Influence Of Emotional Intelligence And Assertiveness On Pro-Social Behaviours

Project and Seminar Material for Psychology

Project and Seminar Material for Psychology


Abstract


Empirically explored in the study were emotional intelligence and assertiveness on pro-social behaviour. One hundred and eighty-six students (83 males and 103 females) of the University of Uyo, Uyo in Akwa Ibom State, were used in the study. Valid questionnaires and scales were used in the present study, such as; The Schutte Self Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SSEIT) developed by Dr. Nicola Schutte (1998), Rathus Assertiveness Scale (RAS) by Spencer Rathus (1973), and Adult Pro-Socialness Scale developed by Caprara (2005), were the scales used in collecting raw data from the participants. The study used a 2×2 factorial design and a 2-way ANOVA was the statistics used and analysed using version 20 of SPSS. The result indicates that emotional intelligence exerted a significant effect on pro-social behaviour, F (1,183) = 36.43, P<0.01); also found in the present study indicated that assertiveness exerted a significant effect on pro-social behaviour, F (1,183) = 36.43, P<0.01). thus, accepting the first and second hypothesis earlier stated, that students with high level of emotional intelligence will exhibit high level of pro-social behaviour than students with low level of emotional intelligence and also investigated in the present study is that students with high level of assertiveness will have high pro-social behaviour than students with low level of assertiveness and was thus confirmed. With discussion, and conclusion drawn. All drawing strength from earlier stated literature. Implication, recommendation and limitation given.


Chapter One


1.1 Introduction

Identifying the conditions necessary for human flourishing depends in part on the perspective one chooses to take. One can take the perspective of an average person and ask, ‘what is necessary for an individual to flourish?’ (Heintzelmanrt al, 2012). Alternatively, one can take the perspective of a community or a society composed of many persons and ask, ‘what is necessary for a community to flourish?’ Taking an individual’s perspective will invariably highlight the necessity of finding meaning in life as a fundamental personal need (Heintzelman & King, 2014).

Viewing one’s own life as meaningful is associated with greater longevity, better physical health, and reduced depression and anxiety (Taylor, Kemeny, Reed, Bower, & Gruenewald, 2000). In contrast, taking a communal perspective will invariably highlight the necessity of pro-social behaviour as a fundamental communal need. Pro-social behaviour is critical for creating the trust and cooperation necessary to sustain impersonal and complex societies and markets (Bowles & Gintis, 2003). The present research investigates whether the personal and communal perspectives are linked. Specifically, I test whether helping other people can increase helpers’ perceptions of meaning in life, thereby establishing an empirical connection between personal and societal flourishing.

There are at least two reasons to predict that helping others can increase a sense of meaning in life. First, helping other people can increase helpers’ sense of self-worth, which is one of the basic needs that must be satisfied to achieve a sense of meaning in life, according to prevalent theoretical accounts (Baumeister & Vohs, 2002). Helping other people can increase selfworth because pro-social behaviour is universally admired and valued (Grossman, Uskul, Kraus, & Epley, 2015). Helping other people is a way for helpers to gain social acceptance and build a positive reputation, which in turn increase helpers’ social status in their communities (Grant & Gino, 2010). Because social acceptance is a critical determinant of self-worth and self-esteem (Leary & Baumeister, 2000), the reputational benefits of pro-social behaviour are likely to increase self-worth, which in turn can increase the sense that life is meaningful. Second, another reliable predictor of meaningfulness is social connection with others (Stavrova & Luhmann, 2016). Accordingly, social exclusion and loneliness can lead to substantial psychological damage, including decreased sense of meaning in life (Cialdini & Patrick, 2008). Helping another person is one of the most basic ways to establish and reinforce social connection.


Influence Of Emotional Intelligence And Assertiveness On Pro-Social Behaviours


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