Influence Of Information Communication And Technology On Social Life And Academic Performance Of Students In Imo State University
1.1 Background to the Study
Education in the narrow and common sense usage is what takes place during the process of teaching and learning in the educational institutions. In the wider sense, education is what happens to us from the day we are born to the day we die (Castle 1985). In this period of technological revolution and advancement, education is thought to be the first step for every human activity. It plays an important role in human capital development and it has significant relationship with well-being and opportunities for better standard of living of an individual (Battle & Lewis, 2002)
Information and Communication Technology is gaining vast popularity globally in recent years it use which extended information processing capabilities are influencing organization of all type and size bringing about changes in institutional goals, relations, a large percentage of the activities in any educational institution comprise the processing of communication. In 2000, Nigeria developed a policy on Information Technology (IT), with the aim of making Nigeria an (IT) Information Technology adapted country in Africa and also a leading player in the use of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) as an implement for sustainable development and global competitiveness. Since then ICT has become an issue of interest in the academic circle.
According to Shamumil Islam (2009) Information and Communication Technology includes technologies such as laptop, computer software, peripherals and connections to the Internet that are intended to fulfill information processing and communication functions. The basic point of this communication is therefore the internet and mobile phones. ICT however included both hardware elements and software (Lee Bih Nii 2012).
Such benefits include their impact on catalyzing teaching practice thoughts; language acquisition; motivating learners; enhancing students’ academic performance and enhancing pedagogy (Jaffer, Ng’ambi & Czerniewicz 2007). ICT in higher education locally and globally has been very useful. This is predicated on the rapidly changing environmental dynamics, globalization, demand for ICT and life-long learning as well as competition among private and public institutions (Collis & van Der Wende 2002; James 2008).
In the study of history most times the library is never enough and as such students have to depend on Information and Communication Technology in form of the internet in getting information since it is current and constantly updated with information which could be used in the effective learning of history in the university level. The National Council for Curriculum and Assessment, UK (2004), gave a revelation that as the pace of technological development continues to grow school children will live in a world where ICT will be fully embedded in their daily lives.
The information age brought by internet change has formed social or new technology world. ICT has created alterative new world of information, communication, and interconnectivity order which cannot be activated using face-to-face method among the students (Al-Sharq et al., 2015; Chukwuere & Onyebukwa, 2017). The new world order has therefore reshaped and refined students’ wellbeing as well as their social life. With ICT, pressing issues in the societies are discussed and given attention (Shabir et al., 2014). However, few years ago, high education institution students has engaged on excessive usage of ICT which has coined a debate on whether the usage of ICT has affected their social life, wellbeing and behaviour in general (Al-Sharq et al., 2015). According to Al-Sharq et al. (2015), the level of changes brought by social media has motivated tutors, students, education institutions and other stakeholders to improve their interactions and teaching and learning delivery technique. The introduction of ICT into education and in life at large is attributed to it user-oriented features, cheap and easy to use and others (Chukwuere & Onyebukwa, 2017).
Students use ICT across different departments including nursing, information systems and many others. Also for various reasons like communicating with friends, access to learning contents and sharing, group discussion forum, chat room, wiki, fun and many more (Al-Sharq et al., 2015). At this point, the usage of social media among university students can bring positive and negative impacts. Al-Sharq et al. (2015) further stated that ICT creates a new innovative mindset on students as well as improving inter-social interaction and relationship between students and educators. This technology can be addictive, time consuming, distractive, social gathering isolation, monophobia and others.
O’Connor & Polin, as cited in Fleming-McCormick, et al., (1995) revealed that studies are now in support of the claim that technology has huge capacity to provide new kinds of improvised opportunities and to aid the knowledge and learning experiences of both the teachers and students. However, the influence of information communication technology on the social life and academic performance of students is not yet fully established. Yet the need to prepare students for the information age is a recurring educational theme worldwide since today’s students are to spend their career life in a very dynamic technological environment (Mbwesa, 2003), the thrust of this study therefore is to carefully appraise the influence of information communication technology on the social life and academic performance of students in Imo state university.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Our expectation in the society today is the shifting of teaching and learning process from the conventional method to a more dynamic and flexible one, which is learner-centred (Ezekoka and Okoli, 2012). This learner-centred approach makes students to influence the content, activities, materials and pace of learning, which places them in the centre of the learning process and enhances independent learning (Collins and O’Brien, 2003). However, in spite of the glaring importance of ICT in education, together with the investment of huge capital from both Federal and State governments through ICT driven project which is referred to as school net Adomi, (2006) and Okebukola (2004) and donations from Non-Governmental Organizations to schools in Nigeria, some teachers are still reluctant, ineffective and unproductive in using ICT facilities to improve students’ academic performance. Beetheng and Sim (2008) revealed that, there is still a long way to go before teachers in developing nations like Nigeria will be able to take advantage of the opportunity provided by the advanced technology and this was buttressed by Adomi (2010) who reported that 75 percent of teachers in Nigerian schools have little or no experience of ICT in education.
Also, Mingle and Adams (2015) suggested that the usage of ICT negatively cause bad hand writing and spelling, lateness to class and assignment submission, addiction, few study time and others. These negative impacts can be observed on social life or cultural belief system changes. Mingle and Adams (2015) continued by revealing that ICT causes changes in educational settings and learners behavior and perceptions. ICT serves as a platform that exposes students to post unethical contents, behavior and views (Edge, 2017). The level of changes from ICT is one of the most innovations of this 21st century. But ICT can cause harm/s to the user (Moate, Chukwuere & Mavhungu, 2017). This is why this study sets to investigate the influence of information communication technology on the social life and academic performance of students in Imo state university.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of information communication technology on the social life and academic performance of students in Imo state university. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to:
- Investigate the effects of ICT on the academic performance of students in Imo state university
- Examine the effects of ICT on the social life of students in Imo state university
- Determine the impacts of ICT adoption on universities, in general, and on students’ performance and social life in particular.
1.4 Research Questions
This study intended to find answers to the following research questions:
- What are the effects of ICT on the academic performance of students in Imo state university?
- What are the effects of ICT on the social life of students in Imo state university?
- What are the impacts of ICT adoption on universities, in general, and on students’ performance and social life in particular?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:
- There is a significant relationship between ICT and the academic performance of students in Imo state university
- There is no significant relationship between ICT and social life of students in Imo state university
- There is no significant impact of ICT adoption on universities and on students’ performance and social life.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study is significant being an attempt to make contribution to the existing body of knowledge by revealing the effect of ICT on educational development of university students in Nigeria with a view to fill the existing vacuum in the area. Proliferation of ICT in Nigeria and the reaction of the youths towards it have constituted a source of concern regarding their academic performance and social life, thereby calling for a careful study to ascertain the effects on them. Hence, this research is a step in that direction.
The study is significant in the sense that it contributes towards enhancing educational policies on factors influencing educational development of university students in Imo state. In accordance with the foregoing, the choice of the selected university students in Imo State was basically for the fact that, large proportion of the youths are in the university, and they are at the point of transition to life outside school. In addition, they are the potential reservoir for the Nigeria’s human capital. Also, university students are seen as a depiction of the youths, thus, they can easily be studied to ascertain the effects of the ICT on youths in general.
1.7 Scope of the Study
Scope of the study in terms of population was limited to university students of Imo state university. One hundred and fifty respondents were sample. This cut across levels, gender and departments.
1.8 Definition of Terms
The following variable and terms that are essential for the understanding of this study are defined below, it is necessary to define and explain some words used in the context of this study
Information and Communication Technology (ICT):
Is an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application, encompassing: radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite systems and so on, as well as services and applications associated with them such as video conferencing and distance learning, etc.
It is the meaning given to data by the way in which it is interpreted.
According to Potts “it is a process by which we assign and convey meaning in an attempt to create shared understanding” While Brown (2011) defines communication as “transfer of information from one person to another, whether or not it elicits confidence”. But the information transferred must be understandable to the receiver.
It can be defined as a scientific knowledge of art or skill.
It is referred to as the degree to which something is involved in a situation or an activity and the effect that they have on it.
This refers to how much the students respond to the teaching and learning of the school successfully
It means gaining of knowledge; the acquiring of knowledge or skill through study.
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