The Influence Of Environment And Hereditary On Health Status Of Primary School Pupils In Nigeria
The study investigated the influence of environment and heredity on health status of primary school pupils in Jos north Local Government Area, Plateau state. Related literature were reviewed on the area by the study, descriptive survey research design method was used. The populace of the study comprised all primary schools in Jos north Local Government Area Plateau state; two hundred respondents were randomly selected from five schools in Jos north Local Government Area. The instrument used for the study was a structured questionnaire which was validated and tested for reliability. The test retest method was used and the coefficient of the reliability was 0.87.Questionnaire was the main research instrument used for the study to gather necessary data from the sample respondents.The study dealing with the influence of heredity and environmental factors on health status is quite large. A large number of books have focused on the heredity environment controversy. The study showed that there are different debates regarding the contribution of specific percentages of heredity and environmental factors in developing the health status of learners. The research recommended among others that the federal government should employ qualified and trained teachers with standard qualification that will educate the primary school pupils on the effect of bad and dirty environment, Health educators, doctors and counselors should educate and inform couples about the effect of marrying individuals with diseased genotype and how to reduce the cases of transferring diseases such as sickle cell anemia to their unborn children, Health expert, doctors and counselors should advise mothers (women generally) on the benefit of taking balance diet and good nutrition before delivery and the child should be given adequate proportion of nutrient that will influence their health status positively, federal government should employ trained and qualified teachers with standard qualification that will teach and educate student, so that there intelligence level can be enhanced.
1.1 Background of the Study
The Nigerian government considers primary school education as being critical for a smooth transition from the home to the school and for preparing the child for adjustment and successful learning in higher level of education. Efforts are being made to ensure that the main method of teaching is through play, having child friendly school environments and that the teacher to pupil ratio does not exceed 1:25 per class (Amakievi, 2013). Because primary school education is mainly provided by non-governmental organizations and private individuals, the Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) reviewed and emphasized the educational law relating to the establishment of primary schools and also put in place regular inspection by officials of the Ministry of Education for maintenance of high standard. This is to ensure that primary schools are well administered with qualified teachers and provision of necessary infrastructure (Maduewesi, 2005a). Since primary school educational services equally provide care and supervision for children while career mothers are at work the scheme has been readily accepted by majority of them. In the study carried out by Abolarin (2014) on how employed mothers fulfill their marital roles expectations, all 250 employed mothers in the study indicated they usually send their children to either nursery or primary schools. Her finding demonstrated how career mothers value primary school education. Thus, as more women become employed in both formal and informal sectors of the economy, the need for primary schools increased. Maduewesi (2005a) reiterated that the expansion of primary schools was necessitated by the changing phase of economic life. Unfortunately, it has been observed that more and more working mothers tend to rely extensively on early educational care services to the extent of down-playing their own parental guidance and control (Abolarin, 2014). Some primary school age children stay in school for 9 hours per day (7.30am-4.30pm). The long hour of stay could make them to imbibe unwholesome habits from their peers which could be detrimental to their adjustment to parental values and discipline (Hickman, 2006). Non-maternal care, the amount of time spent in kindergarten and inadequate supervision for quality standard were associated with an increased likelihood of behavioural and socioemotional problems, as well as poor responses to learning by primary school children (Okorodudu, 1995; Marcon, 2002). From the foregoing, it is evident that the government manifests great concern for the learning development of primary school children and parents too rely heavily on primary school educational services. The risk to physical and emotional health of children due to inadequate care and supervision in some primary schools are observed and reported (Tambowa, 2013;Okoro, 2004). It therefore becomes necessary to examine the factors that could influence pupils at the primary school levels for their proper adjustment to school, promotion of healthy emotions in them as well as positive learning outcomes. The categories of the factors considered include: pre-natal, home and environmental factors.
Heredity is a process of transmission, by genes, of specific traits from ancestor (parents) to descendant (infants). Hereditarianism emphasizes the importance of the role of genetic factors. Heredity plays important role in identifying ability. It gains ground from the fact that some families produce eminent persons, generation after generation. The environmental influence on a person is the sum of all exterior conditions (society, culture, and life experience) that may affect the life of an individual.
The national primary school curriculum module (1987) emphasizes that “Primary Education is the foundation of all educational structures and the key, therefore, to the success or failure of the whole educational systems”. As such, success or failure of pupils’ health knowledge largely depends on the foundation they have at this level. A weak foundation leads to low health status, consequently affecting the general output to the nation’s economic production in the near future.
Hence, health appreciates every day and also depreciates everyday, which leads to its variation from time to time, but a balance of it makes individuals to assume being healthy. As stressed by Turner (1979): “Those with least state of health, value health the most, and that children at the age of between ten to eleven, tend to ignore personal hygiene”. That is to say that without the adequate provision of health knowledge, these children would relatively be dirty, and giving room for communicable diseases to spread. But as reported by Dare (1984) our school surroundings are weedy, littered, inadequate sanitary facilities, and ill ventilated, resulting to the outbreak of communicable disease among children who are the future leaders of the country. He added that the inspection of pupils finger nails, hairs, and school uniforms on the assembly lines every morning no longer happens. In addition, the teaching of personal hygiene has been eliminated from time table of most schools. Furthermore, the pupils have developed unhygienic health habits inimical to good health practice.
Infectious and parasitic diseases associated with low standards of sanitation remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in many developing countries (Park, 2000). Human environmentally related diseases such as malaria, typhoid, diarrhea and dysentery are a constant threat to life (Lucas and Gilles, 1990). The lack of potable water supply and poor environmental sanitation are the reasons why diseases associated with unhygienic disposal of human faeces and refuse are so common in developing countries. The most important of such diseases are diarrhea and intestinal worm infections which account for over 10% of the total disease burden in developing countries. In addition, inadequate supply of potable water increases the risk of schistosomiasis, guinea worm and skin infections (Park, 2000).
These environmentally related diseases can be controlled and prevented through health promotion and improvement in environmental sanitation (Ugbonnaya, 2000). Health promotion aims at increasing the host’s ability to withstand stress in the environment such as through good nutrition and health education. The objective of environmental sanitation is to create and maintain conditions in the environment that will promote health and prevent disease. This can be achieved through minimizing pollution of water, air, and soil; and by having a good focus on other measures of environmental sanitation that will reduce the transmission of communicable diseases to children and adults.
Stubbs (1991) explains that our health is being threatened by air, water, and food pollution, and we are in danger of being engulfed in trash. That is, unless our children have adequate health knowledge of how one’s carelessness could endanger self and others, the above problem as it is manifested now in our unhygienic environment, will increase our being engulfed in the trash. Therefore, the acquisition of health knowledge by our children being the leaders tomorrow should not be toyed with.
Many authors have shown that improvement should not only be based entirely on curative services, but also on the acquisition of scientific health facts. Turner et al, (1970) stated that in any good health scheme, there should be provision for social and basic knowledge of science of hygiene, which would enable people to live in harmony with their environments, which is accomplished through health education. People would continue to keep their environments clean and tidy, and observe some basic health rules in terms of preventive medicine, which could be helpful in directing individuals in making wise decisions as they are confronted with decision making in terms of factors affecting their health.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In a nutshell, a large number of health problems pervading this community are self-inflicted, manifested through community members drinking water from impure sources such as shallow wells, deep wells without adequate cover, streams and ponds. Eating in and from unhygienic and dangerous sources like uncovered food items sold by gutter sides, dumping sites, and eating unhygienic vegetables are among other practices. Despite the fact that they are self-inflicted, they are rarely self-inflicted with the sole aim of self-destruction, but rather commonly as a result of ignorance, confusion and apathy.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of the study is to examine the influence of environment and hereditary on health status of primary school pupils in Nigeria.
- To examine the influence of environment on the health status of pupils.
- To assess the influence of hereditary factors on health status of pupils.
- To examine the effect of environment and hereditary factors on the pupil’s academic performance.
1.4 Research questions
- Does the environment have any effect on the health status of pupils?
- Does hereditary factors affect the health of pupils?
- Is there any effect of environment and hereditary factors on the pupil’s academic performance?
1.5 Significance of the Study
No study has been carried out on the influence of environment and hereditary on health status of primary school pupils in Nigeria.
- The finding of the researcher would assist the Government in identifying the areas of weakness in the health education curriculum of primary Schools as it pertains to environmental sanitation and heredity.
- The research would also be of benefit to the future researchers and the readers on the influence of environment and hereditary on health status.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The study was carried out on the influence of environment and hereditary on health status of primary school pupils in Nigeria. The study was carried out in Jos north Local Government Area of Plateau state.
1.7 Organization of the Study
The study is organized into five chapters. Chapter one deals with the study’s introduction and gives a background to the study. Chapter two reviews related and relevant literature. The chapter three gives the research methodology while the chapter four gives the study’s analysis and interpretation of data. The study concludes with chapter five which deals on the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Conclusion and Recommendations
This study was carried out on the influence of environment and hereditary on health status of primary school pupils in Nigeria.
The study dealing with the influence of heredity and environmental factors on health status is quite large. A large number of books have focused on the heredity environment controversy. Modern research indicates that a combination of heredity and environment constructs us all. Both external and internal variables combine to create personalities and behaviours of human beings having unique characteristics. There are different debates regarding the contribution of specific percentages of heredity and environmental factors in developing the health status of learners. Family studies, twin studies and adoption studies help to get idea about the factors affecting intelligence. Characteristics of human beings are diverse in nature.
The findings of the study revealed that:
- Primary School Students of Jos north Local Government Area have some knowledge of environmental sanitation.
- There is a significant difference in the personal and environmental practices of primaryschool students who received instructions from health officials and those who did not.
- Fewer students had the privilege of invitation of health specialists to their schools.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following recommendations:
- The students should be encouraged to put their knowledge of environmental sanitation into action or practice.
- The schools should invite expert or specialists to talk to students about environmental sanitation.
- The Government should assist in providing health promoting facilities such as toilets, water supply, refuse bins, hand washing facilities, shovel etc in Primary schools for proper executing of health practices.
The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps
Quick & Simple…
Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦3,000 to Any of the Account Below
|Acc No: 0811003731|
|Acc No: 1225513212|
|Acc No: 8143831497|
Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card
|FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA|
|CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($15)|
|FOR GHANIAN STUDENTS|
|Make Payment of 80 GHS to 0553978005 | Douglas Osabutey | MTN MoMo|
Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment
- Payment Details
- TOPIC: The Influence Of Environment And Hereditary On Health Status Of Primary School Pupils In Nigeria
The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply