The Influence Of Family Background On Academic Achievement Of Secondary School Students In Physics In Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area Of Akwa Ibom State.

Physics Education Project Material

The Influence Of Family Background On Academic Achievement Of Secondary School Students In Physics In Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area Of Akwa Ibom State.


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the influence of family background on academic achievement of secondary school students in physics in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. The study was set to investigate into the effect of family background on the educational performance of students; find out if social-economic status of parents influence their students’ academic performance in physics; find out whether educational attainment of parent affect their students’ academic performance in physics; and find out the influence of family size on educational upbringing of physics students. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of physics students from the selected secondary schools in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 170 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency and percentage tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlation statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the family background significantly influences the educational performance of physics students. Furthermore the result of the findings reveals that the social-economic status of parents influence students’ academic performance in physics. Therefore, it is recommended that the government, curriculum planners and examination bodies in policy making and in planning educational strategies to reconsider the influence of parental factors and home environment on academic performance for the study area. Thus, government should increase the bursary allocation to the students from poor families so as to retain them in school to enhance their performance. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Education is a basic tool used by society for transmission of its societal values. It has become an area of prime importance not only for government or voluntary agencies but also for individuals, families, Governments and communities. Voluntary agencies and individuals are committing a lot of resources in order to achieve success in the educational enterprise (Orhungur, 1990). Awoniyo (1991) put it that the government believes that the greatest investment of a nation should be in her people. The greatness of any nation depends on the genius, qualities, attitudes and aspirations of her people and it cannot expect to be ignorant and free at the same time. Many factors and reasons have been given as being responsible for the continuous falling in the academic standard of our present educational system. These includes; attitudes of teachers to work, lack of seriousness on the part of the students, effect of the dwindled economy and to some extent the increasing degenerating moral system. Despite all possible efforts put forward by various governments and voluntary agencies to curb these trends, the country is yet to witness the rise it desires to see in the educational system. The saddest irony of it all is that we have all the teaching facilities and equipmens with modern infrastructures, more qualified and experienced teachers now than we had in the past, more improved effective teaching methods and strategies and all the facilities as well as basic amenities one could need foe effective learning.
The worry then was, why is education falling continuously in the system today? The researchers’ interest and motivation in this topic is the fact that some students are exceptionally good in their work, while some extremely bad. When such variations in scores are traced it is more often discovered that family background is a major contributory factor. It is therefore important that the levels of such contributions and the influence they have on children be examined so that useful suggestions to parents, teachers, educational planners and government could be made. Orhungur (1990) asserts that the cultural background of the family is determined to a large extent by its socio-economic background. As the child grows up moves out to the interest wider society his/her interaction with it and perception of it are largely determined from her earlier, experiences at home. The family setting and its socializing influence mould the personality of the child. Nigeria, for instance is a society with diverse ethnic groups with various cultural background in areas like family size, occupation and in extreme cases, religion. These factors pose their own restrictions on educational upbringing of children. The social sitting or mode of settlement of the family and extended family system may equally influence the academic performance of a child and by extension, their educational upbringing. Motivation is most need in order to perform more efficiently in their area of endeavor. When certain factors are eminent in a child’s family background, it is clear that the child will be motivated and driven towards high academic goal.

Denga (1986) in Eyake (1997) advised that praises, incentives, recommendations and other forms of reward system should be employed as motivational factors to stimulate students to higher achievements. It is likely that the much a child achieves during his school days is largely dependent on the kind of family to which he/ she belongs. For instance, a child whose parents take a great deal of interest in what he/ she does at school and give him / her necessary support by providing all the required books and finances needed has a great advantage over a child whose parents do not give him this kind of incentives and encouragements. More so, students’ attitudes to learning and educational performances are shaped by the kind of stimuli offered to them by their various environments. This can be considered in terms of the type of family, the home, parental social orientation, educational level, occupation to mention but a few. It is therefore, evident that students’ performance is contingent on the stimulus the home offers. Educational upbringing is not unconnected with the family influence of a child. Individual members of the family serve as a model to the child as he/ she copies from each of them. Eyake (1997) quoted. Adeyeme (1977) if the house fails to provide the child with the necessary equipments to fit him/ her into his proper place in the society and guided properly for his/ her future career, then the child is damaged. An analysis of the percentage of secondary school dropout today entails that such students are usually from broken homes, wiring polygamous family or with other socially related problems.

The agrarian and large families have accounted for the polygamous life of people. The large the size of the family, the more economic and other social responsibilities the parents bring upon themselves. And more often than not, the educational performance of students from such family suffer serious setback. This is because such parents might not be able to afford the cost funding education for the children. Other factors may affect the education performance of students like separation on grounds of different working station, divorce or even natural death can bring adverse effect on the growth and development of a child. Furthermore, economic position of parents is one of major factors that can influence greatly the educational upbringing of a child. In most families, either or none of parents may be earning income sufficient enough to sustain the family, faced with malnutrition and other emotional and psychological effects, the mental development of the child would be greatly retarded. Orhunger (1990) adds that a low income family with plenty of feeding problems may produce children who physical and mental development poses real challenges to the schools effort at optimum development of the child. This research work is therefore intended to explore the degree to which these factors influence the educational performance of students with a view to making useful suggestions that would help in checking the system.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Societies all over the world strive to achieve quantitative education for her citizenry. In order to achieve this noble course, so many factors must be put into consideration. Among them is the family background of the child. The family has a great role to play on the overall development of the child and his educational upbringing in particular. The gap in performance between students and academic excellence constitute a great source of worry and serious concern as well as discomfiture to both parents, schools mangers, policy makers and various governments responsible for the education of students’ in secondary school schools. Experience has shown that among the secondary school students’ there exist some differences which influence students academic performance, such as some students’ being able to pay their school fees promptly, while others were often sent away for nonpayment of school fees, some students have problem with the provision of school uniform but others do not. Likewise, some students were motivated by their parents through the provision of educational materials like text books and exercise books, others were not, where as some students’ come to school properly feed, others not. One then wonders whether influence of family background had played a in these issues. In the light of this, the main problem of this search is to find out if there exist in Gboko local area a relationship between family background and the students’ academic performance.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

There is no gain for any country whose educational planners and policy makers stands and watch the falling standard and steady decline of education at a given rate. They must identify the causes for such decline with a view of proffering solution to them. This research work is set to accomplish the following objectives;

  1. To investigate into the effect of family background on the educational performance of students’.
  2. To find out if social-economic status of parents influence their students’ academic performance in physics.
  3. To find out whether educational attainment of parent affect their students’ academic performance in physics.
  4. To find out the influence of family size on educational upbringing of physics students.

1.4 Research Questions

For the purpose of this research work the following research questions have been formulated;

  1. Does family background significantly influences the educational performance of physics students?
  2. Does the social-economic status of parents influence students’ academic performance in physics?
  3. Does the educational attainment of parent affect their students’ academic performance in physics?
  4. Does family size significantly influence educational upbringing of physics students?

1.5 Hypotheses

The following hypotheses will be tested to guide this study;

  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between family background and the physics students academic achievement.
  • Ha: There is a significant relationship between family background and the physics students academic achievement.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The work of this nature when completed may help the parents to be aware of the effect the family has on children and how such affect the child positively or negatively in relation to their academic performance. From the available recommendations, they will be able to adopt measures of bringing up there in such a way that they will perform well academically. Similarly, it is likely to encourage parents to make their children relatively comfortable in schools. This study also could aid children of various families to be aware and bear in mind with their parents in ability to provide them with all the necessary requirements in schools, and also sympathize with them in family problems and situations. More so, educational and curriculum planners could be guided in planning the curriculum without rigidity to suit diverse cultural environments. In addition, the teachers would be aware that a cordial teacher parent relationship may in a way improve the influence of family background on the academic performance of a child in school. The research of this nature is likely to help the state, nation and the world in general benefit from as adherence to the recommendations and implementation will help produce youths who would be better leaders of tomorrow. Finally, the research when completed may add to available literature and may encourage further research on the topic.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of the study focused on the influence of family background on academic achievement of secondary school students in physics. Geographically, this study will be carried out in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Operational Definition of Terms

As words may mean differently in different contexts, the following definitions are given as the words used as intended to be understood for the purpose of this study.

Family:

Is a unit comprising of husband, wife and children.

Family Size:

The number of people in the family.

Family System:

This includes monogamy and may be nuclear or extended family.

Home Environment:

This refers to parental experience and aspirations for children, objects and material conditions in the home for comfort and also specific behavioral processes conducive to learning.

Educational Upbringing:

This refers to education of children and how they perform in academics when subjected to test or examination.

Educational Status:

This term is used for social processes in which one achieve social competence and individual growth, carried on in a selected, controlled sitting which can be institutionalized as a school or college.

Occupational Status:

Person’s trade, vocation or principal means of earning living.

Socio-Economic Status:

This refers to position of recognition which one finds him in the society. Such a position may not be hereditary but acquired through personal efforts like education, wealth, occupation and social class.

Academic Performance:

This refers to the students’ achievement, scores within the class and his position relative to all those subjected the same test.

Home Situation:

This refers to prevailing atmosphere in the home whether violent, resentful or in disarray.

Parental Attitude:

Parents disposition to respond in a characteristics way to some stimulus in their social environment. Some responses determine the way and manner their children are brought up by them.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the influence of family background on academic achievement of secondary school students in physics in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the influence of family background on academic achievement of secondary school students in physics in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. The study is was specifically set to investigate into the effect of family background on the educational performance of students; find out if social-economic status of parents influence their students’ academic performance in physics; find out whether educational attainment of parent affect their students’ academic performance in physics; and find out the influence of family size on educational upbringing of physics students.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are physics students from the selected secondary schools in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. Family background significantly influences the educational performance of physics students.
  2. The social-economic status of parents influence students’ academic performance in physics.
  3. The educational attainment of parent affect their students’ academic performance in physics.
  4. Family size significantly influence educational upbringing of physics students.

5.4 Recommendation

The following recommendations were proffered with respect to the findings of the study;

  1. The study recommends that government, curriculum planners and examination bodies in policy making and in planning educational strategies to reconsider the influence of parental factors and home environment on academic performance for the study area. Thus, government should increase the bursary allocation to the students from poor families so as to retain them in school to enhance their performance.
  2. Illiterate parents should be encouraged to go to school, in that their literacy will enhance their children academic achievement in schools.
  3. Parents ought to improve their parenting styles as this can affect their children performance. Parents should endeavor to encourage their children to read and do their home work at home rather than spending their time on things that will not benefit them academically
  4. The study recommends that transport facilities such as school bus should be provided for the students so that it can aid the students from far and near to have seamless access to the school. This will free up time that would have been hitherto spent on hectic commuting from home to the school. Government should help to bring schools closer to the parents by establishing more number of schools in the various locality in the study area.
  5. Social and economic policies should be put in place to enable children from parents of low economic status to have equal opportunity of advancing the cause of education of their children.
  6. Parents who are not educated or has low educational qualification should Endeavour to allow their children to attend remedial coaching lessons provided by non-governmental organization during holidays to supplement the regular school programmed.

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