The Influence Of Home Environment On The Health Status And Academic Performance Of Public Secondary School Students

Environmental Education Project and Seminar Material

The Influence Of Home Environment On The Health Status And Academic Performance Of Public Secondary School Students


Abstract


The home influences the students at the most possible time of his life at a time when his mind is most receptive. It provides the first impression which may last through the whole of the child’s life. The child often sees the parents, siblings and things in their immediate environment to be most significant and its capable of promoting or diminishing his self worth, emotional cum mental disposition and his academic performance. This study examine Home Environment and its effect on health Status and academic performance of Student using Olorunda Local Government, Osogbo, Osun State as a case study. 338 questionnaires were issued to the respondent from four(4) selected secondary schools and 287 was retrieved and validated for the study. Data was analyzed using frequency and tables. Hypothesis was tested using Chi-Square statistical tool. Findings from the study reveals that home environment conditions affects the health status of the student thus Home environment can be improved by parents creating an atmosphere of warmth for student, increasing their involvement on the child academic task, providing all the necessary support needed by a child, help them set academic goals, reward them when they meet the goals and discipline them when they should. The study therefore recommends that expected of counselors, educationists as well as parents to facilitate good quality of home with proper communicative and supportive environment to their adolescent children.Parent should improve their parenting style and their involvement in their children’s academic activities to enhance their performance.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Home environment is a major factor that determines the health of any child, student. How clean or dirty the environment is will largely determine if the child will be healthy or not. Most of the Nigerian parents raise their children in unclean, unhealthy environments; these could be a choice or because they cannot afford a better, clean and healthy space.

Every second in the country, about 10 children are infected; die from diverse diseases contacted from their home environment or as a result of the polluted air they breathe, the dirty water they drink and bath with, exposure to smoke from generators, burning, etc, from road traffic injuries, unintentional poisonings, which can come as a result of exposure to toxic chemicals and pesticides in their home environments. These environmental hazards and other illnesses have shortened the lives of millions globally. Most of the environmental disease which can hamper the health of a child or student is attributable to a few major risks and they include unsafe water and sanitation, vector-borne disease, indoor smoke from solid fuels, toxic hazards and global environmental change and unsustainable patterns of a the country’s development that contribute to air pollution, traffic injury and other forms of urban environmental degradation.

Human beings are at the major concern for a long lasting development. They are designated or giving the full right to a healthy and yielding life. The level of human impact largely depends on home environment. The home environment is perceived to be a strong influence on a child. A home environment is also perceived as having significant importance for child developmental outcomes like as cognitive ability, school readiness, academic achievement and emotional adjustment.

The home environment can either promote or hinder a student’s health status. Factors such as parental socioeconomic status, family dynamics, living conditions, access to nutritious food, healthcare facilities, and exposure to health-related behaviors all contribute to a student’s overall well-being (Stein et al., 2014). A supportive home environment with access to adequate nutrition, a safe living space, and positive role models can positively impact a student’s physical and mental health. Conversely, an unstable home environment characterized by low socioeconomic status, family conflict, and inadequate access to healthcare may lead to increased stress, health issues, and hindered academic performance (Chen et al., 2018).

The home environment also exerts a considerable influence on the academic performance of public secondary school students. Factors such as parental involvement in their children’s education, access to educational resources, and a conducive study environment can significantly impact a student’s motivation, engagement, and achievement in school (Desforges & Abouchaar, 2003). Parents who actively participate in their child’s learning process by providing academic support, monitoring progress, and engaging in educational activities foster a positive learning environment that contributes to improved academic outcomes (Fan & Chen, 2001).

Naturally, the home of the child is the first place he/she steps into when born into the world by parents. A home is a place where pupils, children reside with their parents or guardian and it is the place where they are raised. It is a place where a child starts to learn good and acceptable behaviors and values of the society in which they find themselves. The family is a social unit and it is the source of early stimulation and experience in children. Home environment negatively of positively affects a child at the most earliest stage of his or her life, specifically, at the time when his mind is most willing to receive. It gives the first impression which may probably last through the whole life of the child. The child sees the parents, siblings and other things in their direct environment to be most important and those things/people are also capable of promoting or demoting him when it comes to self-worth, health and academic performance.

The environment is the direct surrounding in which the child finds her/himself in. It is also explained to be the physical and psychological conditions that influence children’s health, academic performance and their entire life as a whole. The parents or guardian of the students are giving the task of making available the right home environment that will foster good health and productive learning for their wards. In addition, in pupil’s home environment, a number of factors that affects their health, academic performances, etc include: parental educational background, occupation, economic status, marital status and home location; family size and peer group. The home environment therefore means the family background of the students; which comprise of all the human and material resources available at the home that affects the student’s health and living, such as the parent’s level of education, their occupation, socio-economic status and socializing facilities present in the house. Hence, the home is the major and first institution for providing the child’s good health, primary socialization and laying the educational foundation for the child upon which the other agents of socialization are crafted from. The home environment of a child largely contributes to the good or poor health of the child and also the child’s academic performance.

While several studies have examined the relationship between home environment, health, and academic performance, most of the existing literature focuses on primary school children or students from private educational institutions. Limited research has specifically delved into the experiences of public secondary school students. Given the distinct challenges and characteristics of public secondary schools, such as larger class sizes, resource constraints, and diverse student populations, it is essential to investigate the unique influence of the home environment on their health and academic achievements.

This study aims to address this gap in the literature by examining the home environments of public secondary school students and analyzing how these environments impact their health status and academic performance. By identifying the key factors that positively or negatively influence these outcomes, the findings of this study can inform the development of targeted interventions and support systems to enhance the overall well-being and academic success of these students.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Most families in our society seem not to give adequate attention to the education of their children. It appears some of the parents have erroneous notion about the performance of their children, they do not know and seem to fulfill their role of guidance and encouragement in the child’s performance in schools. Some people also have the notion that the mass failure or success in schools could be traced back to the teachers and the school authorities. Most students in Nigerian secondary schools are in greater risk of poor academic achievement in both internal and external examinations (WAEC and NECO). For instance, the available records of WAEC and NECO result analysis of 2018-2019 show a continuous decline in students overall performance in school certificate examinations. Parents, teachers, students and government, hold accountable for students’ poor performance in schools. Parents blame teachers for lack of dedication to duties. The teachers blame the government for poor salaries hence they are poorly motivated, parents also accuse the government for not equipping the schools with learning materials, government blame parents for not doing good homework and the students are blamed for lack of discipline and dedication to their studies. The poor academic performance that has been recorded in overtime in the educational system has been attributed to several factors amongst which are the home environments which has not only affected students’ academic performance but has also affected their health status. As we all know the popular saying that health is wealth, no meaningful development or growth in terms of social wellbeing or academically can occur in a society that is not healthy. The health of public secondary school students has been a cause for serious concern as it has grossly affected their academic achievement among other things. This has ultimately led to the poor development of our public secondary schools and the educational sector by extension.


1.3 Aims and Objectives of the Study

The major aim of the study is to examine the influence of home environment on the health status of secondary school students in Nigeria. Other specific objectives of the study are;

  1. To examine the various aspects of the home environment that affects the health status of secondary school students.
  2. To highlight the importance of home environment on academic achievement of secondary school students.
  3. To examine the effect of home environmental conditions on the health status of secondary school children.
  4. To determine the impact of environmental conditions on students academic performance.
  5. To recommend ways of improving home environment of secondary school students.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the various aspects of the home environment that affects the health status of secondary school students?
  2. What is the importance of home environment on academic achievement of secondary school students?
  3. What is the effect of home environmental conditions on the health status of secondary school children?
  4. What is the impact of environmental conditions on students’ academic performance?
  5. What are the ways of improving home environment of secondary school students?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • H0: Home environmental conditions have no effect on health status of secondary school students.
  • H1: Home environmental condition has a significant effect on health status of secondary school students.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study would be of immense benefit to secondary school administrators, teachers, parents/guardians and relevant stakeholders as it would highlight the influence of home environment on the health status of secondary school students in Nigeria. The study would also benefit students, researchers and scholars who are interested in developing further studies on the subject matter.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study is restricted to the influence of home environment on the health status and academic of secondary school students in Olorunda Local Government, Osogbo, Osun State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Financial constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Motivation:

This the process through which individual are charged to increase their action or performance either by internal or external factors.

Academic Performance:

This is used in the study to refers to students’ attitude to competition for excellent in their attitude toward participating in classroom activities and home work. It also used to students’ interest in learning.

Home Environment:

Home environment in this context simply means the immediate surroundings and first institution where a child is taught the basic norms and values by the parents before he or she proceeds to acquire formal education.

Socio Status:

This is the total state of an individual based on inequality in terms of occupation, level of education and other societal issues.

Socio-Cultural Background:

This is the social and cultural makeup of an individual in relationship with his or her environment.

Education:

Formal instruction or training given to a child in school.

Parent:

Any person (man or woman) with legal claim of a child.

Educated Parents:

Owner of a female child or male child with formal education in addition to informal education.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Conclusion and Recommendation

5.0 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings into the influence of home environment on the health status and academic performance of public secondary school students using Secondary schools in Olorunda Local Government, Osogbo, Osun State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, recommendations and suggestions for further studies.


5.1 Summary of Study

The major aim of the study was to examine the influence of home environment on the health status and academic performance of public secondary school students using Secondary schools in Olorunda Local Government, Osogbo, Osun State as a case study. It examine the various aspects of the home environment that affects the health status of secondary school student. It To highlighted the importance of home environment on academic achievement of secondary school students. It examined the effect of home environmental conditions on the health status of secondary school children. It determined the impact of environmental conditions on students academic performance. Survey research design was employed for the study. Using random sampling techniques Four(4) secondary school in Olorunda Local Government, Osogbo, Osun State was selected. 338 questionairres were issued to the respondent and 287 was retrieved and validated for the study. Data was analyzed using frequency and tables. Hypothesis was tested using Chi-Square statistical tool.


5.2 Conclusion

Maintaining a healthy attitude involves not only the physical health, psychological development, the shape of the good moral character and the cultivation of the perfect personalities of majorities of students but also the overall quality of the talents, for the full realization of higher education goals and the smooth progress of modernization construction and progressive development of society. This is important since previous studies indicate that poor mental health status have a negative effect on students’ academic performance. Conclusion from findings of the study reveled the following:

  1. Parental involvement, family size, parent, parent educational level, income and socio-economic status are the home environment factors that affect the health status of the secondary school status
  2. Home environment is important for the academic achievement of the student as it set the state for openness to learning; offers appreciation for academic achievement, encouraging and responding to child’s needs in a caring and fostering manner.
  3. Home environment can be improved by parents creating an atmosphere of warmth for student, increasing their involvement on the child academic task, providing all the necessary support needed by a child, help them set academic goals, reward them when they meet the goals and discipline them when they should.
  4. The study concludes that there is a significant effect of home environment on the mental health status of secondary school student

5.3 Recommendation

From the findings of this study have it is expected of counselors, educationists as well as parents to facilitate good quality of home with proper communicative and supportive environment to their adolescent children. Parent should improve their parenting style and their involvement in their children’s academic activities to enhance their performance. Parents of low socio-economic status should be empowered by the Government to enable them provide for basic needs for their children. Counseling psychologist should be employed to schools to identify, advice and comfort students from poor homes and background as this would improve their academic achievement. Seminar and workshop should be regularly organized for parents of the effect of large family size. This will enable them to provide basic education needs for their children. Thus, enhances their academic performance. Government and educational stakeholders should endeavour to provide students facilities like Libraries, laboratories, etc. so as to improve students’ academic performance


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