The Influence Of Conflict Resolution On A Traditional Society

Project and Seminar Material Under Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution

The Influence Of Conflict Resolution On A Traditional Society


Abstract


This study was carried out on the influence of conflict resolution on a traditional society using Aguleri in Anambra State as a case study. The study was carried out to ascertain the causes of conflicts in communities in Igbo Land, find out whether traditional rulers plays a significant role the resolution of community conflicts, ascertain the strategies adopted in resolving conflict among communities in Igbo Land and find out whether conflict resolution has a significant positive effect on fostering peace and sustainable development among communities in Igbo Land. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of residents of Aguleri, Anambra State. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. The hypotheses was tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the causes of conflicts in communities in Igbo Land includes; inheritance, religious affairs, land disputes, cultural activities. The study also revealed that traditional rulers play a significant role the resolution of community conflicts. Therefore, it is recommended that conflict management, peace promotion and consolidation should involve a behavioural code, confidence building measures and integrative activities and democratic practices among communities. To mention but few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • 5.4 Suggestion for Further Studies
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Conflict is as natural as the concept of peace contrary to the global or universal conception. Africans have particular ways of conceptualizing conflict. Traditional definitions of conflict regard it as – a struggle over values and claims to scarce status, power and resources in which the aims of the opponents are to neutralize, injure or eliminate their rivals‖ (Onigun Otite & Albert, 2001). However, conflict may generally exist wherever or whenever incompatible activities occur and may result in win-lose character. The resolution, transformation and management of conflict may also produce a winwin situation.

The pre-colonial Igbo society was not at all times peaceful, hence, ithad well structured social-political institution that enhanced conflict resolution. This system of pre-colonial government of Igbo people gave everyone, old and young, titled and ordinary men and women roles to play in the society. The basis for maintaining peace and order is demonstrated in the cultures and traditions which must be obeyed as regulation of human activities such as co-habitation, relationship in families and among communities. When the peace of the individual and community is disrupted, the tradition and culture of the people provides the mechanism to resolve it. There were moments according to Ugochukwu(2011), as we witness today when tension and open physical conflicts ensued. Some of such issues that spark off deep misunderstanding among individuals, families and communities include, marriages inheritance, religious affairs,land disputes, cultural activities and so on. This study therefore, examines the conflict resolution strategies and its influence in Nigeria with particular reference to conflict resolution in Igbo land. It is the position of this study that the traditional method of resolving conflict which include (but not limited to) mediation, oath taking, covenant, adjudication, reconciliation, cross examination, negotiation, sanction, etc are more result oriented in conflict resolution than the modern/ western culture of litigation settlement in law court.

Some institutions play vital role in conflict resolutions in Igbo communities, such institutions include council of elders or village council (Umunna), title men (Nze na Ozos), traditional rulers ( Ndi Eze), Daughters of the Land ( umuada), married women (ndiinyom), youths/age grade (umu na eto eto), priests(Eze mmuo),the Oracle (Arusi), and the earth goddess (Ala).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Community conflicts have in no little way affected the social development of many communities across the nation. More so it has often threatened the cooperate existence of the National Structure. As a social phenomenon community conflicts essentially involve community or communities with members having opposing pursuits of limited resources and privileges within the given space. These struggles are usually multi-faceted and complex in nature. Although it is important to state that due to the diversities of human origins and ideologies, conflict have become part of our existence and as such inevitable, nevertheless the approaches and methods by which conflicting parties handle conflict have great implications for social and communal co-existence.

The resolution of conflicts is both a principle and a practice in the promotion of capacity building towards bargaining, mediation, conciliation and arbitration. It is derived from the strong belief that conflicts or wars need not be left alone. There is a need to manage conflict by bringing parties into the appreciation of the human and economic costs as well as the mutual benefits of returning to order and stability (Akpuru-Aja, 2007). In the light of the above, this study seek to examine the influence of conflict resolution on a traditional society using communities in Igbo Land as a case study.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The major aim of the study is to examine the influence of conflict resolution on a traditional society using communities in Igbo Land as a case study. Other specific objectives of the study include;

  1. To ascertain the causes of conflicts in communities in Igbo Land.
  2. To find out whether traditional rulers plays a significant role the resolution of community conflicts.
  3. To ascertain the strategies adopted in resolving conflict among communities in Igbo Land.
  4. To find out whether conflict resolution has a significant positive effect on fostering peace and sustainable development among communities in Igbo Land.

1.4 Research Question

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. What are the causes of conflicts in communities in Igbo Land?
  2. Does traditional rulers play a significant role the resolution of community conflicts?
  3. What are the strategies adopted in resolving conflict among communities in Igbo Land?
  4. Does conflict resolution have a significant positive effect on fostering peace and sustainable development among communities in Igbo Land?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

Ho: Conflict resolution has no significant positive effect on fostering peace and sustainable development among communities in Igbo Land.

Ha: Conflict resolution has a significant positive effect on fostering peace and sustainable development among communities in Igbo Land.


1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will to a great extent enlighten traditional rulers and community residents on the nature, causes and possible ways to manage conflicts. This study will help to discourage conflicts in rural communities. Additionally, subsequent researchers will use it as literature review. This means that, other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regards to the influence of conflict resolution on a traditional society.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study is restricted to the influence of conflict resolution on a traditional society. The study is delimited to communities in Igbo land. Hence, the study will be carried out in Aguleri Anambra State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Conflict:

A situation in which people, groups or countries are involved in a serious disagreement or argument.

Conflict Resolution:

Refers to a way of solving any disagreement between people, organization and community for the exitent of peace to reign.

Traditional Institutions:

Refer to all those people-based and local approaches that communities innovate and utilize in resolving localized disputes, to attain safety and access to justice by all communal

Conflict:

A conflict between non-state groups that are organized along a shared communal identity.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the influence of conflict resolution on a traditional society using Aguleri in Anambra State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the influence of conflict resolution on a traditional society using Aguleri in Anambra State as a case study. The study is was specifically set to ascertain the causes of conflicts in communities in Igbo Land, find out whether traditional rulers plays a significant role the resolution of community conflicts, ascertain the strategies adopted in resolving conflict among communities in Igbo Land and find out whether conflict resolution has a significant positive effect on fostering peace and sustainable development among communities in Igbo Land.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are residents of Aguleri, Anambra State.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. The causes of conflicts in communities in Igbo Land includes; inheritance, religious affairs, land disputes, cultural activities.
  2. Traditional rulers play a significant role the resolution of community conflicts.
  3. The strategies adopted in resolving conflict among communities in Igbo Land includes: mediation, oath taking, covenant, adjudication, reconciliation, sanction.
  4. Conflict resolution have a significant positive effect on fostering peace and sustainable development among communities in Igbo Land.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Conflict management, peace promotion and consolidation should involve a behavioural code, confidence building measures and integrative activities and democratic practices among communities.
  2. Conflict control and abatement should involve passing resolutions, making appeals and using neutral forces to separate hostile parties.
  3. Conflict management should involve intensive negotiation, the use of mediatory organs and conciliation activities.
  4. Community participatory process should be build into the policy and decision making procedure at all times. This would involve the establishment of governance structures, such as the setting up of a community monitoring team by the community members, which has good representation and gender balance at the community level.

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