The Influence Of Audio Visual Teaching Materials On Learning In Pre-Primary Schools

Primary Education Project and Semina Material

The Influence Of Audio Visual Teaching Materials On Learning In Pre-Primary Schools


Abstract


Teaching and learning activities are interesting when audio visual aids are used effectively and efficiently in a classroom teaching situation. A well planned and imaginative use of audiovisual aids in lessons should do much to banish apathy, and give students something practical to see and do, and at the same time helping to train them to think things out themselves. This study was carried out to investigate the availability and utilization of audio visual aids among the teachers in primary schools in Anambra State, South-east Nigeria. The study adopted the descriptive cross sectional design. All the 116 teachers in pre-primary schools in Anambra State comprised the subjects for the study. Data were collected using researcher-constructed questionnaire with a reliability of 0.816. Statistical analysis of the data generated was done using simple descriptive statistical analysis and inferential statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) to analyze the relationship between variables. The major findings of the study are that in pre-primary schools, Anambra State, white boards 116 (100%), models 116 (100%), charts 116 (100%), textbooks/library 114 (98.3%) and specimens 110 ( 94.8%) are available for teaching and learning. Teachers greatly use whiteboards(100%) and textbooks(82.3%) while teaching. 99% of the teachers have knowledge of challenges associated with the utilization of audio visual aids. 100% of the teachers agreed that there are strategies to be adopted to resolve challenges hindering the effective use of audio visual aids. There was no significant difference (p> 0.05) in the utilization of audio visual aids between male and female teachers. There was no significant difference ( p > 0 .05 ) between teachers experience and their utilization of audio visual aids. There was no significant difference ( p > 0 .05 ) between teachersā€™ ranks and their utilization of audio visual aids. There was no significant difference ( p > 0 .05 ) in the challenges associated with audio visual aids use among the teachers. Findings of this study revealed that there is still need to train teachers so that they will be knowledgeable in planning and using audio visual aids for effective classroom instruction. The governments should provide funds for the purchase of more audio visual aids, teachers should be supervised for proper and effective use of audio visual aids. The teachers and students should be involved in the improvisation of audio visual aids.


Chapter One


Introduction

Background to the Study

The teacherā€™s task is by no means easy as it involves someone who has some ideas, knowledge, information or experiences trying to share what he or she has with someone else who does not have a similar experience. It is a communication task which requires the teacher to use every available means to convince the learners to buy his/her ideas or accept the message. It is not enough for the teacher to give information, he or she must support what he or she says with educational media which appeal to the learnersā€™ sensory experience so that learning may be effective.

Audio visual aids, otherwise referred to as educational media, could be defined as the wide variety of equipments and materials used for teaching and learning by teachers and students (Okechukwu, 2010). They are instructional materials by which the teacher, through the utilization of more than one sensory channel is able to clarify, establish and correlate concepts, interpretation and appreciations. They make dynamic learning experience more concrete and realistic. The use of audio visual aids improves studentsā€™ critical and analytical thinking.

In the past, a teacher effectiveness depends on his knowledge of the subject matter, knowledge of how to organize and present content meaningfully and an understanding of those being taught, but today, much emphasis is placed upon the use of audio visual aids. Audio visual aids make learning more permanent in the minds of the learners because people remember about 90% of what they see and do. Gana (2000) opined that the successful utilization of any audio visual aid depends on the wisdom and the resourcefulness of the teacher. The teacher should make adequate use of available audio visual materials on his everyday teaching. This will arouse the interest of the students and enable them see things in their natural setting.

When education was introduced in Nigeria in the past, chalkboards, charts, pictures and some concrete objects were only used as audio visual materials, but with the recent developments in the education system, materials like model, television, computer and radio-tape recorder are now being used in the schools. Audio visual aids are very crucial to the proper implementation of any curriculum used in the education process (Eze, Ani, & Eya, 2007). Learners are supposed to see, hear, feel, touch and practice whatever they are learning, and for every academic delivery to be effective, cognizance should be taken of the present day education and technology and their efficient gadgets and techniques resulting in improved way of learning. The teacher as a chamber of knowledge has to improve his mode of lesson delivery to be in line with the current trend. He cannot remain static in a world that is constantly changing educationally and technologically, he should familiarize himself with the innovation that abound in his profession so as to cope with up-coming challenges. This is because one way of ensuring that the learner is being carried along in the process of learning is by the provision and utilization of audio visual aids in teaching. When teaching is appropriately done with appropriate audio visual aids, it has a direct impact on studentsā€™ achievements since their interests in learning are stimulated (Abbatte and Mcmahon 2002).

Education is a life long activity, therefore, a learner must be supplied with the necessary skills to enable him or her perform effectively in his or her environment and the world at large. The learner can only have this information through the good use of audio visual aids in conjunction with the presented learning materials. Education experts and experienced teachers agree that the use of audio visual aids helps the students whose teachers constantly and gainfully employ those materials because they tend to perform better academically than those whose teachers rarely employ audio visual aids in their teaching.

According to Nwosu (2005), nurse tutors that have audio visual aids in their schools lack knowledge on how to use them while teaching so as to achieve a desirable change in behaviour of learners. For instance, some teachers in some pre-primary schools in Nigeria today lack knowledge on how to operate computer which can be used to make teaching and learning both interesting and effective. In enumerating the factors that could be responsible for varying intra-and inter-school/academic achievement, Ukeje (2009) listed four important factors including the acute scarcity of audio visual aids which he said constrained educational systems from responding more fully to new demands. He claimed that, in order to do their part in meeting the crisis in education, educational systems will need audio visual aids that money can buy, they will need a fuller share of the nationā€™s manpower, not merely to carry on the present work of education, but to raise its quality, efficiency and productivity. They will need buildings, equipments and more audio visual aids.

According to Adjai (2005), there is pleasure in teaching job when audio visual aids are used and intended results are realized. They make what would have been an abstract idea concrete and brightens what would have been dull lesson. When audio visual materials are used, the lessons are always interesting and highly enjoyed by the students. This carries success with it and creates a lasting impression in the students. Since the use of audio visual materials in teaching and learning in our pre-primary schools would go a long way in improving the academic performance of students, this study was designed to investigate the availability and utilization of audio visual aids among the teachers in pre-primary schools in Anambra State, Nigeria.


Statement of the Problem

The ability of the audiovisual aids to provide effective teaching and learning is being continually undermined and called into question. The use of audio visual aids for effective teaching and learning suffer in the hands of uninterested teachers and educational policy makers, who fail to recognize the importance of the use of audio visual aids in pre-primary schools (Ofoefuna, 2006).

Inspite of the fact that audiovisual aids are the supportive input for any academic institution for teaching, learning and research, it is observed that various institutionsā€™ managements are not providing adequate audio visual aids for their institutions (Flyner, 2002). Also, in some places where these teaching aids are available; the teachers do not put them into maximum use. The reason for this attitude may be because teachers engage themselves in so many other activities, with desire and haste of some teachers to cover the syllabus or scheme of work, instead of making their teaching more meaningful and imparting (Egbuna, 2010).

Furthermore, most schools lack funds and as a result, they find it difficult to purchase the audio visual aids. Generally, failure to use audio visual aids in teaching and learning results in lack of interests among the students. This affects the academic performance of the students. In the light of this, this study investigated the influence of audio visual teaching materials on learning in pre-primary schools.


Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to investigate the influence of audio visual teaching materials on learning in pre-primary schools in Anambra State, Nigeria.


Objectives of the Study

The specific objectives for this study were: To:

  1. Determine the availability of audio visual aids to the teachers.
  2. Determine the teacher ā€˜s level of utilization of audio visual aids
  3. Identify the challenges teachers encounter in using audio visual aids
  4. Identify the strategies to overcome the challenges encountered by teachers in using audio visual aids

Hypotheses.

  • There is no significant difference in the utilization of audio visual aids between male and female teachers.
  • There is no significant difference between teachersā€™ experience and their utilization of audio visual aids.
  • There is no significant difference between teachersā€™ ranks and their utilization of audio visual aids
  • The challenges encountered by the teachers have no significant influence on their utilization of audio visual aids.

Significance of the Study

It is expected that findings from this project work could immensely offer valuable insights to the researchers in education, who are likely to use this research work as a reference material, to enable them develop the field of teaching-learning process.

The findings of the study will help to properly establish and place audio visual aid in its rightful position within the set up of the pre-primary schools under research.

It will also help to identify availability or non-availability, use or non – use and inadequacies of audio visual aids in the areas to be covered by this study with a view of alerting the authorities on its implications.

Moreover, the data from the findings when presented to the regulatory body of Nursing and Midwifery Council of Nigeria will enable them see the need for mandating all training schools to utilize audio visual aids in teaching and learning process. This will improve academic performance of students.

The study would enable the governments to provide adequate facilities, equipments and well equipped libraries to schools. This will go a long way to facilitate teaching and learning in pre-primary schools.

To the educational administrators, this study will serve as a guide to design appropriate in-service training programmes to update teachersā€™ skills in knowledge and use of audio visual aids.

Finally, the findings from the study will provide opportunities for teachers to develop proactive approach towards the use of audio visual aids. It will also enable the School of Nursing teachers to always use audio visual aids to give concrete representation of abstract ideas and then motivate the students to make their own audio visual aids that will lead them through the lesson.


Scope of the Study

The study was delimited to male and female teachers in pre-primary schools in Anambra State. It was delimited to determining whether teachers use audio-visual aids in teaching and learning, whether audio-visual aids are available in pre-primary schools in Anambra State and the challenges teachers encounter in using audio-visual aids.


Operational Definition of Terms

Availability of audio visual aids refers to the audio visual materials which the school authority is able to locate and afford.

Teachersā€™ use of audio visual aids refers to the teachersā€™ easy manipulation of the audio visual aids in a teaching situation.

Audio visual aids are those facilities, equipments and materials like computer, power point, television, model, specimen, white board, etc which are utilized by a teacher to illustrate, emphasize and explain a lesson with the intention of making the lesson clearer to the learner.

School of Nursing is a type of educational institution or part thereof, providing education and training to become a fully qualified nurse.

Nurse educator is a nurse who designs, implements, evaluates and revises academic and continuing education programmes for nurses.


Chapter Five


Discussion of the Findings

This chapter deals with the discussion of the findings of the study, the conclusion drawn from the finding and the implications of the study. Recommendations based on the findings and suggestions for further research are also highlighted. Finally, limitations of the study as well as a brief summary of the entire work are also presented.


Discussion of major findings

The major findings of this study are discussed in line with the research objectives and hypotheses that were formulated to guide the study.

Specifically, the findings are discussed according to the following sub-headings:

Availability of audio visual aids

From the list of audio visual aids which is made up of visual, audio and audio-visual materials as shown in table 2, it is evident that the following audio visual aids are available in pre-primary schools, Anambra State; Whiteboards (100%), models (100%), charts (100%), Objects and specimens (94.8% ) and articulated skeleton (83.6% ). This finding agrees with that of Ijezie, (2012) which revealed that whiteboards, specimens and library/textbooks are available for teaching and learning. Ndubuisi, Obodo, Okworka, and Uzuegbunam, (2010 ) also agreed with the work of Ijezie which highlighted that whiteboards, charts, notice boards and laboratory facilities are available for teaching and learning.

This result indicates that some of the audio visual aids are minimally available in pre-primary schools, Anambra State, they include computers (46.6%), power point ( 40.5% ), radio sets (24.1% ), tape recorders (23.3% ). some of these materials are close to being totally absent from schools. Such materials include: television set (18.1%) and video sets (17.20). This study has revealed the dominance of textbooks, whiteboards, objects, specimens, models and charts in teaching and learning in pre-primary schools in Anambra State. Modern media such as audio and video tapes, computers and power points are rarely used. These findings agree with those of Echetabu (2000) who found out that teaching is bedeviled with many problems such as inadequate period of teaching, method of teaching and lack of adequate and useful audio-visual aids.

What this means is that pre-primary schools teachers in Anambra State are not altering their instructional practices inspite of the coming of the new instructional technologies. Traditionally, teachers have depended on text books, whiteboards, objects and specimens, models and charts as media for disseminating knowledge in the classroom. With the current practice by pre-primary schools teachers in Anambra State, their students are greatly deprived of the access to modern instructional aids. These teachers are still the chief performers and dispensers of knowledge in the classroom. With the coming of new instructional technologies, Fayaz (2011) asserted that the teachersā€™ roles are beginning to change. Momoh (2012) stated that the teachersā€™ role as the ā€œSage on stageā€ who dispenses knowledge will shift to a role in which teachers are facilitators of learning when technology is integrated into the School of Nursing curriculum. With the application of modern technology in the classroom, instruction can be more student centred and individualized.

98.3% of teachers indicated the presence of textbooks/library. This reveals that library facilities are available in the schools. This finding disagrees with that of Olaosun (2013) that library facilities and textbooks are inadequate. It is the submission of the researcher that library facilities should be provided in all the schools- primary, secondary and tertiary institutions. This is because, the use of library helps to inculcate in the learners the spirit of enquiry, self reliance, self education and self development (Offorma 2011). The researcher wondered how the teacher could teach effectively without textbooks.

96.5% of teachers claimed that the audio visual aids they use are archaic. The teachers agreed that governments do not provide audio visual aids for schools regularly. They also agreed that audio visual aids are not limited to exams classes and difficult topics only. They disagree that the practical room is well equipped with audio visual aids. This indicates that teachers teach with old audio visual materials instead of modern audio visual aids that can stimulate the studentsā€™ interest in learning. Akanwa (2006 ) noted that unavailability of audio visual aids has negative impact on academic performance of students.

Teachersā€™ use of audio visual aids

Only white boards (100%) and textbooks /library (82.3%) are greatly used for teaching and learning by the teachers. Charts (68.2%), objects and specimens (64%) and models (39.5%) are fairly used, while tape recorders radio sets, power point, video sets, and television sets are rarely used. The findings show that most of the audio visual aids are mostly fairly used. This finding is consistent with the work of Obianwu (2006) which stressed that teaching aids such as charts and laboratory facilities were fairly used by the teachers in teaching science subjects. This finding also coincides with the findings of Ali (2014) that the existing infrastructural facilities including audio visual aids available in Nigerian schools are not fully utilized. Also, Nwosu (2005) stated that audio visual aids are yet to find their ways into Nigerian classrooms. Findings of the study also revealed that some of the audio visual materials like tape recorders, radio sets, video sets, power points, computers are not utilized at all, probably because they are not available. This coincides with the findings of Naidu (2008), and calton and David (2000), which pointed out that audio visual aids can only be utilized when they are available.

Teachersā€™ perceived challenges associated with the utilization of audio visual aids

Findings of this study revealed the major challenges encountered by the teachers in the use of audio visual aids. They include the following: Lack of funds (100%), The audio visual aids are too difficult to operate (100% ), non availability of audio visual aids (100% ), illegibility of some of the audio visual aids (100%), Lack of storage facilities (100% ), use of audio visual aids consumes a lot of time (99.1% ), Lack of interest and awareness on the part of school authorities (99.1%) and inability of some teachers to improvise the audio visual aids (99.1%). The finding shows that all the teachers have knowledge of the challenges associated with the utilization of audio visual aids. The finding also reveals that improper use of the audio visual aids makes teaching less motivated and that inability of some teachers to improvise is as a result of their poor attitude towards improvisation.

These findings are in line with that of Vivian (2010), which highlighted the following as problems hindering the effective use of audio visual aids: Lack of skills by the teachers, Lack of funds, interest and awareness on the part of school authorities. The finding also agreed with the work of Arinze and Ezechi (2012) which pointed out that lack of skilled personnel, inadequate fund and electricity are some of the problems that affect the effective use of teaching aids. In another similar study, Okpala (2012) holds the view that high cost of power point, computer, video set and television constitute problems to an effective use of audio visual aids in secondary schools.

It will be highly deceptive to think that the provision of all these audio visual aids alone enhance effective teaching and learning in schools. The truth is that installation, maintenance and utilization of these aids require specially trained technical staff that are currently in short supply in our schools.

Strategies to overcome the teachersā€™ perceived challenges associated with the utilization of audio visual aids
It is evident from the findings that all the teachers agreed that there are strategies to be adopted to resolve the challenges hindering the effective use of audio visual aids in pre-primary schools. They include: organizing seminars, workshops and conferences with serving teachers and specialists in educational technology where teachers will be taught management, installation, maintenance and repair of some of the audio visual aids, provision of funds by the governments and school authorities for the purchasing of audio visual aids, allowing the qualified nurse-educators to teach in pre-primary schools using audio visual aids, supervising the teachers in the classroom, making sure they make use of audio visual aids and repairing and replacing damaged tools /educational media. Other strategies to resolve the problems hindering an effective use of audio visual aids according to the findings of this study include: instructing and assisting the users in the selection, use and design of aids and rehearsal of presentation and also allowing the students to see or touch the audio visual aids. This finding, however, indicates that the teachers have the remedy for effective utilization of audio visual materials. Therefore, teachers should be encouraged to select course materials and to determine which teaching aids are best suited to particular levels of students.

The findings of this study are in agreement with the view of Adeoye (20011) who advocated that government and all the stake holders should provide adequate funds for the procurement of audio visual aids and technical assistance in the pre-primary schools for effective use of audio visual materials for effective teaching and learning. In a similar investigation, windschitt (2002 ), holds the view that organizing regular seminars, workshops and refresher courses for teachers in pre-primary schools will go a long way in keeping the teachers abreast of the use and maintenance of audio visual materials in teaching and learning process. In addition, teachers should improvise materials for teaching and learning. Some locally available and inexpensive aids such as charts and pictures can be improvised (Balogun, 2005)

Relationship in the utilization of audio visual aids among male and female teachers.
Hypothesis 1

Table 6 reveals the difference in the Utilization of audio visual aids between male and female teachers. This table displays t test for significant difference in the utilization of audio visual aids between male and female teachers. The t value is – 0.180 and p value is 0 .859 ( greater than level of significance 0.05), therefore, we accept null hypothesis and conclude that there is no significant difference in the utilization of audio visual aids between male and female teachers. This result disagree with the findings of Afacurtis ( 2013 ) that female teachers utilize audio visual aids more than their male counter parts.

Difference between teachersā€™ experiences and their utilization of audio visual aids.
Hypothesis 2

Table 7 reveals the difference between teachersā€™ experience and their utilization of audio visual aids. This table shows ANOVA test for significant difference between teachersā€™ experience and their utilization of audio visual aids. The f value is 0 .029 and p value is 1 .000 (greater than level of significance 0 .05), therefore , we accept null hypothesis and conclude that there is no significant difference between teachersā€™ experience and their utilization of audio visual aids. This result disagrees with the finding of Ezoem (2012 ) that teachersā€™ experiences affect their utilization of audio visual aids.

Difference between teachersā€™ ranks and their utilization of audio visual aids:
Hypothesis 3

Table 8 reveals the difference between teachersā€™ ranks and their utilization of audio visual aids. The f value is 0.016 and p value is 0 .999 (greater than level of significance 0. 05), therefore, we accept null hypothesis and conclude that there is no significant difference between teachersā€™ ranks and their utilization of audo visual aids. This result disagrees with the findings of Adeniran (2010) that teachersā€™ ranks affect their utilization of audio visual aids.

Relationship between the challenges encountered by the teachers and their utilization of audio visual aids:
Hypothesis 4

Table 9 reveals challenges encountered by the teachers and their utilization of audio visual aids. This table reveals that t test for challenges encountered by the teachers have no significant influence on their utilization of audio visual aids. The t value is ā€“ 1 .840 and p value is 0 .086 (greater than level of significance 0 .05), therefore, we accept null hypothesis and conclude that the challenges encountered by the teachers have no significant influence on their utilization of audio visual aids. This is in line with the view of Monty ( 2006 ) that showed that challenges encountered by the teachers have no significant influence on their utilization of audio visual aids.


Implications of the Findings

The findings of this study have some implications as follows:

Sufficient audio visual materials are very essential for effective teaching and learning, therefore, governments should supply audio visual aids regularly to the schools. The study has shown that the teachers generally do not utilize the available audio visual materials to the maximum. Even when all the needed materials are provided, the zeal to utilize them may not be there; even the available materials may then rot away. Teaching without audio visual materials influence the performance of students, their attitudes towards study, their understanding of the subject and their retention of the concepts studied. Therefore, the teachers should be compelled to teach with audio visual materials in order to improve the teaching and learning in pre-primary schools.


Limitations of the Study

The conclusions and generalizations that can be made from the findings of this study are subject to some limitations; Firstly, the present study was peculiar in the sense that no such study has been carried out in nursing education in the South ā€“ east zone of Nigeria. As a result, there was a great dearth of knowledge and literature in this area. The scarce literature was compensated by some relevant literatures from other areas. This formed a major limitation for this study. The few literatures articulated formed the background for this study.

Furthermore, some of the respondents were uncooperative in filling the questionnaire. This is because, they felt that their normal work was being disturbed.

Moreover, some of the respondents were absent from schools when the researcher visited to distribute the questionnaire. To counter this problem, the researcher had to repeat her visit several times before she could get the entire respondents. The researcher also encountered huge financial expenses in carrying out this research. Financially, the work was a burden especially in distributing the questionnaires to the different schools, which are not closely situated.


Suggestions for Further Studies

Based on the findings and limitations of the present study, the researcher suggested the following areas for further research:

Another study of this nature could be broadened to include all pre-primary schools in South East zone of Nigeria so as to generalize the findings.

The role of audio visual aids in enhancing the quality of teaching and learning in pre-primary schools in Anambra State.

Problems encountered by the teachers in the use of audio visual aids in teaching and learning in pre-primary schools in Enugu State.

Reasons for differences in the academic achievements of students in various pre-primary schools irrespective of the availability and utilization of teaching aids.


Summary

The purpose of this study was to investigate the availability and utilization of audiovisual aids among teachers in pre-primary schools in Anambra State. The specific objectives were to: determine the availability of audiovisual aids, determine the teacherā€™s level of utilization of audiovisual aids, identify the challenges teachers encounter in using audiovisual aids and identify the strategies to overcome the challenges encountered by the teachers in using audiovisual aids.The study answered four research questions based on objectives of the study. Relevant literature was reviewed. Social learning and cognitive learning theories were used to anchor the study. A descriptive cross sectional survey design was employed in the study. All the 116 teachers in pre-primary schools in Anambra State comprised the subjects for the study.

Data were collected using researcher – constructed questionnaire with a reliability of 0.816. Statistical analysis of the data generated was done using simple descriptive statistical and inferential statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA).

There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the utilization of audio visual aids between male and female teachers. Mean rank of the male and female on the utilization of audiovisual aids were 2.2650 and 2.3533 respectively, t value is -0.180 and p value is 0.859. There was no significant difference (p > 0 .05) between teachersā€™ experiences and their utilization of audio visual aids, f value is 0.029 and p value is 1.000. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between teachersā€™ ranks and their utilization of audio visual aids, f value is 0.016 and p value is 0.999. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the challenges associated with audio visual aids use among teachers, mean value for all challenges is 2.3092, t value is -1.840 and p value is 0.086.


Conclusion

Not all required audio visual aids are available to teachers

Teachers do not make maximum use of the available audio visual aids in the schools

The government and school authoritiesā€™ inability to provide audio visual aids regularly to schools and poor fundingĀ  of the schools affect to a large extent the teachers use of audio visual aids in teaching- learning process.

Adequate provision of audio visual aids in our pre-primary schools and teachersā€™ effective use of the audio visual aids will help in promoting teaching and learning thereby reducing the rate of examination malpractices and studentsā€™ poor performances in their final examinations


Recommendations:

The following recommendations are made in view of the findings and educational implications of the study:
In-service training, seminars, workshops and conferences on installation, utilization and maintenance of audio visual aids should be organized on regular basis for the teachers and students. This will have great effect of reforming teaching and learning process in our pre-primary schools.

Government should understand that motivating teachers through promotion, incentives for hard work, sponsorship, appreciation and recognition of the noble teaching profession will go a long way to sustain their quest for a quality and functional education of students through audio visual materials.

Maintenance culture, repair and immediate replacement of damaged tools or educational media should be encouraged and made possible, for instance, those improvised audio visual materials in the form of models, charts maps, etc should be kept protected to avoid them damaging

Educational resource centres that design, produce, organize, store and distribute audio visual aids should be established at the local government levels to enable schools within the area to benefit from the services of these centres

There is need for the government to provide well equipped libraries for teaching in pre-primary schools where there will be enough reading materials like textbooks so that teachers and students can benefit from them.

Funds should be provided by the state and federal ministries of education for the purchase of more teaching aids. The teachers should also be supervised for proper and effective use of audio visual aids.

Teachers should make sure that the audio visual aids used are well selected and properly integrated to fit into a particular lesson in order to achieve the set goal.

Creative and resourceful teachers should improvise equipment and materials to improve learning. Students should also be involved in the improvisation and use of audio visual aids as they learn more from what they do.

Finally, the government, school administration and stake holders should provide regular power supply relevant in the education industry with a view towards increasing the utilization of audio visual materials like computer, power point, educational television, video set, etc. This will go a long way to improve teaching and learning in our schools.


The Influence Of Audio Visual Teaching Materials On Learning In Pre-Primary Schools


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