The Influence Of Colour And Designs In Nigeria Newspapers (A Case Study Of Federal Polytechnic Nekede)

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

The Influence Of Colour And Designs In Nigeria Newspapers (A Case Study Of Federal Polytechnic Nekede)


Abstract


The study of the influence of colors and design in newspapers, case study of Federal Polytechnic Nekede. Color is one of the most powerful tools available to graphic communicators, second to words; it is obvious that the use of different colors and design play a very prominent role in newspapers and magazines, and the world of print in general. ‘

Colors and designs help to draw the attention of readers to some important news stories apart from its potential to add aesthetic quality to the magazine pages. for the purpose of this work; the researchers used the survey method, the work and questionnaire as a tool to elicit data from the selected respondents.


Table Of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Approval Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of The Study
  • 1.2 Statement of The Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of The Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the study
  • 1.6 Scope of the study
  • 1.7 Limitations of the study
  • 1.8 Definitions of the terms or concepts.

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Concept of Print Media
  • 2.1.1 Classification of The Print Media
  • 2.1.2 Stimulus- Response Theory
  • 2.1.3 History of Federal Polytechnic Nekede
  • 2.1.4 Organogram of Federal Polytechnic Nekede
  • 2.2 Meaning of Newspaper
  • 2.3 Historical Development of The Print Media In Nigeria
  • 2.3.1 Campbell’s Anglo- Africa Newspaper
  • 2.3.2 Contents of Newspapers
  • 2.4 Characteristics of Newspaper
  • 2.5 Functions of Newspapers
  • 2.6 Role of Newspapers in Nigeria
  • 2.7 Design in Newspapers
  • 2.8 Influence of colors and design on newspapers
  • 2.9 Tools for design
  • 2.10 Elements of design
  • 2.11 Meaning of color
  • 2.12 Overviews of newspaper read by students of federal polytechnic Nekede, Owerri
  • 2.13 Summary

Chapter Three

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of Study
  • 3.3 Sampling Procedure
  • 3.4 Sample Size
  • 3.5 Sources of Data
  • 3.6 Instruments for Data Collection
  • 3.7 Validity and Reliability of Instrument
  • 3.8 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.9 Method of Data Analysis

Chapter Four

Data Presentation And Analysis

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Data Presentation
  • 4.3 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five

Summary Of Findings, Conclusion And Recommendations

  • 5.1 Summary of Findings
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix
  • Questionnaire

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Color is one of the most powerful tools available for graphic communicator, second to words; color is what makes newspapers appear beautiful and attractive to readers. It is an established fact that colors and aesthetic quality of newspaper makes readers prefer one newspaper to another even before reading. As an artist needs to know how to use a brush, eraser, canvas and colors, so does the design editor need to become acquainted with the tools of design especially the use of different colors to harmonize other design elements.

According to Arowosegbe (2006) various color add different meanings and effects to stories and adverts, it tells more about the significance of the stories and the nature of the story, if a story has to do with accident or death, the editor will always cast the headlines with color red, color headlines, diagrams, photographs, body type, white space, vacant space between the display element boxes, including a full box enclosing all the stories are all powerful tools of adding aesthetic quality to both magazines and newspapers, while it is also used to make reading easy for the readers.

Different colors have varying effects on people, for instance there are different responses to the two extremes of the spectrum, red and blue. Red tends to raise the blood pressure, pulse rate, respiration and excite the brain wave.
Across cultures, red has the fastest and the most powerful effect on human emotions [Aaker, Bemartines and Garolera, 2001]. Other associations attached to the color Red are: Heat, energy, warmth, Talent, Violence and courage. Red is used to stimulate people to make quick decision.

Blue has a reverse effect. It tends to lower the blood pressure, pulse rate and brain waves. For most people, blue symbolizes Truth, justice, passion, love, talent and creativity. Other common associations connected with the color are sky, cold weather, water and ice (Birren 1950).

The science of colors are sometimes called chromatic, chromatography colorimetric or simple color science. It includes the perceptions of color by the human eye and brain, the origin of color in materials, color theory in art and the physics of electromagnetic radiations in the visible range (that is, what we commonly refer to simply as Light).
One of the most important aspects of print production is the ability to accurately reproduce colors on paper. Among some of the factors that will affect this ability will be such things as Texture of people. The papers color whether or not the paper is coated or uncoated the number of colors applied by the press and other such factors.

But first it’s good to understand some of the fundamentals of what “COLOR” really is; color is just a product of our mind and our perception. We see different colors only because our brain interprets the wave length and frequency of light differently. We only see color after the light hits out eyes, close your eyes and the color disappears.

From observations, black is not seen as a color. In other words, if you take away all light and nothing is reflected then everything is black. Without light, you cannot have any color since there is nothing to see. At the opposite end of the spectrum you have Total Light. To end this, the research study, examine the influence of colors and designs in newspapers, case study of Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Owerri started in 1978 asthe college of Technology Owerri.

It was established by the Imo state Government through Edict No-16 of April 1978. It took off as its temporary site at the premises of Government Technical College (GTC), Owerri along Egbu Road in the same year. In 1981, the institution moved to its present and permanent location located in Nekede, Owerri by Imo state Government edict No.6 of 1987, the name of the institution was changed to Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Owerri six years ago after and precisely on 7th April, 1993, the federal Government institution. Consequently, it was again renamed “The Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Owerri”.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

The Research examines “the influence of colors and design in Nigeria Newspapers a case study of Federal Polytechnic Nekede. It is obvious that color separation on newspaper draw the attention of readers to its content. Newspapers without colors i.e. a mono-color newspaper will draw less attention and will affect the quality and sale volume of the paper.


1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The objective of the study is to identify the following:

  1. To know whether the use of colors has enhanced message effectiveness of newspaper on readers.
  2. To study if colors usage in Newspapers determines readers choice of newspapers.
  3. To examine if addition of different colors has improved the sales volume of newspaper production.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. Does color influence the quality of newspaper?
  2. Has colors affected federal polytechnic students choice of newspaper?
  3. To what extent does color usage in newspaper determines reader’s choice of newspaper?

1.5 Significance Of The Study

This work is relatively new in the field of mass communication and print media in particular; it will benefit lots of people including media practitioners, marketing students and marketers alongside public relation officers. This work forms part of the academics research while future researchers will find it useful when carrying out researches related to this subject matter.


1.6 Scope Of The Study

The scope of the study has been limited to influence of colors and design in newspaper preference by federal polytechnic Nekede. Since is not easy to study the color of newspapers preferred by all the citizen of Nigeria due to time available for this work, lack of fund, the nature and geographical structure of Nigerian and other considerable logistics, despite the scope, the finding from the study is generalized.


1.7 Limitations Of The Study

It is not an overstatement that a work of this nature cannot be carried out without some hard experience; however below are some of the constraints to this work. These are many limitations ranging from not knowing where to start, not knowing who to consult or approach for materials, not knowing what is next to write in various segment of this study and not actually knowing who put me through in achieving my work and other are:

  1. Stresses from other academic activities are one of the limitations to this research.
  2. Financial constraints to travel to different places.
  3. Duration for the research work is datively short.
  4. Materials that are available on this topic is relatively small as the concept is new or people have not written from this angle.

1.8 Definitions Of Terms Or Concepts

Influence:

It is the action or process of producing effects on the actions, behaviors, opinions of another or others.

Color:

The property possessed by an object of producing different sensations on the eye as a result of the way it reflects or emits light.

Design:

A plan or drawing produced to show the look and function or workings of a building garment or other object before it is made.

Newspaper:

It is printed publication (usually issued daily or weekly) consisting of folders unstapled sheets and containing news, articles, advertisements and correspondence.


Chapter Five


Summary Of Findings, Conclusion And Recommendations

5.1 Summary Of Findings

The study examined “In influence of colors and design in newspapers with a case study of Federal Polytechnic Nekede”. However, it is obvious that the use of different color places a very prominent role in newspaper and the world of print media in general, as it helps to draw the attention of the readers to some important stories apart from was potential to add aesthetic quality to the newspaper/ magazines pages.

The study is divided in to five main chapters; chapter one contains the background of the study, scope of the study, limitations of the study and definitions of terms, chapter two contains the concept of print media, stimulus response theory, meaning of newspaper and magazines, characteristics of newspaper, role of newspaper in Nigeria, what is design, toolsfor design, element of design and meaning of colors.

In chapter three survey research method was adopted using simple random sampling technique and accidental sampling methods were also adopted to select the respondent.

Chapter four of the project revolved on the data analysis and interpretations of findings, the frequency and percentage method of data analysis was used. This chapter contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation of study.


5.2 Conclusion

Having properly and carefully reviewed relevant literature and examines the responses of the respondents, some logical conclusion can be made here. It is very safe to logically conclude that Newspaper without color or photograph will be nothing. It will look like a letter or textbook and such publication cannot interest readers let alone selling a copy. Color add visual element to magazine and newspapers and create a unique personality of such newspaper. Colors and design draws attention of the readers to the most prominent news and issue especially when placed at the front page of a newspaper. Automatically, color red denotes danger and death when used in casting headlines.

In fact, the headlines scanner and photo scanners always find it easy to know the most important news of the day without mixing words. Color add aesthetic value to newspapers and magazines pages.


5.3 Recommendations

After a thorough examination of the study the following are recommended

  1. Print media should always use only colors that can blend with photo, text that denotes the content of the message in the newspapers.
  2. Newspaper page planners and designers should learn how to make use of different colors in other to add aesthetic value to the pages of a newspaper.
  3. Seminars and trainings should be organized from time to time for the newspaper organizations and staff.
  4. Newspaper designers should assist the readers to locate the most important stories with little or no stress with their colors.

The Influence Of Colour And Designs In Nigeria Newspapers (A Case Study Of Federal Polytechnic Nekede)


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