The Influence Of Cartoon On Opinion Formation Of Readers (A Case Study Of Newspaper Readers In Okigwe)
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Cartoon has become a veritable tool in news reporting. This study “The Influence of Cartoon on Opinion Formation of Readers” (A Case Study of Newspaper Readers in Okigwe)” is looked into the roles cartoon has played in news reporting. As such, the survey research method was employed to investigate a sample size of 160% respondents, 140% questionnaire where turned while 20% where not turned. The data collected were analyzed and interpreted based on the research question. 115 or 82.1% of the respondents agree that cartoon serve as amusement in news reporting while 25 or 17.9% disagree. 100 or 71.4% respondent said no. perception of cartoons in news reporting, 60 or 42.6% see cartoon as interesting, 40 or 28.6% see cartoon as distracting. The finding revealed that the respondents believed that cartoons have contributed in news reporting. It was therefore concluded that cartoons has been a veritable tool in news reporting.
Table Of Contents
Table of contents
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Objectives of the study
1.4 Research questions
1.5 Delimitation of the study
1.6 Limitation of the study
1.7 Justification of the study
1.8 Operational definition of the terms
Review of related literature
2.1 Review of opinions
2.2 Review of opinion
2.3 Cartooning in Nigeria
2.4 Forms of cartoons
2.5 Theoretical framework
3.1 Research design
3.2 Areas of study
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Samples and sampling procedure
3.5 Sources of data
3.6 Instrument of data collection
3.7 Validity & reliability of instrument
3.8 Administration of the instrument
3.9 Method of data analysis
4.0 Data presentation and analysis
4.1 Sex response
4.2 Do you read newspaper
4.3 Cartoon used for amusement
Summary of findings, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1 Summary of findings
1.1 Background Of Study
The communication experts, all over the world have made indelible remarks about the activities of mass communication as an indispensable and potent organ for restoring sanity globally. According to Werner J. Serverine and Ames W. Tankard, J.R. (1976:53) Mass communication is partly skill, partly art and science. It is a skill in the sense that it involves certain fundamental learnable technique such as focusing a television camera, operating a tape recorder or taking notes during an interview. it is an art in the sense that it involves certain challenges such as writing a script for a television programs, developing an aesthetic layout for a news story. It is a science in the sense that there are certain principles involved on how communication works that can be verified and used to make things work better.
In the same vein, cartoons in whatever news paper or journal they appear portray their meaning in a satirical or amusing way and analyze events with less words and lines. Unlike other forms of writing, cartoons involve the reader- to induce the meaning of the drawing.
For journalist in Nigeria and elsewhere, the cartoon have proved a worth weapon. Today, the wide popularity it commands and the high amount of influence it wields is perhaps beyond that originally cutout for it as a mere complement for the writer words.
Also writing on the assertions of Harold Spenser “…The advantages of cartoon image as a journalist weapon lay in its graphic clarity. In its capacity to link up in a flash, a whole series of associations in the viewers mind. The efficiency of the cartoon in distilling a message into an immediate and succinct communication assured its widespread use as a medium of both propaganda and protest.
A sixteenth century German produced the first political cartoons. This was during the reformation, and the cartoon immediately became “an active propaganda weapon with social implication”
In 1843, cartoon “acquired its present meaning when a great exhibition of a cartoon was given for a competition devised by Queen Victoria’s Prince Albert to get designs for wells of the new house of parliament. Many of the entries, though lofty intention, were Ludicrous, and John Leech draw a series of limitation in punch, satirizing them and railing at political abuses of the day”
Wainwright calls the newspaper cartoons “a curious phenomenon… one man’s view of the world” Victor Chukwudi Kugal 1999:140 in his book entitled “visual communication” says:Since the inception of the print industry, cartoons have become popular form of pictorial journalism, the meaning at a glance. Cartoons or drawings are vehicles for humour and ridicule. Their main aim is to entertain and often exert a measure of influence on the public. Powerful cartoons constitute a social force in the view of their effect on readers whether now or in the future; cartoons will continue to occupy a pride of place in newspaper and magazine industry. Its strength lies on its ability to influence public opinion.
Influence of cartoon, the force and potency, all are considered against the ease with which the reader can catch the message of the artistic drawing. Most effective cartoon deals with idea. Consequently and word or line that detracts it from the simple unity of the subject makes the cartoon superfluous. While the text could cover a wide range of ideas and purposes, the typical cartoon deals with the ideas and problems, which has political and social significance. Large newspaper employs their own cartoonist. However, relatively smaller publications publish the product of artists and free lancers.
In a story published on June/July (2000:7), Akin Onipeche of the fourth Estate magazine submits that:for cartoonist and President Obasanjo’s humour is the common obeisance. He stated among other things “during President Olusegun Obasanjo’s first term as head of state complained bitterly about the caustic treatment he received in the hands of Nigerian cartoonists.
Cartoon is popular in its position about issues by way of mocking, sympathizing, taking sides being neutral or amusing. Moreover, cartoons are used in the shaping of the characters of politicians in particular in the kind of formation, education, entertaining and amusement.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
Cartoons have been seen as a veritable way in the dissemination of information, education, entertainment and even setting agenda for the public. Kugah (1999:140) “cartoons rank high among other forms of communication especially in the print media. To support the idea that cartoons are veritable way of information dissemination, the following will form our problem statements. Do cartoons serve as statement and amusement? How is cartoons perceived in news reporting?
1.3 Objectives Of The Study
The purpose of the study is to ascertain the following:
- To find out whether cartoons serves as tools for education and amusement.
- To find out whether cartoons satire in news reporting.
- To find out how cartoons, in news reporting are perceived.
1.4 Research Questions
In this research, we shall be guided by the following research questions:
- Does cartoon serve as a tool for education and amusement?
- Does cartoon serve as a satire in news reporting?
- How are cartoon perceived in news reporting?
1.5 Delimitation Of The Study
This study will be focused on knowing whether the cartoon serve as a tool for education and amusement.
It is also intended to evaluate whether cartoon serve as a satire in news reporting.
It further ascertains how people perceived cartoons during news reporting.
1.6 Limitations Of The Study
There is no research work that can be successfully completed without some constraints. This research work is by no means an exception. Despite the effort of the researcher to carry out a hitch-free, more reliable and versatile work, however, imperative to admit that the following factors limited the researcher:
Time factor, the researcher is admitted to other activities-academic, social, religious etc. this affected the time required to carry out a more extensive and effective study. Also, the time given for the completion and submission of this work is limited. There was non-compliance by some respondents as a result of some confidentiality of some information; some of the respondents were expected to give. It is not in the best interest of their business to disclose such information of opportunity to their competitors. Despite all these and more limitations, the research did all that was humanly possible to make the study reasonably reliable and valid.
1.7 Justification Of The Study
A local graphic board carries the inscription “You hear my words but miss my meaning”. This statement, which reflects the notion that, there is more to meaning than just words themselves, is really a plea for awareness of non-verbal communication. Those messages that rate a form other than words, such messages are frequently overlooked aspect of communication, yet they are very powerful.
In these contexts, cartoons are seen as good samples of non-verbal communication cues. The significance of this study therefore is to hold our cartoons as:
- Arousing interest and a spirit of academic enquiry.
- Illustrations that explains point that cannot be described economically in words.
They are used to inspire the imagination or explain a point that ordinarily would have been beyond the immediate range of the readers’ experience.
For minors, cartoons are important for understanding.
1.8 Definition Of Terms
This is skeletal during that evokes or induces ridicule or humour that is mostly found on newspaper.
This is the qualitative value of a message exposure through a given medium.
This is the communication of unfolding events to the mass media audience by the media.
This is an accurate, objective and factual reporting of day-to-day events or various events in the mass media.
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