Influence Of Hygienic Environment On The Teaching And Learning Of Pupils: A Case Study Of Some Selected Public Primary Schools In Oredo Local Government Area Of Edo State

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Influence Of Hygienic Environment On The Teaching And Learning Of Pupils: A Case Study Of Some Selected Public Primary Schools In Oredo Local Government Area Of Edo State


Abstract


The purpose of this study is to ascertain the knowledge and practice of basic personal hygiene among school children in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. Survey design was employed for the study with the aid of convenience sampling method, 147 participant was enrolled from the selected primary schools in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. Well structure questionnaire was issued to the enrolled respondents of which 141 of the instrument were retrieved and validated for the study. Data from the collated research questions was analyzed in Simple Percentage using frequencies and tables. The study therefore recommends that School Management should endeavour to make provision for a very cleaned environment even if it means outsourcing the services to a janitorial agencies. Staffs on duty should ensure pupils WUHAN practices seriously especially in the face of infectious diseases Like Covid-19 and other communicable diseases. Finally, awareness of hand hygiene as a means of disease prevention and other benefits should be made known to pupils, via seminars, conferences, workshops; sharing of informative materials etc. as this will help the pupil lead a healthy life.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the study
  • 1.6 Scope of the study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the study
  • 1.8 Definition of terms

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research Design
  • 3.3 Population of the study
  • 3.4 Sample size determination
  • 3.5 Sample size selection technique and procedure
  • 3.6 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.7 Method of data collection
  • 3.8 Method of data analysis
  • 3.9 Validity of the study
  • 3.10 Reliability of the study
  • 3.11 Ethical consideration

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research Design
  • 3.3 Population of the study
  • 3.4 Sample size determination
  • 3.5 Sample size selection technique and procedure
  • 3.6 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.7 Method of data collection
  • 3.8 Method of data analysis
  • 3.9 Validity of the study
  • 3.10 Reliability of the study
  • 3.11 Ethical consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Descriptive Analysis
  • 4.3 Inferential Statistics

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion & Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Basic hygiene refers to practices that help to maintain health and prevent the spread of diseases. It involves regular washing of body, washing the hands when necessary, cutting of nails, washing ones clothing, keeping the hair neat and brushing of teeth. School children are particularly vulnerable to neglect of basic personal hygiene (Enahoro and Orokj, 2006). The consequences in terms of morbidity and mortality are also more severe in them compared to adults. The increased burden of communicable diseases among school children due to poor personal hygiene practices and inadequate sanitary conditions remains concern on the public health agenda in developing countries. Poor knowledge, practice and attitudes towards personal hygiene play major roles in the high incidence of communicable diseases and therefore has negative consequences for the child’s long term overall development.

The hands are probably the most important route for transmission of infection in the home and community, as they often have indirect contact with the mouth, nose and conjunction (Urwhttp://www.ifh-hollehygiene.org). They also came in contact with food and water that is consumed. It has been revealed that there is a strong and consistent caused link between poor hand hygiene and gastrointestinal infection (WHO, 2002) certain respiratory infections have also been linked to poor personal hygiene practices. Good hand washing and other hygienic practices encouraged through health education has been reported to communicable diseases in school, children (Long-Shan, 2000). Understanding the level of knowledge and practices related to basic personal hygiene among school children in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State.


1.2 Statement of Problem

Globally, the high mortality and morbidity due to communicable diseases among school age children has been attributed to their neglect of poor personal hygiene. Children need to be taught and guided by adults to be able to adopt certain behaviours as regards their health and well-being. To effectively address the issue of communicable disease among school children, parents, teachers, and other stake holders must work out modalities to take and encourage children to adopt good hygiene practice.

However, it has been observed that little or nothing is been done to inculcate these practices among school children hence increase in the rate of contact/spread of these communicable diseases and worse mortality from these diseases. Therefore if adequate measures are put in place, communicable disease can be reduced to its barest minimum among school children.


1.3 Purpose Of The Study

The purpose of this study is to ascertain the knowledge and practice of basic personal hygiene among school children in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State and to examine the relationship between poor hygiene practice and communicable diseases.


1.4 Research Questions

  1. Do the pupils have knowledge of environmental hygiene?
  2. Are there proper hygienic practices among pupils?
  3. Are there measures put in place to help children maintain good hygiene practice?
  4. Does poor environmental hygiene affect pupils learning?

1.5 Significance of the Study

It is expected that this work will prompt the school authorities and the various parents-teachers association to collaborate to identify key areas of health needs among school children and institute appropriate health interventions. It is also expected to improve the knowledge base of classroom teachers on basic hygiene practices and the need for them to ensure adequate practice by the children.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This research is expected to cover selected primary school in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

Like every human endeavors are one time face with constraint, the same was tenable during the period of this study. In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. In addition, there was the element of researcher bias. Here, the researcher possessed some biases that may have been reflected in the way the data was collected, the type of people interviewed or sampled, and how the data gathered was interpreted thereafter. The potential for all this to influence the findings and conclusions could not be downplayed. More so, the findings of this study is limited to the sample population in the study area, hence may not be suitable used in comparison to other schools, local governments, states and other countries of the world.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Learning:

Is the act of acquiring new or modifying and reinforcing existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences which may lead to a potential change in synthesizing information, depth of the knowledge, attitude or behavior relative to the type and range of experience.

Teachers:

Persons who help others to acquire knowledge, competences or values. Informally the role of teacher may be taken on by anyone.

Teaching:

The process of attending to people’s needs, experiences and feelings, and making specific interventions to help them learn particular things.

Pupils:

Pupil is a a child or young person in school or in the charge of a tutor or instructor

Hygienic Environment:

Environmental hygiene encompasses effective cleaning of surfaces using appropriate cleaning agents.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

The purpose of this study is to ascertain the knowledge and practice of basic personal hygiene among school children in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State and to examine the relationship between poor hygiene practice and communicable diseases.

Survey design was employed for the study with the aid of convenience sampling method, 147 participant was enrolled from the selected primary schools in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. Well structure questionnaire was issued to the enrolled respondents of which 141 of the instrument were retrieved and validated for the study. Data from the collated research questions was analyzed in Simple Percentage using frequencies and tables.


5.2 Conclusion

The importance of cleanliness in school is to provide a healthy and safe environment for students. There are many issues related to hygiene that students and school employees have to face every day. Germs and bacteria are a part of life. Especially when discussing kids. Most of those can even harm them for life or affect the social and economic well-being of the school.

Findings from the study revealed that only 71% of pupils have knowledge of environmental hygiene, only 66% of the respondent practice proper hygiene. This shows that most pupil does not place importance on hygiene practices such as hand washing, personal hygeine and this in turn exposes them to communicable diseases. . It was observed that the obtainability or accessibility of clean water and soap being available at hand washing posts were viewed to be substantial predictors of washing hands properly in occasions when adapted with other influences. The results of the study showed that there was a very low occurrence of proper hand washing amongst the elementary students and hence there is a need of more effective hand washing promotions in schools and the need of better services to boost the prevalence on the right way of washing hands among the students.


5.3 Recommendation

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are made:

  1. School Management should endeavour to make provision for a very cleaned environment even if it means outsourcing the services to a janitorial agencies.
  2. Staffs on duty should ensure pupils WUHAN practices seriously especially in the face of infectious deceases Like Covid-19 and other communicable diseases.
  3. The awareness of hand hygiene as a means of disease prevention and other benefits should be made known to pupils, via seminars, conferences, workshops; sharing of informative materials etc. This is to help make the necessary information available to the students.
  4. Health related information should be made compulsory for pupils in primary schools to enable a better living and learning environment.
  5. Pupils should be properly informed and encouraged to make use of certain health materials such as hand sanitizers, hand towels, tissues etc. for better hand hygiene. This should be accompanied by provision of the necessary materials by the school authorities sufficiently for the students use.

Influence Of Hygienic Environment On The Teaching And Learning Of Pupils: A Case Study Of Some Selected Public Primary Schools In Oredo Local Government Area Of Edo State


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