The Influence Of Headmasters Managerial Skills On Effective School Management

Project and Seminar Material for Education

Project and Seminar Material for Education


Abstract


The Research is about the influence of the headmaster’s managerial skills on effective school management. The study was guided by four research objectives; to assess the conceptual skills acquired by the of public secondary school headmasters, to identify the human skills acquired by the of public secondary school headmasters, to explore the communication skills acquired by of public secondary school the headmasters and to examine the leadership skills acquired by the of public secondary school headmasters. Different sources of literature review such as books, journals and theories and empirical literature studies were used.

The study was conducted in Enugu state covering 10 schools in Enugu Urban. The sample comprised of 40 respondents and all 40 respondents responded. Data were collected through questionnaires and analyzed through SPSS computer package. The results indicated that majority of the headmasters in public secondary school have managerial skills. The study recommendations, among others, were Secondary school heads need to employ their conceptual, human communication as well as leadership skills to encourage academic staff to improve on the quality of classroom teaching/learning by exposing students to competence based learning.

The headmaster should employ communication skills to convey the right message to their academic staff, regarding poor performance of students and its impact in economic as well as social development of citizens. The Government also should lay down a policy on managerial skills training for the head of schools as they do in other managerial levels in other organizations.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Problem
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 General Objective
  • 1.4 Specific Objectives
  • 1.5 Research Questions
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the study
  • 1.8 Delimitation of the study
  • 1.9 Definition of terms

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Definition of Key Terms
  • 2.3 Critical Theoretical Review
  • 2.4 General Discussion of the Topic
  • 2.5 Empirical Literature Review
  • 2.6 Research Gap
  • 2.7 Conceptual Framework

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Paradigm
  • 3.2 Research Design
  • 3.2.1 Study Area
  • 3.2.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.2.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques
  • 3.3 Data Collection
  • 3.3.1 Types of Data
  • 3.3.2 Data Collection Method
  • 3.4 Data Analysis
  • 3.5 Validity of the Data
  • 3.6 Reliability of Data
  • 3.7 Ethical Issues

Chapter Four

4.0 Results And Discussion

  • 4.1 Overview
  • 4.2 Socio-Economic Characteristics of the Respondents
  • 4.3 Seeking Information about Strengths and Weaknesses from others as a Basis for Self improvement

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion And Recommendations

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendices

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

Every organisation strives to enhance the effectiveness through focused attention on managerial effectiveness aimed at helping managers to get best out of their team as well as themselves. Olorisade (2011) argues that any organisation exists to accomplish a purpose in the larger society which is usually stated in the form of objectives or goal. This is also the same in public secondary schools.

According to Mintzberg et al, (2010), a manager is everyone who has an influence on others in the organisation, can be the president, prime minister, administrator, official, headmistress/ headmaster, director, executive of an institution and so forth. The head of the school in this matter is the manager that requires a set of qualities to manage the school to achieve its intended goal.

Managers may directly influence the workers’ attitude, interest, and change their behaviour towards commitment to work and objectives. A school can stand to bear changes only if there are right managerial styles and behaviour since the performance of an organisation depends on the entire support of employees, customers (students), community and investors. To deal with them effectively requires special skills which make the manager successful in their task.

The Head of school occupies a position of great importance in the set up of an educational institution. He/she is an educator with executive authority and ought to have a clear vision for the future of his school. Therefore, he/she seeks the support of the faculty to channelize their professional energies towards the achievement of clear objectives of the schools and learning needs of students. His/her role is important and his/her intervention counts in school improvement efforts. It is his/her leadership role that makes different from manager because a manager just plans, organizes and controls the resources available to him. Leaders have ability to influence and motivate others to achieve organizational goals, influences minds of subordinates who follow their leaders duly inspired by their personalities.

One of the key factors which may influence school effectiveness is the ability of the headmaster /mistress to perform managerial functions. Effective school management are key to improve school performance, particularly of students in both academically and discipline wise. Therefore, the head has to learn some special skills which has effect on employees’ behaviour and attitudes so that the organisation can be much benefited by their labour. The special skills required by the headmaster/mistress are what is referred to here as managerial skills.


1.1 Background of the Problem

In Nigeria, as well as in many other countries, the call for improved educational systems has resulted in both a gradual, general shift in educational management and specific efforts on the part of the governments to develop policies for transforming education. For several decades now, different Governments have indicated interest in transforming Nigeria and have come up with various educational policies and programs to ensure that they achieved their goals. The present administration has also come up with its transformation agenda which it hopes to achieve through quality education. Hence, new ideas in education in the area of policies and programmes, school, structure, funding, school management, mode of assessment of students’ performance etc, have been introduced in the education sector (Kolo, 2009). In effect, the various Nigerian governments recognize that the education sector is the key sector for the attainment of any transformation agenda. Education is accorded the highest priority so that Nigeria must participate competitively in the comity of nations in the production, transfer and utilisation of knowledge. It is on this platform that the Federal Republic of Nigeria in her national policy on education stated that:

Education shall continue to be highly rated in the national development plans because education is the most important instrument for change, any fundamental change in the intellectual and social outlook for society has to be proceeded by an educational revolution (FRN, 2004:7)

Managerial skills are essential capabilities that determine the extent of the actualization of educational goals. To be skilled in something for example in management connotes enough ability do something well. Okoye (2007) defined managerial skills as the ability to plan, control, organize and direct the operations of an educational enterprise for the purpose of achieving the objective target set for the educational system as a whole. Fullan (2005) defined managerial skills as the competencies required for effective and efficient planning, staffing, organizing, coordinating, controlling and decision-making. The ability, knowledge and experience required to accomplish management tasks are known as managerial skills. Managerial skills of school leaders thus refer to their ability to successfully plan, organize, co-ordinate, control, make decisions and initiate actions to aid the effective management of schools. Managerial skills are high priority issues for many people concerned with education these days. It is not surprising, then, that so many authors have provided insights about such skills for school administration (Mestry & Grobler, 2004; Monyatsi, 2005). The skills include the abilities to create a healthy school culture for continual improvement in quality education; teamwork with others; communicate goals, policies, and procedure to staff; modify practice and school structures to accommodate new policy expectations; provide curriculum leadership opportunities; ensure good principal-staff relationship and guide specific initiatives to improve student achievement (Carr, 2005; Elmore, 2005; Lezotte, & McKee, 2006).

The importance of school leaders’ possession of managerial skills for national transformation is obvious. Management is an integral part of any organization. It involves skillful organization and utilization of resources (human and material) for the achievement of goals (Ajaegbo, 2010). In educational organizations, the onus of managing schools for realization of educational objectives rest on the school head –rector, vice chancellor, principal or head teacher. In order to achieve optimum results, the leaders should be skilled in management. At the secondary level of education, the principal is the school leader. It is his duty to ensure that goals of educational policies and programs are realized. Azubike (2009) posited that the school principal is at the helm of implementation of education policies in his school. The principal is the person responsible for administrative practices of the school using the resources at his disposal in such a way that the school’s objectives are achieved. He relates with the various education authority to ensure that desired educational goals are realized. He performs managerial functions such as planning organizing, directing, coordinating, communication, motivation. Specifically his functions/roles include: establishing of healthy school climate and culture; curriculum instructor development and improvement; provision and maintenance of school plant facilities; and instructional and noninstructional supervision. Fagbamiye (2004) stated that the principal is essentially an organizer and implementer of plans, policies and programmes meant for specific educational objectives. His administrative tasks include directing the teachers and students in an environment conducive to the maximum development of the learners. The principal as the chief executive officer is expected to work hard to achieve stated goals using his knowledge and wisdom.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The Nigerian education system has many challenges: schools grapple with large class size, inadequate qualified teacher and shortage of fund. The state of some schools is worrisome as made manifest by dilapidated buildings, shortage of classroom accommodation, lack of consumable items (e.g. chalk), inadequate staff welfare, shortage of school furniture for students and teachers, lack of essential facilities such as water, light, toilet facilities and low levels of teacher productivity. Many schools in are characterized by near absence of internally generated revenue, financial problems, non-existent of computer aided administration, poor decision making, examination malpractice, improper planning, rising cases of students’ indiscipline and poor academic performance. In the face of these problems, primary school head teacher are being urged to transform their schools. Ascertaining the managerial skills the head teachers possess, as well identifying the strategies for improving their skills, are the problems of this study.


1.3 General Objective

The general objective of this study is to explore the influence of headmaster managerial skills on effective school management of public secondary school in Nigeria.


1.4 Specific Objectives

  1. To assess the conceptual skills acquired by the headmaster of public secondary school.
  2. To examine the human relations skills acquired by the headmaster of public secondary school.
  3. To explore the communication skills acquired by the headmaster of public secondary school.
  4. To identify the leadership skills acquired by the headmaster of public secondary school.

1.5 Research Questions

  1. What are the conceptual skills acquired by the headmasters of public secondary schools?
  2. What are the human relations skills acquired by the headmasters of public secondary schools?
  3. What are the communication skills acquired by the headmasters of public secondary schools?
  4. What are the leadership skills acquired by the headmasters of public secondary schools?

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will help the education stakeholders to understand whether managerial skills are paramount importance in achieving education goals, in particular public secondary schools. Also the findings of the study will broaden knowledge and improve the managerial skills of heads of the schools in their handling of different matters and professionals in their working station.

Further the study has implications for the educational administrators in the area of promoting staff productivity in teaching and community service effectiveness. This study will help also the professional organisations involved in management to develop right skills measurement system for the educational managers/ heads to acquired effective management skills necessary for the performance. But not only that the study may reveal whether the problems arising in different school are associated with lack of managerial skills among the head of the schools.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This research work will cover primary schools in Lagos state, in Ikeja LGA will be selected for this research work, both teachers and head teachers will be sampled.


1.8 Delimitation of the Study

Finance for the general research work will be a challenge during the course of study. Correspondents also might not be able to complete or willing to submit the questionnaires given to them.

However, it is believed that these constraints will be worked on by making the best use of the available materials and spending more than the necessary time in the research work. Therefore, it is strongly believed that despite these constraints, its effect on this research report will be minimal, thus, making the objective and significance of the study achievable.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Managerial skill:

A term that refers to the required skills (competencies) of the manager. In particular, following skills are included: Planning, Organizing, Leadership, Communicating, Decision Making, Problem Solving.

School Management:

Management includes professional personnel who are responsible for school management / administration. It includes principals, assistant principals, headmasters, assistant headmasters, and other management staff with similar responsibilities.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion And Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

The aim of this research was to assess the influence of the headmaster managerial skills on effective school management: in this case, public secondary schools the researcher had first to know the managerial skills needed for any manager to be successful and realise organisational goals.

The assessment of the different attributes of the conceptual skills, human skills, communication and leadership skills acquired by the headmaster of public secondary school revealed that, majority of heads of public secondary schools possess the required managerial skills for effective school management. Although the government stopped the management training since 2009, for the newly appointed heads of public secondary, they seemed to acquire the skill which enables them to accomplish the education goals at their schools. That is to say they have got the ability of critically analyses, diagnose a situation and forward a feasible solution, Creative and Initiative skills. They have the ability to work with, understanding and motivate other people as individual, this includes developing self-awareness, managing personal stress, coaching, counseling, motivating, managing conflicts and empowering others. They also have the ability to convey the message effectively to subordinates which in turns help effective school management. They communicate knowledge, instructions, purpose, goal, mission and vision of the Ministry of Education and Vocational training. Moreover, heads of pubic secondary school had the ability influence human behavior as leaders.

Although the Managerial skills is very important for improve work quality and effectiveness in management, the shortcoming of mass failure in National examinations in many public schools may not been caused by lack of those training since one might acquire and not necessarily by learning.

Since academic performance in public schools is still remained poor, one need critically to find out by using a cross sectional or triangulation data collection design, for the reasons which might associate with these failure. For the purpose of this study the heads of schools as key for school performance seemed to play their role, however the results presented a different picture from the real situation on the ground. The researcher being a head of school and a member of NAHOSSA has experience in what is happening in schools and the managerial skills as whole.


5.2 Recommendations

On Basis of the findings of this study, the following recommendations are suggested: The ministry of education and policy makers should carry out a study in public secondary schools about the managerial skills by heads of school. In light of the findings, the picture that is presented does not reflect the real situation. This will enable teachers to give the real situation without the influence of their head teachers. As has been discussed in the literature review, managerial skills are very important to an organization’s growth. Thus, these skills are essential to school development and academic performance. Secondary school heads need to employ their conceptual, human communication, leadership skills to encourage academic staff to improve on the quality of classroom teaching/learning by exposing students to competence based learning.

The headmaster should employ the communication skills to convey the right message to their academic staff, regarding poor performance of students and its impact in economic as well as social development of citizens. The Headmasters should also employ their human skills to encourage teachers in participating positively in research on how to improve school performance as well as student performance since education is an investment which needs one to gain benefit until unlike now where teachers are more self benefit (financial benefit and forgetting other foregone cost incurred by families and government in providing education to our students.

The headmaster should also use their conceptual skill to realize the importance of research in education and encourage student to give the right answers which will enable to obtain exactly the problem leading to poor student performance, instead giving stereotype answers just for self defence and interest. By using the conceptual skills the headmaster should dispose their weakness to help education stakeholders to find a better way of improving education performance in our country.

The Government should lay down a policy on managerial skills training for the head of schools as they do in other managerial levels in other organizations. It should take a clear direction for identification of appropriate skills required for the head of school in order to manage the school effectively.

Ikeja L.G.A council and the public schools as whole are advised to formulate and implement its human resources development strategy for the development of their headmasters.

In order to obtain the real situation of headmaster managerial skills in public schools the data collection should involve other techniques apart from questionnaires (triangulating data collection method) where heads influence the findings fearing that the subordinates may jeopardise their positions.


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