Influence Of Class Size On Teachers Instructional Delivery In Public Senior Secondary Schools In Ikwerre Local Government Area Of Rivers State

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Influence Of Class Size On Teachers Instructional Delivery In Public Senior Secondary Schools In Ikwerre Local Government Area Of Rivers State


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the influence of class size on teachers instructional delivery in public senior secondary schools in Ikwerre Local Government Area of Rivers State. The study was specifically set toassess the relationship between class size and effective instructional delivery in secondary school, determine whether class size influences teachers effectiveness in classroom management, determine whether class size influences teachers communication effectiveness during teaching and learning process, and find the influence of overcrowded classroom on teachers effectiveness in instructional delivery. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of teachers of some selected public senior secondary schools in Ikwerre Local Government Area of Rivers State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 229 respondents and 210 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that there is a significant relationship between class size and effective instructional delivery in secondary school. Furthermore, the result of the findings reveals that the influence of overcrowded classroom on teachers effectiveness in instructional delivery includes: distractions, discomfort, lack of teachers control, and lose interest in the lesson. Therefore, it is recommended that educational planners should ensure that with an increase in student’ population, arrangements should be made for commensurate increase in infrastructure and qualified teachers. This will reduce class size, enable adequate teachers’ workload and encourage student-centered learning. This will go a long way to improve the quality of teaching, learning and performance. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Education is the total experience and knowledge acquired by a learner or individual in a formal or an informal way, which transforms to a strong foundation for socio-economic development of a nation. Consequently, governments of all levels are placing a lot of importance on educational development as a worldwide endeavour. It is in line with this assertion that serious needs arise to checkmate the effectiveness of teaching and learning alongside the teachers’ ease of instructional delivery and learners’ effective participation. Classroom size can be defined as the population of a particular class in terms of number of students per teacher. According to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), lower secondary student – teacher ratio is the average number of students per class in lower secondary schools. Mokobia & Okoye (2021) stressed that educators all over the world identify class size as a desirable element of the educational system.

What constitutes a standard class means different things to different nations. According to Mokobia & Okoye (2021), countries like Australia, Canada, Romania, Czech Republic, United States of America and Slovenia have less than 30 students recommended for a standard class and countries like Norway, Turkey and Netherlands recommended 20 or less than 20 students for a standard class while Japan and Singapore have above 30 students recommended for a standard class. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) puts student- teacher ratio in lower secondary school at 42 as of 2004 and puts it at 31 as of 2010 while its lowest value was 25 in the year 2008. Therefore, in this study, class size with 1 – 30 students per teacher will be regarded as small or standard class size while class size with 31 and above students per teacher will be considered as large class size following the order of countries like Japan and Singapore and partially alongside the UNESCO (2010) recommendation.

Ajayi, Christiana & Ajayi (2017) claimed that effective teaching is difficult in overcrowded classes and majority of teachers are faced with instructional, physical, discipline and evaluation problems in large classes. There are reasons why smaller classes may lead to students’ improved classroom participation and teachers’ improved lesson delivery than large classes. Reasons such as easier and regular discussions with students, timely and frequent feedback to students and active problem solving were pointed out by Davies (Davies 2000). However, large class size was identified by Ajayi, Christiana & Ajayi (2017) as one of the major causes of students’ ineffective classroom discipline, engagement and communication and they also stressed that insufficient or dilapidated classrooms, insufficient teaching staff, inadequate infrastructural facilities, budgetary constraints ranked the major causes of large class size in senior secondary schools.

In order to solve these problems, it is expected of schools to plan for future increase of students’ enrolment and such plans entail purchasing of additional teaching and learning resources, recruiting additional teachers, purchasing classroom furniture and building more classrooms for establishment of quality educational system.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

With fast growing population and increase in students enrolment in public senior secondary schools, large classes have become like the standard classes in Nigeria. However, the national policy on education revised in 2010 stipulates that the maximum teacher –student ratio is one teacher is to thirty students. The obvious reason for this standard is to ensure that the teacher not only controls the class but also to ensure that he understands the learning capabilities of each of the learner in the classroom. Ozochi (2018) affirms that there is a limit to which a teacher can effectively control, anything more than that according to him will affect the school objectives.

But, in most of our secondary schools today the teacher –student ration has gone far beyond the stipulation of the national policy on education. Students stay more than fifty in each class, seating arrangement altered, thereby making teaching and learning difficult. Educational planners in Nigeria have attributed the over bloated class size due to the explosion of the population of children of school age.

Maduagwu et al (2016) opines that effectiveness of a teachers instructional delivery results when the teacher and student achieve the purpose of which either are together in a class under an overcrowded classroom environment like what obtains in most of our schools today it becomes pertinent to ask, how effective is teaching and learning particularly in subject area that requires close monitoring of the learner by the teacher. Therefore, this study is channeled towards finding out the influence of class size on teachers instructional delivery in public senior secondary schools in Ikwerre Local Government Area of Rivers State.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to examine the influence of class size on teachers instructional delivery in public senior secondary schools in Ikwerre Local Government Area of Rivers State. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Assess the relationship between class size and effective instructional delivery in secondary school.
  2. Determine whether class size influences teachers effectiveness in classroom management.
  3. Determine whether class size influences teachers communication effectiveness during teaching and learning process.
  4. Find the influence of overcrowded classroom on teachers effectiveness in instructional delivery.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be anchored by the following question;

  1. Is there any significant relationship between class size and effective instructional delivery in secondary school?
  2. Does class size influences teachers effectiveness in classroom management?
  3. Does class size influences teachers communication effectiveness during teaching and learning process?
  4. What are the influence of overcrowded classroom on teachers effectiveness in instructional delivery.

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between class size and effective instructional delivery in secondary school.
  • Ha: There is a significant relationship between class size and effective instructional delivery in secondary school.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study when completed would enable the teacher to know the dangers associated with over-crowded classroom. It would assist the government and education planners on recruitment and supervision of teachers bearing in mind the expected teacher-learner ratio. The study will assist in providing a guide in the realization of one of the core objectives of Nigeria education which is to make Nigeria one of the technological advanced countries in the world.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study boarders on the influence of class size on teachers instructional delivery in public senior secondary schools in Ikwerre Local Government Area of Rivers State. However the study will be delimited some selected public senior secondary schools in Ikwerre Local Government Area of Rivers State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Class Size:

Class size refers to the number of students a teacher faces during a given period of instruction. Dozens of studies on class-size reduction demonstrate its positive impact on student performance, though a smaller number of studies attempt to cast doubt on the connection between class size and student learning.

Academic Performance:

How well or badly students do in studies at school.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the influence of class size on teachers instructional delivery in public senior secondary schools in Ikwerre Local Government Area of Rivers State.The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the influence of class size on teachers instructional delivery in public senior secondary schools in Ikwerre Local Government Area of Rivers State.The study was specifically carried out to assess the relationship between class size and effective instructional delivery in secondary school, determine whether class size influences teachers effectiveness in classroom management, determine whether class size influences teachers communication effectiveness during teaching and learning process, and find the influence of overcrowded classroom on teachers effectiveness in instructional delivery.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 210 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent areteachers of some selected public senior secondary schools in Ikwerre Local Government Area of Rivers State.


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. There is a significant relationship between class size and effective instructional delivery in secondary school.
  2. Class size influences teachers effectiveness in classroom management.
  3. Class size influences teachers communication effectiveness during teaching and learning process.
  4. The influence of overcrowded classroom on teachers effectiveness in instructional delivery includes: distractions, discomfort, lack of teachers control, and lose interest in the lesson.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Educational planners should ensure that with an increase in student’ population, arrangements should be made for commensurate increase in infrastructure and qualified teachers. This will reduce class size, enable adequate teachers’ workload and encourage student-centered learning. This will go a long way to improve the quality of teaching, learning and performance.
  2. Major educational stakeholders like universal basic education board should make the actual population of students in junior secondary schools known to the federal government for effective planning for overcrowding in schools rather than conceal it.
  3. The Ministry of Education, policy makers, parent – teachers association, old boys/students association and other nongovernmental organizations, corporate bodies and religious organizations should contribute respectively to renovate dilapidated classrooms, build more classrooms to contain the growing enrolments in the schools and provide schools with the facilities they need to make teaching and learning easier and effective.
  4. Where the class size cannot be reduced in a given time due to challenges beyond the control of the school authorities, it is recommended that teachers and management of the school should employ rotational students’ group formation and study. These groups could identify common challenges and present it to teachers for support.

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