Influence Of Cartoon On News Paper Readership Among Student; A Study Of University Of Lagos Akoka

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

Influence Of Cartoon On News Paper Readership Among Student; A Study Of University Of Lagos Akoka


Abstract


This study was carried out on the effect of influence of cartoon on news paper readership among student using university of Lagos, Akokaas a case study. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of students of University of Lagos Akoka. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 53 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the extent at which cartoon influences newspaper readership among university students is low. The study also revealed that information provided by newspaper cartoons are capable of moulding students’ opinion. The findings of the study further revealed that newspaper cartoons does not provide sufficient information about issues to University students. Therefore, it is recommended that cartoons should be used more strategically and effectively to address salient issues in humorous ways. And in all its subtlety and use of satire and humour, cartoons should not, and must not be misused. Restraint and an amount of self censorship must be encouraged. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Media is undeniably a powerful and quick mode of communication. It has a tremendous impact on education, politics, culture, and social cohesion, in addition to appealing to a huge audience. The media serves as active watchdogs, pointing out the shortcomings of the political system. It examines the system, identifies the flaw, and attempts to remedy it through creative writing, drawing, and presenting, with cartooning and photography serving as one example of creative presentation.

A cartoon, according to Ogbo and Nuhu (2016), is a drawing and a symbol that conveys a sarcastic, witty, or hilarious message. Most cartoonists represent society either by ridiculing or criticizing them, hence it is mostly utilized by cartoonists to insult or mistreat individuals, organizations, or even institutions. “Comic strip characters that depict visible people in a society,” says Steuter (2014). He went on to say that cartoons are messages intended to make people laugh, messages that are amusing in nature. Importantly, cartoonists employ symbols, caricatures, stereotypes, and parallels to convey their point. This is frequently featured on the editorial page of newspapers and periodicals, indicating the publication’s philosophy and stance. However, during elections, political cartoons, also known as editorial cartoons, are used to communicate thoughts concerning the socio-political landscape. An editorial cartoon is a type of illustration that conveys social or political themes to its audience. An editorial cartoon, according to Jimoh (2011), is a drawing, comic strip, or single panel that has a current political or social message that shows a politician, a current event, or a scenario in a hilarious and exaggerated manner. Visual communicators concentrate on a wide range of distinct techniques to get their point across: photography, digital design, distinctive illustrations, presentations, and even animations, all fall under their wide training and expertise umbrella. While there is more training for visual communicators, graphic designers are not. Their focus is on designing and creating key graphics for insertion of digita land print media, websites, mobile apps, and more. Their focus is restricted to designing and developing main graphics for digital and print media insertion, websites, mobile apps, and more.
These two kinds of experts together, however, make it simpler to communicate the main points andmarketing attempts of a company in a manner that is bright, vivid and graphically attractive, regardless of the type of media being used (Fahmy, Bock and Wanta, 2014).

Visual images can induce powerful feelings and distinct interpretations as they are used to outsource verbal activities and add to the potential social implications of these pictures being disseminated publicly. They may also have a projective role in the sense that they can generate connections between various issues (Naghy, 2010). Not only in cartoons, but also in social life, humour is a very significant characteristic. Humour is used to differing degrees in cartoons; some cartoons give the audience a smile without being funny, while others are so ridiculous that individuals laugh at them.

There are no humour laws, but there are aspects that most individuals may agree with (Mwetulundila and Kangira, 2015). The production of images that are pictures and other illustrative materials is concerned with all visual arts. When these pictures are used in book publishing to convey specific information, the art form is usually referred to as illustration. Illustrations talk volumes and are just as essential as printed phrases in a book as a vehicle for communication (Ihebuzor, 2017).

Cartoons plan to interact with each other. They are a mixture of pictures, captions and social comments. Cartoonists encode editorial cartoon voice bubbles and subtitles now referred to as utterances, with texts that the readers are supposed to decode to reach the expected significance. They are written with the purpose of transmitting a message to either a single person, authority or the public. While some readers only appreciate a moment’s fun, those who roar with laughter recognize the correct context may shrink anguished by the moral story of the cartoon (Jimoh, 2010).

To represent items within a panel, cartoonist utilizes symbols. These panels are just one moment in time. Unlike in a comic strip, all messages are discovered in an editorial cartoon within the single image, making it complex and hard at first glance to decipher. Some editorial cartoons divide the single panel into distinct sections, maybe quarters, and the items are drawn in a manner which suggests motion development as each section is viewed separately by the viewer. These cartoons are integrated into the editorial cartoon definition as they still exist only as a single visual frame. They are not motion pictures in brief (Kinyua, 2014).

Newspaper is a mass media which communicates current information released at regular interval of time. As a mass medium, newspapers are beneficial for education, information, enjoyment, relaxation and entertainment. This is why Ola and Ola (2016) note that newspapers are crucial because they contain current information and they keep the readers aware of events and activities inside and beyond their local contexts.

Okunna (2019) confirms this stance by arguing that the newspaper is crucial in that it acts as a transporter of current information or news. Obaid (2019) concurs that newspapers are the textbooks that provide up to date information on local, state, national and world affairs, the most current analysis and criticism of the executive and legislative decision making, the latest in music, theatre, television, fine arts and even column and comics to make readers laugh. Babalola (2021) believes that newspapers encourage literacy empowerment; it unavoidably fosters critical thinking, retention of knowledge, problem solving and the questioning of information source. Furthermore, newspaper consumption permits one to become a person who holds civic-conscious ideals, tolerance and connectedness to the community (Edegoh, Asemah, and Okpanachi, 2020).

Despite the major importance of newspaper readership, data from a broad corpus of empirical research tends to imply that newspaper reading is diminishing. For instance, Edegoh et al (2020) reports that newspaper circulation has been falling over the previous few of years. Udie (2019) also says that the frequency of newspaper reading among Nigerians is less than 50 percent . Biagi (2021) claims that during the 1970s, the general number of newspapers has fallen owing to non-readership. Business Essay (2019) has also observed that there has been a decrease tendency in newspaper reading over the last several decades in nations all over the globe, including the United States and Europe. According to the findings of a poll that was carried out by Afro barometer in 2003 across 12 African nations, including Nigeria, it was found that just 13% of the tested population admits to reading a daily newspaper (Afrobarometer, 2017). The daily sales number of all the newspapers in Nigeria was less than 300,000 in 2010, according to a survey that was conducted out throughout the nation by the Advertisers Association of Nigeria (ADVAN). This indicates that only one out of every 470 people in Nigeria buys newspapers on a daily basis (Ezeh, 2015).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Ignorance about national issues is a major concern in governance in Nigeria. It encourages rumour mongering and impedes national development. The means through which the people are informed about government activities, such as press briefing and press releases by government officials seldom reveal issues of corruption involving the government in question. As a result, people continue to wallow in ignorance about government activities, particularly the issue of finances of governments. This situation is particularly worrisome now that the Freedom of Information Act 2011 has been passed to enable the people have free access to public information, especially those on government expenditure.

Cartoons are one of the contents of the newspaper through which social issues are brought to focus. They reveal social problems and suggest solutions to national issues. Unfortunately, very few attempts have been made to study the audience perception of newspaper cartoons’ portrayal of national issues. Apart from few content analyses, no known efforts have been made to investigate the opinion moulding function of newspaper cartoons as regards the to newspaper readership in Nigeria.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main aim of this study is to examine the influence of cartoon on news paper readership among student; a study of University of Lagos Akoka, Lagos State. Other aims of this study are:

  1. To determine the extent cartoon influences news paper readership among students of University of Lagos Akoka, Lagos State.
  2. To determine whether newspaper cartoons provide sufficient information about issues to University of Lagos Akoka, Lagos State students.
  3. To determine whether information provided by newspaper cartoons are capable of moulding audience opinion.
  4. To determine whether newspaper cartoons influence opinion formation among students of University of Lagos Akoka, Lagos State.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will be answered in this study:

  1. To what extent does cartoon influence news paper readership among students of University of Lagos Akoka, Lagos State?
  2. Does newspaper cartoons provide sufficient information about issues to students?
  3. Are information provided by newspaper cartoons capable of moulding audience opinion?
  4. Can newspaper cartoons influence opinion formation among students of University of Lagos Akoka, Lagos State?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses will validate this study:

  1. H01: Newspaper cartoons does not provide sufficient information to students.
    Ha1: Newspaper cartoons provides sufficient information to students.
  2. H02: Information provided by newspaper cartoons are not capable of moulding students opinion.
    Ha2: Information provided by newspaper cartoons are capable of moulding students opinion.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will add more knowledge to the existing literature on cartoons and newspaper readership. It will also serve as a reference for future researchers that may want to undertake a research on a similar study. Social activists will also benefit from the study as it will enable them to deploy genres of editorial cartoons in their awareness campaigns. More so, the result of the study will enable print media cartoonists and communicators to promote the art of cartooning as a tool for socio-political, and communication emancipation. Additionally, the findings of the study will enable Finally, the findings of this study will contribute to the increase in the readership culture in Nigeria.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on the influence of cartoon on news paper readership among student; a study of University of Lagos Akoka, Lagos State. Specifically, this study focuses on determining the extent cartoon influences news paper readership among students of University of Lagos Akoka, Lagos State, determining whether newspaper cartoons provide sufficient information about issues to University of Lagos Akoka, Lagos State students, determining whether information provided by newspaper cartoons are capable of moulding audience opinion and determining whether newspaper cartoons influence opinion formation among students of University of Lagos Akoka, Lagos State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

Like all human endeavour, this research work was not without some factors that tended to jeopardize the smooth completion of the study. One of the factors is on the fact that the period of time allowed for this work was short that the researcher did not have enough time to do a thorough job.

Also the researcher in the course of data collection, had to put in extra effort to interpreting interviews schedule of the respondents, some who fall within the in comprehensible age limit. Additionally, there were financial and transit constraints.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Cartoons:

A cartoon is a type of illustration that is typically drawn, sometimes animated, in an unrealistic or semi-realistic style.

Newspaper:

A printed publication consisting of folded unstapled sheets and containing news, articles, advertisements, and correspondence

Readership:

The readers of a newspaper, magazine, or book regarded collectively.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the effect of influence of cartoon on news paper readership among student using university of Lagos, Akoka as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the effect of influence of cartoon on news paper readership among student using university of Lagos, Akoka as a case study. The study was specifically carried out to examine the extent cartoon influences news paper readership among students of University of Lagos Akoka, Lagos State, determine whether information provided by newspaper cartoons are capable of moulding audience opinion, determine whether newspaper cartoons provide sufficient information about issues to University of Lagos Akoka, Lagos State students, and determine whether information provided by newspaper cartoons are capable of moulding audience opinion.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were students of University of Lagos Akoka.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The extent at which cartoon influences newspaper readership among university students is low.
  2. Newspaper cartoons does not provide sufficient information about issues to University students.
  3. Information provided by newspaper cartoons are capable of moulding students’ opinion.
  4. Newspaper cartoons influences opinion formation of students.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. More newspapers need to embrace and exploit the full potentials cartoons have to offer.
  2. Cartoons should be used more strategically and effectively to address salient issues in humorous ways.
  3. Cartoons are a potent medium of expression.
  4. In all its subtlety and use of satire and humour, cartoons should not, and must not be misused. Restraint and an amount of self censorship must be encouraged.

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