HA2: Poor financial management practice in the local government hinders educational development in Moto local government area of kwara state.
  • HA3: Corruption free and local government autonomy will enhance educational development in Moto local government area of kwara state.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be highly significance, given the enormous crucial role local government autonomy plays in the local government administration towards promoting educational development in Nigeria and kwara state in particular. In view of this, this study will be significant to the government in making adequate policy efforts that will accommodate grants of autonomy to the local government which will enhance effective and efficient performance through good governance.

Similarly, this research will be of immense benefit to the public especially the local government officials in understanding the objectives and role of local government in promoting educational development. Consequently, it will expose the need to be prudent in management because it is bedrock of effective functioning of local government administration that enhances educational development.

Also, this study will be immensely significant in the field of academics since it will serve as a good reference material to future researchers given the dearth of well researched materials on the implications of local government autonomy on educational development in kwara state.

Finally, this study will be highly beneficial to the researcher in understanding the reasons behind the poor educational development recorded in the local government system in the country.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study covers the implication of local government autonomy on educational development in kwara state, Moto local government area of kwara state in focus. The study also covers the concept of local government and autonomy, the impediment to local government autonomy in Nigeria including kwara state as well as the patterns of state government interference in the local government autonomy and its negative implications towards local government administration that hampered educational development.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

However, several factors constrained this research one of which was the absence of well researched materials on the implication of local government autonomy on educational development in kwara state. The researcher therefore had to use available literature on journals, magazines, internet among others.

The limited time for the research was also a constraint since her class work ran together with the period for the research. However, effective time management helped to ensure the success of this work.

Finally, poor attitude of the respondents to the research also hindered the study though the researcher had to mobilize research assistants to make the study a success.


1.9 Operationalization of the Key Concepts

Local Government:

Is a system of local administration instituted to maintain law and order, provide limited range of social amenities and encourage co-operation and participation of inhabitants towards improvement of their conditions of living.

Autonomy:

In this context means a situation in which each government enjoys a separate existence and independence from the control of the other governments.

Rural:

Is those parts of the cities that are yet to develop. That is villages and communities that lack necessary social amenities that are needed for standard of living.

Development:

Is the process in which someone or something grows or changes and become more advanced.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

The broad objective of this study is to examine the implications of local government autonomy on educational development in kwara state particularly in Moto local government area of kwara state. The study ascertained the extent to which state interference in the management of local government revenue constituted the bane to educational development in kwara state. To examine the extent to which poor financial management practice in the local government hinders educational development in Moto local government area of kwara state and suggested ways in which corruption free and local government autonomy will enhance educational development in Moto local government area of kwara state..

The study adopted the survey descriptive research design and with the aid of convenience sampling method, the researcher conveniently selected two hundred and twenty-eight (228) participant from who are resident of Moto local government area of kwara state. In kwara state. Self- structure questionnaire was issued to the respondent of which 200 was retrieved and validated for the study. Data was analyzed using simple percentage in frequencies and tables. Hypothesis test was conducted using Chi-Square Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS v.23).


5.2 Conclusion

The creation of Local Government anywhere in the world stems from the need to facilitate developments at the grassroots. This attests to the fact that Local Government exist primarily for the provision of public services that will make life worth living for the local residents. Local Government is the focus of government efforts at promoting development. To effectively develop, the people’s efforts must be adequately mobilized. A Purposeful combination of local (peoples) efforts and energies with that of government with the objective of improving socioeconomic conditions and encouraging political participation are key factors in educational development. However, local governments are faced with such challenges like inadequate finance, corruption, poor implementation of projects, lack of competent manpower, high level of illiteracy, lack of due consultation and non-involvement of local dwellers in policy decisions and hijack of local government allocation by the state government. Whereby fiscal power is not decentralized but centralized and there is no fiscal autonomy enjoyed by local governments, the pattern of inter-governmental relations in Nigeria is not in tune with true federalism. The lacks of administrative independence and fiscal autonomy by local governments have made them handicapped in effective service delivery hence has hindered educational development.

Base on the result of the study, it can be concluded that:

  1. State interference in the management of local government revenue has constituted the bane to educational development in kwara state.
  2. Poor financial management practice in the local government hinders educational development in Moto local government area of kwara state.
  3. Corruption free and local government autonomy will enhance educational development in Moto local government area of kwara state.

5.3 Recommendation

From the findings of the study, the following recommendations are made:

  1. The quest for autonomy therefore should be related to financial viability. However, local government financial autonomy should not be seen as making local government a sovereign entity, or the chairmen a local government, thus comparing himself with state governors. But local government financial autonomy should be enjoyed by the citizens at the grassroots.
  2. The constitutional status of local government as contained in Section 7 must be clearly spelt out. This will allow local government to perform the functions for which it was set up. Bye laws can be used to regulate the affairs of the local government. Also, the issue of joint-state-local government account should be modified in order to allow proper monitoring of the activities of local government.
  3. The concept of true federalism should be revisited and practicalized not just in papers. A true federalism is a system of government whereby each level of government is independent of another but interact with another in a co-ordinate form. Most importantly, fiscal federalism. The state should stop tampering with local government fund. The state should also remit 10% of internally generated revenue to the local government purse. The state should allow the principle of federalism to be implemented at the local government level. The relationship between the state and local governments should not be that of superior and sub-ordinate but that of co-operative governance.
  4. Credible Elections should be conducted at the local government level whereby the governing body should be accountable to the rural citizens. The method of using ‘Transition Committee Chairmen, Caretaker Committee and Sole Administrators’ to run the affairs of local governments do not allow for Local government Autonomy. Overall elections should be conducted on the same date and the specified tenure as stated by the constitution should be served. Strong democratic structures in the local governments will improve the inter-governmental relations in kwara state.
  5. Proper implementation of the Rule of Law. The rule of law must prevail. The law should be supreme to all levels of government.Moreover, the judiciary should be made to be independent as undue interference in the local government affairs by the state or federal government should be properly addressed. This will allow for good inter-governmental relations and the performance of local governments will improve. There should be proper checks and balances between the two levels of government between the two levels of government (state and local governments). Clear-cut definitions of functions, duties and responsibilities between the state and the local governments.
  6. More so the legal framework and guidelines should be handed to the local government, adequate funding and state government support should be optimal in order to enhance effective local government administration in Ebonyi local Government and order local government in kwara state.

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