Influence Of Learning Material On Pupils Academic Performance In Private Primary Schools In Abuja Municipal Area Council, Nigeria
1.1 Background to the Study
Education, according to Coombs (1970), consists of two components, inputs and outputs. Inputs consist of human and material resources and outputs are the goals and outcomes of the educational process. Both the input and output form a dynamic organic whole and if one wants to investigate and assess the educational system in order to improve its performance, effects of one component on the other must be examined.
The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Programme for International Pupil Assessment (PISA) shows that resource shortages hinder instruction and lower pupil performance (OECD, 2007). In addition, inequalities in pupil’s educational performance often reflect disparities in the resources invested in schools (OECD, 2008). Johan (2004) states that educational outcomes in schools are closely linked to utilization and adequacy of teaching and learning resources in different ways; poor utilization, underutilization, unqualified educators brings forth low educational achievement. The inadequacy of physical and material resources in schools is a major factor responsible for learning outcome of pupils. Schools that do not have adequate facilities such as workshops, laboratories, classrooms, teaching learning materials are unlikely to post good results.
Studies done in the past on the relationship between learning materials and performance include, Likoko, Mutsotso & Nasongo (2013) in the study on adequacy of instructional materials and physical facilities and their effect on quality of teacher preparation in secondary schools in Enugu state and a study done by Mbaria (2006) on the relationship between learning resources and performance in primary schools in Kano state. All the above studies indicate that learning materials were higher in higher performing schools than in low performing schools and that there is a significant difference in resource availability in the higher performing schools and low performing schools. Also indicate that most institutions are faced with challenges such as lack of adequate facilities like libraries and inadequate instructional materials and these factors tend to have a negative effect on the quality of students produced. Hence, this study aims at studying the influence of learning materials on pupils academic performance in private primary schools in Abuja municipal area council, Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Learning materials are the most visible components of government educational provision and their absence is often noted by stakeholders. Learning materials play a paramount role in the teaching and learning process and inevitably the pupil’s academic performance. This calls for provision of adequate learning materials in private primary schools. Primary schools are faced with a mirage of problems which include inadequate provision of learning materials as a result of poor planning.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The purpose of the study is to examine the influence of learning materials on pupils’ performance in Private primary schools in Abuja municipal area council.
- To determine how availability of teaching and learning materials used in teaching and learning in private primary schools in Abuja municipal area council affect pupils’ performance
- To establish how adequacy of human resource influence pupils’ performance.
- To assess extent of resource utilization and its effect on pupils’ performance
1.4 Research Questions
The research questions of the study are:
- In what ways does availability of learning materials used in private primary schools in Abuja municipal area council affect pupils’ performance?
- How does adequacy of human resource influence pupils’ performance?
- What is the extent of resource utilization in private primary schools in Abuja municipal area council?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The research aimed at assessing the influence of learning materials on pupils’ performance in private primary schools in Abuja whose results may be useful to various institutions and education authorities involved in policy formulation, development and implementation. It is also hoped that the study will consequently increase literature on availability of learning materials to assist education evaluators establish ongoing education quality monitoring networks and improvement processes, to guide teachers to improve use of learning materials by using instructional strategies for appropriate delivery of curriculum; hence inform policies in teacher education.
1.6 Limitations of the Study
Limitations are factors which may affect the study (Nachmias & Nachmias, 2009). Since the study aims at finding out the influence of learning materials on pupils’ performance respondents had reservations to share information with regard to adequacy of resources in their schools in relation to performance since they mistook the researcher to be on a fault finding mission. But the researcher physically visited the schools and explained that the study’s aim was only for academic purposes.
1.7 Definitions of Significant Terms
This section gives definition of all significant terms as were used in the study.
- Academic qualification refers to the highest level of schooling attained by a teacher
- Access refers to making education affordable or available to the targeted groups
- Adequacy refers to sufficiency of learning materials for teaching and learning process
- Assess refers to making judgment of learning materials or evaluate the nature and quality of school resources.
- Effectiveness refers to maximizing utilization of resources provided
- Finance refers to management of revenues used to pay for learning materials in schools
- Influence refers to the power to affect or have an effect on something
- Learning materials refers to all human and non human resources that aid the teaching and learning process
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