Influence Of Emotional Intelligence On Academic Performance Of Office Technology And Management Students
This study investigated the effect of emotional intelligence training on academic performance among office technology and management students in Taraba state, Nigeria. This study employed a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent control group, pre-test – post-test design. The population of this study was 73,651 office technology and management students out of which120 students were purposively sampled and used for the study. The instrument used for data collection was, Academic performance Scales (,). Data were analysed using mean, standard deviation and t-test. The findings reveal that Emotional intelligence training had effect on Academic performance of the respondents in favour of the experimental group (t=24.618, P=.000); Emotional intelligence’ training was effective in improving academic performance of office technology and management students as can be observed in the difference between Pre-test and Post-test (t=37.946, P=.000). The difference is in favour of Post-test; And There was no gender difference in the effect of emotional intelligence training on academic performance of respondents; hence the training had similar effect for both male and female (t=1.114, P=.270). It was recommended that School Principals, counsellors, Psychologist and Subject teachers should be exposed to Emotional intelligence (emotional self-awareness, self-management, social-awareness and relationship management) in readdressing students with academic problems.
1.1 Background to the Study
Education, no doubt, remains the most outstanding development priority area in the world today. The core purpose of education, unquestionably, is human development. Other things being equal, an educated person who is well or relevantly positioned in the socioeconomic, cultural and political milieu is expected to be a valuable asset to the society than another individual who is illiterate and perhaps ignorant. This simple fact explains why researchers and scholars, all over the world, continue to do research into ways of improving human knowledge and development. Debates on education and human development more generally can hardly be a boring exercise. The socio-political, economic and technological developments, which bring about a high frequency of innovations and reforms, have all combined to make discussions or debates on education and human development trendy, exciting and unending (Ogundokun & Adeyemo, 2010). This may partly influence learning and achievement in schools. However, achievement can be said to be the outcome of instruction.Ogundokun and Adeyemo (2010) also stated that achievement is the end product of a learning experience. Attaining a high level of academic Achievement is what every parent or guardian as well as teacher wishes for their children, wards and students. Schools and teachers are generally graded qualitatively by achievement based on the performance of their students. In Nigeria, education is considered the most important instrument for change and national development.
However, of all the problems facing Nigeria’s education system, none is more agonizing and persistent as the poor academic performance of students, especially of office technology and managements, at the external examinations conducted by the West African Examination Council (WAEC) and National Examination Council (NECO). And this has resulted in frustration, high drop-out rates and inability of students to gain admission into tertiary institutions. In spite of numerous efforts made by researchers, educators and policy makers to tackle this problem, academic performance of students is still a task that needs tube improved, but students may also take emotional intelligence training to excel in school.
Literature suggest that emotional intelligence plays a key role in determining success in life and it becomes more and more important as people progress up the career ladder and academic success. (kolb & Hanley-Maxwell, 2003; Richburg & Fletcher, 2002). Goleman (1995) argues that emotional intelligence, social intelligence and luck also play a big role in a person‟s success. While IQ gets hired, emotional, EQ gets you promoted. Research has shown that, what separates successful people from less successful counterparts is not necessarily IQ but rather EQ, with key skills to success more likely to found in the latter rather than the former. For instance, Snary and Vaillant, (1985) underline the limitation of IQ in prediction one‟s success at work and life in general over forty years longitudinal investigation with 450 boys in Massachusetts, USA. They found that the strongest predictors of success were characteristics such as being able to handle frustration, control emotions and get along with other people. There results show that paying constant attention to the course of own moods and emotions is not always productive for the individual. This is particularly so when attention to feelings is not followed by sufficient capacity to understand their causes, motives, and consequences, or to repair them (Salguero, palomera, & Fernandez-Berrocol, 2011). Individual who attend to their emotions excessively without adequate clarity of the emotional state could develop an emotional spiral that would generate a ruminative and self focused process that may rather than relieve their negative mood that result to low academic performance and provoke academic difficulties or failure. The role of performance in the cognitive functioning of students becomes even more important in an information rich world where individual needs to become empowered for lifelong learning. Claims for the primacy of performance have been supported by a host of research. In particular, meta-analyses of research on performance serve to underline its influence. Meta-analyses use statistical measures and strict criteria of validity and reliability to synthesise a number of studies into one overall set of findings, and are therefore an excellent gauge of the state of knowledge in a field at a given time. In 1991, a meta-analysis of 39 studies between 1977 and 1988 found that higher performance can lead to higher academic performance and persistence (Multon, Brown, & Lent, 1991).
Goleman (1995) outlines four main emotional intelligence constructs. That is: self-awareness is the ability to read one’s emotions and recognize their impact while using gut feelings to guide decisions; Self-management which involves controlling one’s emotions and impulses and adapting to changing circumstances; social awareness which includes the ability to sense, understand, and react to other’s emotions while comprehending social networks; and relationship management which entails the ability to inspire, influence, and develop others while managing conflict.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Presently, information technology has made the world a global village where traditional or conventional ways of living are in transitional phase. Due to urbanization and liberalization, adolescents are in a dilemma where they find themselves unfit and unfilled. Rapid changes in family life, pressures of peers and society, present day life style and academic challenges among others are the factors that lead to increase in competition, stress and anxiety among office technology and management students. Generally, office technology and management students are thus not able to cope with the humiliation and negative emotions in their academic lives. When an individual is in the wave of positive or negative emotions, his behaviour is totally controlled and directed by that emotion. Engaging Office technology and management Students emotionally is the key to strengthening their dispositions toward critical thinking which in turn leads to a rational and reasonable emotional life, the link between thinking and emotions is essential in academic achievement.
Substantial amount of research has established the connection of performance to academic achievement and the research consistently demonstrated that academic performance enhances office technology and management students‟ performance and academic success. Psychological and affective state sometimes produces profound feelings of disappointment, frustration and self-worthlessness. Which in fact reinforce emotional problems that provoke low academic performance which leads to academic difficulty and academic failure; since it has to do with emotions, emotional intelligence training might minimize such negative feelings and bust the academic performance of office technology and management students, which eventually pave a way to academic success. Therefore, the problem of this research was to investigate the effects of Emotional intelligence Training on Academic Performance among office technology and management students in Taraba State, Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study are to:
- Find out the differences between post-test scores on Academic performance of Office technology and management Students exposed to Emotional intelligence training and those in control group.
- Find out the differences between pre-test and post-test scores on Academic performance of Office technology and management Students exposed to Emotional Intelligence skills training.
- Determine the differences in Academic performance scores of male and female students also exposed to the treatment.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions guided the study:
- What are the differences between post-test mean scores on Academic performance of office technology and management students exposed to Emotional intelligence training and those in control group?
- What are the differences between pre-test and post-test scores on Academic performance of office technology and management students exposed to Emotional intelligence training?
- What are the differences in Academic performance scores of male and female students exposed to treatment?
The following null hypotheses guided the study:
- There is no significant difference in the post-test scores on Academic performance of office technology and management students exposed to Emotional intelligence training and those in control group.
- There is no significant difference between pre-test and post-test scores on Academic performance of office technology and management students exposed to Emotional intelligence training.
- There is no significant difference in Academic performance scores of male and female students exposed treatment.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
For the purpose of this study the following assumptions were made:
- Training in emotional intelligence (self-awareness, self-management, social awareness and Relationship management)can improve academic performance of office technology and management students.
- Training in emotional intelligence may increase academic performance among male and female students in the treatment group.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will add to theory building on emotional intelligence and academic performance. The findings will further provide an insight into the feelings of the people. It is also essential tools for self-insight and self-control (the ability to recognise and regulate ones‟ moods). It helps the students with the ability to cope with stress, depression and aggressive behaviours. The findings will also help the society in determining outcome of the individuals to adjust and adapt to environmental circumstances that disturbed them. The findings will help educators and curriculum planners, on the new skills such as emotional self- awareness, self- management, and social-awareness and relationship management when fully utilised and inculcated into the curriculum in order to ascertain the objective of nation educational systems.
Furthermore, the findings of this study through its emotional intelligence will aid school achievement in term of better handling of mutual relationship and perceived feelings both in one-self and others. Finally, the findings of this study will serve as a missing link for future researchers on emotional intelligence and academic performance of the students.
1.8 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
The scope of this study was to examine the effects of Emotional intelligence Training on Academic performance covering Office technology and management Students in Taraba State, Nigeria.
There are eight(8) educational zones in Taraba state, namely: Bali, Donga, Gembu, Jalingo, Karim, Takum, Wukari and Zing. The study was delimited to four Emotional intelligences namely: Emotional self-awareness, Self-Management, Social awareness and Relationship Management, This study was also delimited to only one (1) educational zone i.e. Jalingo education zone,was used for this study. The study is limited to Office technology and management Students (SS II) only. These are considered as the most important emotional intelligence that Office technology and management Students would need to learn in order to enhance their Academic performance.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Emotional Intelligence Skill Training: is the training given to students to reason about one self and emotions of others, and to produce information that will enhances ones‟ feelings, actions and thought processes. Emotional intelligence skills in this study include: emotional self-awareness; self-management; social-awareness and relationship management.
Academic Self- Efficacy: is the students‟ belief or judgement of their capability or competence to organise and execute a given academic task.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of emotional intelligence training on academic performance among office technology and management students. The research was carried out based on three objectives, three research questions, and three hypotheses in chapter one, which were answered and tested accordingly. In chapter two the concept of emotional intelligence and Academic performance were discussed. Theoretical framework and literature related to the topic were well reviewed. However, chapter three described the type of research design which is Quasi-experimental pre-test, post-test control group design. The population of this study was 73,651 office technology and management students whereas 120 students were purposively sampled and used for the study. The instrument used for data collection was, Academic performance Scales (,). Data were analysed using mean, standard deviation and T-test. The findings reveals that Emotional intelligence training had effect on Academic performance of the respondents in favour of the experimental group(t=24.618, P=.0001); Emotional intelligence‟ training was effective in improving academic performance of office technology and management students as can be observed in the difference between Pre-test and Post-test (t= 37.946, P= .000). The difference is in favour of Posttest;And There was no gender difference in the effect of emotional intelligence training on academic performance of respondents; hence the training had similar effect for both male and female (t=1.114, P=.270). It was recommended that School Principals, counsellors, Psychologist and Subject teachers should be exposed to Emotional intelligence (emotional self-awareness, self-management, social-awareness and relationship management) in re-addressing students with academic problems.
Emotional intelligence training was found to be effective technique that can be used by teachers, counsellors, curriculum planners and parents to improve the academic performance among students irrespective of their gender. Difference between experimental group and the control group was noticed due to treatment. Emotional intelligence training was found to be effective in increasing academic performance among office technology and management students.
From the findings and conclusion of this study, the following recommendations are hereby made:
- School Principals, counsellors, Psychologist and Subject teachers should be exposed to Emotional intelligence (emotional self-awareness, self- management, social awareness and relationship management) in re-addressing students with academic problems.
- Emotional intelligence training should be inculcated into the school curriculum so as to develop in students competent or efficacy in their academic endeavour.
- Seminars, workshops and symposium should be organised to train teachers on emotional intelligence to solve students‟ academic problems in schools.
5.4 Delimitation of the Study
The study was delimited to four Emotional intelligences namely: Emotional self-awareness, Self-Management, Social awareness and Relationship Management, This study was also delimited to only one (1) educational zone i.e. Jalingo education zone,was used for this study. The study is limited to Office technology and management Students (SS II) only. These are considered as the most important emotional intelligence that Office technology and management Students would need to learn in order to enhance their Academic performance.
5.5 Suggestion for Further Research
In light of this study the following suggestions were made:
- This study was carried out in public schools in Taraba State. It is recommended that a similar study should be carried out in other states to whether same result will be obtained so that generalization could be made about the findings in all office technology and managements in Nigeria.
- Future research should also investigate the effects of Emotional Intelligence on academic performance across the academic years.
- This study was conducted upon office technology and management Students with low academic performance. Similar studies can be conducted upon Primary School Pupils, University Undergraduate Students and Teachers.
- The results of this study are inconclusive regarding possible effects of emotional intelligence trainingon academic performance. Those who choose to further explore the possible interactions between emotional intelligence and academic performance, status should be advised to select different measures than those chosen for this study.
It would also be advisable to select a larger and more diverse sample.
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Frequently Asked Questions
Does emotional intelligence influence academic performance?
Since, many researchers had claimed the influence of emotional intelligence on academic performance; the aims of this study were to find out the level of emotional intelligence and its relation with academic performance among Nepali undergraduate students.
How empathy and emotional well-being influence education and academic performance?
This study recommends that students who want to excel in their reference to their empathy and self-motivation skills). influences their education and academic performance. With these seminars in schools students will be encouraged to learn much about themselves and their emotions. By so doing they will be intelligence.
What is the relationship between EI and academic performance?
The aforementioned student is said to be of low EI and has low academic performance. Cote & Miners (2006) conducted a study about emotional intelligence and they realized that it moderated the association between performance in academics and logic ability.
What is the relationship between intelligence and performance?
Intelligence which is the reason for students’ low grade performance. T he student that has their academic performance. intelligence moderated the relationship between academic performance and cognitive ability. used as predictors of academic success.
Does emotional intelligence predict academic performance?
In her study, Emotional Intelligence Predicts Academic Performance: A Meta-Analysis, lead author Carolyn MacCann from the University of Sydney concluded: “It is not enough to be smart and hardworking – to have the added edge for success, students must also be able to understand and manage emotions to succeed at school.”
What is the importance of emotional intelligence in student learning?
Emotional intelligence is very critical to student learning. Emotional intelligence allows the individual to communicate, lead and negotiate with others. A person with emotional intelligence is able to understand his or her own emotions and also the emotions of others.
Does ASNs mediate between emotional intelligence and academic performance?
The results confirmed that ASNS significantly and positively mediate between emotional intelligence (self-awareness, self-regulation, and social skills) and academic performance, partially supporting our hypotheses H4.1 and H4.4.
Is emotional perception a component of emotional intelligence?
Emotional perception as a component of emotional intelligence: Its role in academic achievement, social interaction, and focus of attention (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Middlesex University, London, UK.
Does ei affect academic performance?
However, on the academic front, the study’s results demonstrated that EI and academic performance are significantly associated, but having a higher EI doesn’t cause higher achievement.
What factors influence emotional intelligence and academic performance?
It also reviews the factors that influence emotional intelligence and their impact on academic success which include: emotional literacy, academic understanding, motivation and pressure handling. Significant relationship between emotional intelligence and academic performance in medical students
What is the relationship between EI and trait?
Ability theorists tend to suggest that EI is best measured by performance tasks, whereas trait theorists believe that EI can be assessed by self-report tools that assess the perceived efficacy of emotional processing. Moreover, the relationship between trait and ability assessments of EI and academic outcomes is not uniform.
What is emotional intelligence (EI)?
Emotional Intelligence is defined as the ability to identify, understand, control and respond to human emotions which consequently help individuals adapt better socially and promote better performance in all aspects of life (Parker, Taylor, & Bagby, 2001).
How is empathy connected to poor academic performance?
Empathy are connected with poor academic performance. When two students who have student’s that possess higher emp athy ability gets b etter grades. constructs of self-awareness of self-awareness, emotional management and interpersonal skills.
Do emotions influence students’ academic performance?
Thus, this study recommends that students who want to excel in their reference to their empathy and self-motivat ion skills). influences their education and academic performance. With these seminars in schools students will be encouraged to learn much about themselves and their emotions. By so doing they will be
Can the Emotional Intelligence Scale improve student academic achievement?
The research findings suggested the final formulation of items of the emotional intelligence scale that can measure the levels of emotional intelligence of students along with a significantly positive relationship to academic achievement.
Does the education system force people to unlearn their empathy?
“The education system forces people to unlearn the empathy they were born with. It’s a system based on always seeming strong, contributing to the economy, and being number one. Being number one is the rule of game, and how we relate to others is fundamentally dismissed.” –Bernard Amadei, Ashoka Fellow and founder of Engineers Without Borders USA
What is the correlation between intelligence and educational achievement in children?
For instance, Mackintosh (1998) revealed a .50 correlation between 11-year-olds’ intelligence scores and later educational achievement at the age of 16.
What is fluid intelligence and why is it important?
Fluid intelligence, the ability to problem-solve in novel situations, is linked to higher-order cognitive abilities, and to academic achievement in youth. Previous research has demonstrated that fluid intelligence and the underlying neural circuitry continues to develop throughout adolescence.
Is intelligence a relevant predictor of academic achievement?
Other studies also identify intelligence as a relevant predictor of academic achievement (Colom and Flores-Mendoza, 2007, Karbach et al., 2013, Laidra et al., 2007, Lemos et al., 2013, Primi et al., 2010, Rohde and Thompson, 2007, Watkins et al., 2007, Weber et al., 2013).
How do fluid intelligence tests measure academic achievement?
This means that the ability to learn, measured by fluid intelligence tests, will be reflected in high levels of knowledge acquired in time 1, and this shared information in scores of achievement will be the only predictor of academic achievement in time 2.