The Influence Of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) On Financial Reporting Quality In Nigeria
The study focuses on the quality process of International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) on a developing economy, with particular reference to Nigeria. The research work is based on the data obtained from literature survey and archival sources in the context of the globalization of International Financial Reporting and the quality of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). The primary source of data collection which consists of personal interview and questionnaire were used in gathering data from respondents. It was found that Nigeria has embraced IFRS in order to participate in the benefits it offers, including attracting foreign direct investment, reduction of the cost of doing business, and cross border listing. It was concluded that implementing IFRS Nigeria will face challenges including the development of a legal and regulatory framework, awareness campaign, and training of personnel. It was recommended among others that Nigeria should have their own version of IFRS if they can not adopt IFRS in full just as Argentina and England.
1.1 Background to the Study
There are currently two main Schools of thought in the debate on International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and accounting harmonization or convergence. The proponents argue that a single global set of accounting standards helps reduce information asymmetry, lowers the cost of capital, and increases capital flow across borders. The opponents argue that the characteristics of local business environments and institutional frameworks determine the form and contents of accounting standards. Thus, accounting standards in two countries need not be the same and the use of IFRS does not necessarily improve accounting quality (Khan & Mayes, 2009). Since more and more firms and countries have adopted IFRS or considered replacing their national standards with IFRS, in pace with the rapid development of economic globalization and the worldwide integration of capital markets since the 1990s, it is the right time to evaluate the impact of IFRS on accounting quality for the early adopters (firms and Countries) of IFRS.
With the collapse of US Energy giant (Enron), WorldCom, etc. the accounting profession came under sharp scrutiny. This led a disturbed and bewildered global public, questioning the accountant’s competence, integrity and the existence of standards in corporate governance. Countries that hitherto believed accounting standards were impermeable found out that to realize the full gains of cross border listing; no individual country can act alone in its financial reporting standards.
Convergence gives IFRS standards an authority and credibility that cannot be equated by any other set of standards. There is growing evidence that the world economics are more interconnected andsymbiotic than anyone can really understand. Judging from the global financial crisis, ii is obvious that nations that are truly desirous ofmoving forward are now aiming to flee their countries from the limits ofthe present system of financial reporting standards.
Adams (2006) noted that Nigeria is part of’ this globalization, inrecent times a number of Nigerian companies have raised capital form international stock markets; others have established significant presence in other jurisdictions. Also, a good number of Nigerian entities hold the securities of non-Nigerian issuers.
Therefore, for a better understanding and appreciation of the risks and, consequently, making decisions about the flow of’ economic capital, it makes sense that financial statements prepared in Nigeria use global financial reporting benchmarks. With these facts, the Federal Executive Council accepted the recommendation of the Committee on the Roadmap to the Adoption of IFRS in Nigeria that it will be in the interest of the Nigerian economy for reporting entities in Nigeria to adopt globally accepted, high- quality accounting standards by fully converging Nigerian a National Accounting Standards with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) (Blondal, 2004).
1.2 Statement of Problem
This study is undertaken to examine the IFRS among accountants in Nigeria. For the purpose of this research study problem will be put in question frame. These are some of the research questions the study seeks to fine answers to:
- Is it difficult to access IFRS with capital flow across border?
- Is IFRS important to Nigeria economy?
- Is Nigeria accountant aware of the IFRS?
1.3 Research Questions
In order to achieve the aim of this study the following questions require an answer;
- Will the adoption of IFRS enhance efficiency of financial reporting in Public Sector?
- Is there any relationship between capital flow across borders andIFRS?
- Is there any relationship between IFRS and financial report in Nigeria Economy?
- Does Nigeria financial report has any knowledge of IFRS?
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The following are the objective of the study
- To find out if the adoption of IFRS will enhance efficiency of financial reporting in Public Sector.
- To ascertain if there is any relationship between capital flow across borders and IFRS.
- To ascertain if there is any relationship between IFRS and financial report in Nigeria Economy?
- To find out if Nigeria financial report has any knowledge of IFRS.
1.5 Statement of Hypotheses
Hypothesis is a tentative conjectural state of relationship between two or more variable. Dankwambo (2009) transition to IPSAS and their impact on transparency it is often state the relationship between independent and dependent variables. The following are hypotheses (null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis) of the study:
- HO: Adoption of IFRS does not enhance efficiency of financial reporting in the public sector.
- HI: Adoption of IFRS enhances efficiency of financial reporting in the public sector.
- HO: There is no relationship between capital flow across borders and IFRS.
- HI: There is a relationship between capital flow across borders and IFRS
- HO: There is no relationship between IFRS and financial report in Nigeria economy
- HI: There is relationship between IFRS and financial reporting in Nigeria economy
- HO: Nigeria financial report has no knowledge of IFRS
- HI: Nigeria financial report has knowledge of IFRS
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study will place emphasis on the importance of IFRS in accounting quality as a basis for preparation of financial statement in Nigeria. The following will benefit from the study
- The study will enlighten accountants on the latest development in accounting profession.
- The study will attract potential investors to the company.
- The study will also enable Nigeria Accounting standard Board (NASB) to adjust to international standard.
- The students, supervisor, government, and the general public will also benefit from it.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study critically examines the influence of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on financial reporting quality in Nigeria, the study has a limited scope because to look at quality of IFRSs amongst accountants in Nigeria. The time is framed between 2008 and 2015 and a large sample size of 216 was used during the course of the research for effectiveness.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
Studies of this nature are bound to be limited by constraints in the course of the finding. The followings were encountered.
- Data collection: Well established data are not easily available.
- Sizeable quantity of information obtained from papers were in organization and sometimes complex.
- Reluctance of the respondent to fill the questionnaires.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Accrual Accounting is an accounting methodology under which transactions are recognized as the underlying economic events occurs, regardless of the timing of the related cash receipts and payments (Khan and Mayes, 2009). Following this methodology, revenue is recognized when income is earned, and expenses are recognized when liabilities are incurred or resource consumed. Accrual bases accounting match’s revenues to the time period in which they are incurred, Blondal (2004). While it is more complex than cash basis accounting, this contrast with the cash accounting basis under which revenues and expenditures are recognized when cash is received and paid respectively.
The transition to IFRS may require an entity to undertake significant changes to their core financial systems. The extent of these changes will depend on the current financial systems adopted by entities. Significant changes in systems may lead to an increased risk in the reliability of information produced from the systems.
It is in the best interest of the nation to adopt the IFRS. The transition should be phased so that the objectives are achieved within the time-frame as outlined in the roadmap.
IFRS a set of international accounting standards stating how particular types of transactions and other events should be reported in financial statements
Accounting quality is the extent to which accrual accounting facilitates the measurement of the underlying economic performance. In the rest of this section, I develop this concept more formally.
1.10 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (background of the study), statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope of the study etc.
- Chapter two being the review of the related literature presents the theoretical framework, conceptual framework and other areas concerning the subject matter.
- Chapter three is a research methodology covers deals on the research design and methods adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain the impact of international financial reporting standard IFRS on the quality of financial statements.
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of IFRS on the quality of financial reporting in Nigeria.
The research work was carried out with the objective of unraveling the benefits Nigerian companies stand to achieve by the adoption and implementation of the International Financial Reporting Standards in preparing and reporting its financial statements. To this effect, two hypotheses were assumed and tested, so that it can be accepted or rejected at the end of the research work when it will be analyzed using questionnaire to obtain data from chartered accountants, auditors, managers, investors in Nigeria.
The outcome of the study revealed the following:
- The adoption will increase the level of confidence of global investors and investment analysts in the financial statements of companies in Nigeria.
- The adoption of IFRS is an effective tool for enhancing the uniformity and comparability of financial statements of companies in Nigeria.
- The companies that have adopted IFRS will be able to generate more funds from foreign sources.
- There are still challenges militating against the successful adoption and implementation of IFRS but government has put adequate measures in place to address these issues.
- The adoption and implementation of IFRS will increase the FDI inflow in Nigeria.
In this study, attempts were made to assess the relevance of IFRS in the preparation and presentation of financial statements in Nigeria. Based on the findings, it was concluded that adoption of IFRS is a right step in the right direction which actually has been more relevant in the preparation and presentation of financial statements in the Nigerian. Although, there are many issues and challenges facing implementation, the benefits outweigh the challenge. With adoption, Nigerian Companies will produce more credible financial statements that will not only be informed but also provide a basis for better interpretation. This invariably will boost investors’ confidence and attract cross border financial transactions which is the basis for economic growth.
Abstracting from the above mentioned, the research makes the following recommendation to ensure a successful adoption and implementation of IFRS in Nigeria.
- Government and the regulators should ensure that there is availability of training facilities and materials for Professional Accountants on the concept of IFRS and issues relating to its implementation conversion
- Compliance with IFRS timetable should be mandatory and failure should be marched with appropriate sanctions.
- Government should release more fund to FRC to educate all stakeholders with special reference to the academic, staff and accounting students who will uphold the future of IFRS in the country and developing a plan to help properly equip the company for upcoming changes
- Professional accounting bodies in Nigeria should made IFRS training a part of MCPE at a reduce cost.
- While monitoring the IFRS implementation timetable, the government, the Central bank of Nigeria and other regulatory bodies should ensure that ethical environment and corporate transparency are observed.
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