Influence Of Leadership Style On Employees’ Performance In Government Establishments

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Influence Of Leadership Style On Employees’ Performance In Government Establishments


Abstract


The study examined the influence of leadership style on employees’ performance in government establishments; with particular reference to Ebonyi State Ministry of Finance, Abakaliki. The study intends to examine the relationship between democratic leadership style and employees’ performance in government establishments and to examine the relationship between autocratic leadership style and employee’s performance in government establishments. Two research hypotheses were formulated in line with the research objectives to guide the study. The survey design was employed. The population of study consisted of 280 staff members of Ebonyi State Ministry of Finance, Abakaliki. The sample size is 164 which was arrived at by applying the Yaro Yamane technique of sample size determination. The instrument for data collection was the questionnaire. The statistical tool of Chi-square was used to test the hypothesis stated. The results of the study showed that both democratic and autocratic leadership style has significant influence on employee’s performance in government establishments. Based on the results, it was recommended that since the variables of leadership style have a strong positive relationship with organizational performance, managers should strive to become role models to their subordinates; inspire subordinates by providing meaning and challenge to work; stimulate subordinate efforts to become innovative & creative; and pay attention to each individual’s need for achievement and growth. Public managers should also consider formulating and implementing effective reward and recognition systems as well as encouraging greater managerial supervision.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Leadership style is a determinant of the success or failure of any organization (Bass, 1999). A leader is person who influences, directs and motivates others to perform specific tasks and also inspire his subordinates for efficient performance towards the accomplishment of the stated corporate objectives (Sashkin, 2006). Leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans and motivating people.

According to Ngambi (2010) and Ngambi (2011) cited in Jeremy (2011), Leadership is a process of influencing other’s commitment towards realizing their full, potential in achieving a value-added, shared vision, with passion and integrity. The nature of this influence is such that the members of the organization voluntarily with each other in order to achieve the objectives which the leader has set for each member, as well as for the group. The relationships between the leader and employees, as well as the quality of employees’ performance, are significantly influenced by the leadership style adopted by the leader (Jeremy, 2011).

Leadership style in an organization is one of the factors that plat significant role in enhancing or retarding the interest and commitment of the individuals the organization (Obiwuru, 2011). According to Michael (2011) Leadership has a direct cause and effect relationship upon organizations and their success. Leaders determine values, culture, change tolerance and employee motivation. They shape institutional strategies including their execution and effectiveness. Leaders can appear at any level of an institution and are not exclusive to management. Successful leaders do, however have one thing in common. They influence those around them in order to reap maximum benefit from the organization’s resources.

Leadership style is viewed as the combination of traits, characteristics, skills, and behaviours that leaders use when interacting with their subordinates (Marturano and Goshing, 2008). Flippo and Musinger (2009) see leadership as a pattern of managerial behviaour designed to integrate personal or organizational interest and effect, in pursuit of some objectives. Fielder (1969) postulates that leadership style refers to a kind or relationship whereby someone uses his ways and methods to make many people work together for a common task.

In modern leadership theories, five leadership style have been presented including, transformational leadership, transactional leadership, Charismatic leadership style, culture-based leadership and visionary leadership style (Yuki, 2014, Sashkin, 2006). Trannenbanum and Schmidt (1958) also identify four different of leadership which have been most widely accepted and used. These leadership styles, centers on McGregor’s Theory ‘X and Y’ assumptions and are: democratic, autocratic, dictatorial and laissez fair leadership styles.

Leadership styles have diverse effect on various such as flexibility, standards, rewards, clarity and commitment and in some cases on organizational climates as the behaviour of the leader produce motivation mechanisms which have effect on the conduct of individual’s performance in the organization (Shamir, 2012). Thus, the essence of leadership is followership. Effective leadership is the extent to which a leader constantly and progressively leads and direct his followers, towards organizational performance.

However, swift changes in the business environment, organization structure, technology and lifestyle are introducing a considerable rethinking of leadership development, Leadership concerns the ability to influence the behaviour of others to move in accordance with the desire of the leader and pursuit of goals (low and Jiang, 2014). In several instances, people use the term “Manager” and leader in the same context. Therefore, a clear difference should be recognized between leadership and management and more specifically, leaders and managers. Mowson (2011) believes that leaders may not excel at management and what is more often the case, managers do not necessarily make great leaders.

Our the years, scholars and researchers have been unanimous on the most appropriate style of leadership in organization and these has led to the formulation of several, theories that could bring about organizational efficiency and effectiveness.

Though some scholars have argued that no particular leadership style in the best, the level of participation of workers in the decision that affect them or the organization as a whole will spur them to better commitment to the realization of set goals. Comparatively, participation provides outstanding long-term results which are by no means far better than effective short term results. The present study contribute to the literature on leaders by examining the effectiveness of leadership style on employee’s productivity in government establishments with the focus on Ebonyi State Ministry of Finance, Abakaliki.

Ebonyi state Ministry of Finance and Economic development was created as soon as the state was created in 1996 during the late General Sanni Abacha’s regime with Mr. Oko Udo Oko and Mrs. Ngozi Nwankwo as the pioneer commissioner and accountant general respectively. Dr. Ekuma Nkama is the current political Head of the ministry.

The Ministry of finance and Economic Development is a service ministry in Ebonyi State. The ministry is charged with the enormous responsibilities and functions of overseeing the financial and development policies and objectives of the state Government. The vision of the Ministry is the integration and implementation of fiscal and developmental policies and programmes of the state.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The problem of decrease output, low performance and decayedness in the operation of public establishments in Nigeria often call one into questioning the type of leadership in our government establishments. Ebonyi State ministry of finance is not exempted from the problems of poor performance of employees, absentism, a lateness to work and other vices often seen in public sector organizations Nigeria.

Moreover, interest in transforming the public sector is expected to help remedy the situation in public sector as leadership and leadership styles are seen as the key elements that made private companies more effective than the public sector.

Another problem affecting leadership style in public sector is the competence of the leaders appointed. In most cases, some of their appointments lack merits. What becomes of such organization is having competence leaders who lack the abilities and capacities to use the appropriate leadership style to lead the members to attain the organization’s set goals or objectives. Thus, what are usually found in some of these organizations are “round pegs in a square holes” rather than “round pegs in round holes”. Once this situation arises, there will be utterances in the way such leaders behave or administer the organization and these will in-turn affect employees’ morale, commitment and productivity and most importantly, the attainment of the organization’s set goals.

The present study on these backdrops examines the influence of leadership style on employees’ performance in government establishments with particular reference to Ebonyi State ministry of finance Abakaliki.

1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of the study is to examine the influence of leadership style on employee’s performance in government establishments.

The specific objectives are:

  1. To determine the relationship between democratic leadership style and employees’ performance in government establishments.
  2. To determine the relationship between autocratic leadership style and employee’s performance in government establishments.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated to guide to study:

  1. How effective is the democratic style of leadership in enhancing employee’s performance in government establishments?
  2. How does autocratic leadership style affect employee’s performance in government establishments?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

The null and alternative hypothesis were formulated to guide the study:

  1. Ho: Democratic leadership style has no significant influence on employee’s performance.
    Hi: Democratic leadership style has significant influence on employee’s performance in government establishments.
  2. Ho: Autocratic leadership style has no significant influence on employee’s performance.
    Hi: Autocratic leadership style has significant influence on employee’s performance in government establishments.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The finding of the study will be of immense benefit to:

(a) The government:

The findings of the study will be of benefit to the government because it will guide them in appointment of managers and directors to man public institutions and establishments.

(b) The managers:

The findings of the study will be of great benefit to managers because it will reveal to them reasons for poor performance and low productivity and the need to seek alternative management or leadership style for better performance and achievement of the set organizational objectives.

(c) Future researchers:

The findings of the study will be of benefit to researchers who may wish to conduct a study on who may wish to conduct a study on this subject matter (Topic) in the future time. This is because the present study will serve as reference point to those researchers.

(d) The Researcher:

The findings of the study will be of immense benefit to the researcher because it will help in widening my educational horizon.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study examines the influence of leadership style on employee’s performance in government establishments; with particular reference to Ebonyi State Ministry of finance, Abakaliki. The content scope covers leadership style and employee’s performance while the geographical scope is Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

In this study, our focus was on influence of leadership style on employees’ performance in government establishments using ministry of finance Ebonyi state as a case study. The study specifically was aimed at highlighting the relationship between democratic leadership style and employees’ performance in government establishments. The study also determine the relationship between autocratic leadership style and employee’s performance in government establishments. A total of 164 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are drawn from staff of ministry of finance.


5.2 Conclusion

Based on the finding of this study, the following conclusions were made:

  1. Autocratic leadership style causes lack of creative solution to problem.
  2. Autocratic leadership style create a sense of mistrust between Managers and employees.
  3. Autocratic leadership style foster creative ideas from employees.
  4. Autocratic leadership style makes people in the group dislike that they are unable to contribute ideas.

5.3 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Organizations should organize teaching and training for the supervisors and managers to help them develop different necessary leadership skills that will boost and help them become good and better leaders. Leadership should be prioritized.
  2. Supervisors should act as mentors to the subordinates and help develop their skills to boost their confidence and increase performance. Supervisors should create an enabling environment not to discourage work performance. If needs be, supervisors should make expectations clear and give rewards when necessary to get the employees to perform very well.

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Frequently Asked Questions


Does leadership style have an impact on performance?

The results of this research is the leadership style has an impact on performance, the work environment also have an impact on performance, job satisfaction has an impact on performance, and leadership style, work environment and job satisfaction of influential performance significant.

What are the leadership styles in local government?

Leadership styles in Ideato north Local government council is the administrative pattern, which it has adopted to plan. Organize co-ordinate, control and direct it’s employees to ensure effectiveness, efficiency and viability In it’s area of jurisdiction.

What is the leadership style of Management?

Leadership style is a method of administration adopted by Individual organization or group of people to pilot the affairs of their employees to ensure effectiveness and efficiency in the organization. This is also a way and manager leaders or manner of different organization choose to run their administration to achieve the organizational goals.

What is leadership according to akanwa?

This is also a way and manager leaders or manner of different organization choose to run their administration to achieve the organizational goals. According to Akanwa (1998) he pointed out styles of leadership: Authoritative style, This is also called dictatorship. This type or style of leadership consider no opinion of the led.

How leadership style affects organizational performance?

There is a considerable impact of the leadership styles on organizational performance. The leadership style influences the culture of the organization which, in turn, influences the organizational performance. Klienet al (2013) proved this fact by using four factor theory of leadership along with

Which leadership styles should be implemented in an organization?

The combination leadership styles should be implemented b y corporate managers, but employees. leadership, democratic leadership as well as laissez faire style of leadership. T he democratic performance of the employees and the organization as a whole. T he autocratic is the least the organization.

What is a leader’s style?

A leader may focus on work, building a team or building relationship with his or her employee’s, according to a combination of all these concerns Hersey and Blanchard proposed four leadership styles. Style 1 Indicating high concern for the task and low concern for people.

Should leaders have their own style of writing?

Leaders have their own style, which is fine if they can find a situation that requires that style of leadership.

What are the characteristics of strong leadership in the local authority?

From that research and discussion, which we gathered into a report entitled The Changing Landscape for Local Government, we identified these seven characteristics of strong leadership in the local authority of 2025. 1. A clear vision – and the ability to communicate it The local authority of 2025 will be much leaner than today.

What skills do local government leaders need to lead change?

Local authority leaders are not alone. As these essays reveal, the Ignite programme shows what can happen when they come together. Local government Chief Executives are demonstrating that soft skills like political savviness and emotional intelligence are crucial for leading change.

What do future local government leaders look like?

Paul Bradbury explores seven key attributes of future local government leaders 1. A clear vision – and the ability to communicate it 2. Flexibility and agility 3. Local accountability 4. Digital expertise 5. Partnership skills 6. Data analytics 7. A commercial mindset

How can chief executives thrive in leadership of local government?

By reconnecting with personal motivation and purpose, combined with the support of sympathetic peers, leadership of local government today seems a place where Chief Executives cannot just cope, but thrive. 2. The Chief Executive role in a changing environment

How does akanwa view leadership?

Akanwa (1998) view leadership as a process of influence on a group in a particular situation, at a given point in time and in a specific set of circumstance that stimulate people to strive willingly to attain organizational objectives.

What is the leadership style of Management?

Leadership style is a method of administration adopted by Individual organization or group of people to pilot the affairs of their employees to ensure effectiveness and efficiency in the organization. This is also a way and manager leaders or manner of different organization choose to run their administration to achieve the organizational goals.

What is the importance of leadership?

As one person begins to embrace their role as a leader, they inevitably connect with others who have already mastered the art of leadership. In short, the importance of leadership lies in the ability to get things done. Leadership allows you to communicate a clear vision and then unite your team around that vision.

What is the role of Nursing Leadership?

Nurse leadership is the ability to inspire, influence and motivate health care professionals as they work together to achieve their goals, according to Mandy T. Bell, DNP, MSN, RN, clinical faculty of graduate nursing at SNHU. Leaders are found everywhere, from government leaders to corporate leaders to leaders in local communities. 

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