The Influence Of Audio Visual Materials In The Teaching And Learning Of Geometry In Junior Secondary Schools In Rivers State
This study aims at approaches to be adopted in reducing poor mathematics performance in junior secondary schools, adoption of appropriate methods of teaching appears to be more rewarding. In this study three research questions were asked while two hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. It adopted a simple percentage and chi square in analyzing the data obtained and carried out at Rivers State metropolis with a population of 200junior secondary school students. The study found that students taught with improvised instructional materials improved on their geometry achievement. Also that both male and female student in the experimental group improved more on their geometry achievement than those of the control group. Recommendations such as encouraging mathematics teachers to use improvised instructional materials in their mathematics classroom were made among others. Relevant and adequate conclusions were also made.
1.1 Background of the Study
The influence of audio visual materials in promoting student’s academic achievement and teaching and learning in educational development cannot be over emphasized. The teaching of geometry in Nigerian junior secondary schools needs to be properly handled. The materials used by teachers to teach and drive home their subject points at the primary and secondary school levels of our education system is incontrovertibly a paramount important issue in practical classroom interaction and successful transfer of knowledge from the teacher to the students.
Audio visual are materials which assist teachers to make their lessons explicit to students. They are also used to transmit information, ideas and notes to learners (Ijaduola (1997). Instructional materials include both visuals and audiovisuals such as pictures, flashcards, posters, charts, tape recorder, radio, video, television, computers among others. These materials serve as supplement to the normal processes of instruction.
Geometry is a subject in mathematics that focuses on the study of shapes, sizes, relative configurations, and spatial properties. Derived from the Greek word meaning “earth measurement,” geometry is one of the oldest sciences. It was first formally organized by the Greek mathematician Euclid around 300 BC when he arranged 465 geometric propositions into 13 books, titled ‘Elements’. This, however, was not the first time geometry had been utilized. As a matter of fact, there exists evidence to believe that geometry dates all the way back to 3,000 BC in ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt!
The West African Examination Council (WAEC) Chief Examiners (2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006) consistently reported candidate’s lack of skills in attempting all the questions asked in general mathematics. WAEC Chief Examiners (2003, 2005) further observed that candidates were weak in geometry of circle and 3-dimensional problems, when they attempt geometry questions: only few of the candidates showed a clear understanding of the problem in their working. Which poses a serious challenge to solving geometry problems in future, and the need to try using audio visual material in teaching the topic.
Obioma (1985), Obodo (1993) and Okereke (2006) reported gender as a significant factor in mathematics achievement and Onwioduokit and Akinbobola (2005) reported it as a significant factor in mathematicsperformance when mathematics students are taught with advance organizers. However Okonkwo (1997) reported gender as non-significant when students are taught with tangram puzzle game. Okereke (2006) attributed students’ poor performance to factors such as the society view that mathematics is difficult, shortage of qualified teachers, lack of mathematical teaching aids and lack of incentive. The abstract nature of mathematics should be reduced through demonstration and practical methods. Agwagah (1997) observed that the problem of ineffective teaching can be tackled through planned and intelligent application of the mathematical teaching aids like the audio visual devise. Thus Agwagah recommended the use of teaching aids approach to the study of mathematics. The method of drill and verbal recitation makes learning boring and lacks motivation for further learning. Srinivasa (1978) had earlier recommended the use of mathematical teaching aids in teaching mathematics. According to Srinivasa, this will lead the students to formation of concepts out of experiences with discrete objects. In this case the vague theories and imaginary objects take real shape and the students understand better and perform better. It is important therefore to consider strategies that may help to improve the performance, with the view of considering their effect on teaching and learning of mathematics. Such strategies include the use of mathematical teaching aids (Ogunkunle, 2000). However, Teaching aids are the materials used for effective teaching and enhancing the learning of students. It can be anything ready-made or made by the teacher or made by students. Different teaching aids should be used in teaching mathematics like Charts, Manipulatives, Programmed Learning Material (PLM), computers and television.
Studies have shown that secondary school students are exhibiting low interest in mathematics (WAEC 2005). This low interest of students in mathematics has been traced to poor achievement in examinations. In our match towards scientific and technological advancement, we need nothing short of good performance in mathematics at all levels of schooling. Unfortunately, achievement of students in mathematics at the end of the secondary school has not improved in the last decade (Umoinyang, 1999). Folorunso (2004) has linked poor performance trend in mathematics particularly to the lack of instructional resources in schools due to poor funding of schools. The poor funding of schools has hindered the principals from providing the teachers with adequate instructional resources.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Evidence from the studies reviewed shows that failure rate in mathematics at junior certificate examinations is high. This could be attributed to a number of factors; one of such factors is lack or total absence of instructional materials. In teaching and learning, instructional materials play a key role towards concretizing learning. Instructional materials make learning meaningful and help to improve students’ academic achievement. However these advantages of instructional materials have not reflected in the education system because of the dearth of these instructional materials in our schools. Hence, the need for alternative instructional materials called improvisation.
Evidence of poor performance in mathematics by junior secondary school students point to the fact that the most desired technological, scientific and business application of mathematics cannot be sustained. This makes it paramount to seek for a strategy for teaching mathematics that aims at improving its understanding and performance by students. Evidence abound (Srinivasa, 1978; Ogunkunle, 2000), that lack of mathematics teaching aids and Mathematics teachers non-use of laboratory technique in teaching mathematics is one of the major factors that contribute to poor achievement in mathematics by secondary school students. Therefore the study is designed to find out the effects of using audio visual materials in teaching and learning of geometry on the achievement of Junior Secondary School.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main aim of this study is to investigate the influence of audio visual materials in the teaching and learning of geometry in junior secondary schools in River State.
Specifically, the study sought the following;
- To identify the availability of instructional material at the junior secondarystage.
- To identify the extent of use of audio visual material at the junior secondary school stage.
- To investigate the immediate impact of audio visual teaching materials.
- To investigate the extent to which the use of audio visual teaching material will enhance the achievement of mathematics students.
- To find out the relationship (association) between the availability and the effect of using teaching aid.
1.4 Research Questions
- To what extent does the use of audio visual teaching materials affects the academic performance of mathematics students?
- Is there any significant difference between the achievement of male and female mathematics students taught with audio visual teaching aids?
- Is there any significant interaction effect of treatment and gender on student achievement in mathematics?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
- H0: There is no significant difference in the achievement of male and female mathematics students taught with mathematics laboratory.
H1: There is a significant difference in the achievement of male and female mathematics students taught with mathematics laboratory.
- H0: There is no significant difference in achievement of mathematics students taught with mathematics laboratory and those taught with lecture method
H2: There is a significant difference in achievement of mathematics students taught with mathematics laboratory and those taught with lecture method.
1.6 Significant of the Study
The availability and the use of audio visual materials in teaching and learning have a strong relationship with academic performance of students at the junior secondary school level. However, exploring the best methodology of teaching leading toward effective learning based upon use of teaching aids will provide guidelines to bring improvement in quality of teaching. In this connection the study will be helpful in the following ways:
This study will be useful to classroom teachers, curriculum planners, students, researchers and parents. For teachers they will be better informed on how to help and guide their students on better way of producing improvised materials with local resources where standardized materials are unavailable or inadequate. The teachers can also engage students to do some of the illustrations during geometry instructions. This study will help to develop problem solving skill in students and will also help student to be more resourceful during lessons. The study could be beneficial to curriculum planners who would design functional curriculum by taking into considerations student’s teacher’s improvised instructional materials. The findings of this study, if discussed in workshops and seminars will guide the choice of improvised instructional materials used in the teaching/learning process in mathematics and other subject areas. The findings of this study will equally help to alleviate the problem of the scarcity of instructional materials for mathematics teaching/learning. The results of the study could provide information to researchers interested in working on student-teachers generated improvised materials in other subject areas. This may help them to get more information on the efficacy of improvisation, especially researchers in the area of science and technology. Parents will be better informed on how to encourage and help their wards to produce improvised materials. This may be in form of sourcing local materials and providing fund for those that cannot be found in their environment.
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The study is on the influence of audio visual materials in the teaching and learning of geometry in junior secondary schools. This study will be conducted with JSS 3mathematics students in secondary schools in riverstate metropolis, Nigeria.
However the research has some constraints which are;
The time at the disposal of the researcher which is allocated for the study was a major limitation as the researcher has to combine other academic work with the study.
The finance at the disposal of the researcher in the course of the study does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Geometry (from the Ancient Greek: γεωμετρία; geo- “earth”, -metron “measurement”) is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space. A mathematician who works in the field of geometry is called a geometer.
Instructional materials are to be defined as items that are designed to serves as a major tool for assisting in the instruction of a subject or course. These items may be available in bound, unbound, kit or package form and may consist of hard backed or soft backed books, consumables, learning laboratories, slides, films, and filmstrips, recordings, manipulatives, electronics media.
Can be defined as the outcome of education, the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goal. Academic achievement is commonly measured by examination or continuous assessment.
Mathematical Teaching Aids:
Mathematics teaching aids are to be defined as items that are designed to serve as a major tool for assisting in the instruction of a mathematics subject.
1.9 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (background of the study), statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope of the study etc.
- Chapter two being the review of the related literature presents the theoretical framework, conceptual framework and other areas concerning the subject matter.
- Chapter three is a research methodology covers deals on the research design and methods adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary Conclusion and Recommendation
It is pertinent to note that this research was aimed at examining the contribution of instructional materials to teaching and learning of geometry in secondary schools, thus the topic “the influence of audio visual materials in the teaching and learning of geometry in junior secondary schools in rivers state”.
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges associated with teaching and learning of geometry in Nigeria.
The study investigated the influence of audio visual materials in the teaching and learning of geometry in junior secondary schools in rivers state. Three research questions and four null and alternate hypotheses guided the study.
The results revealed that students taught using improvised instructional materials performed better than students taught using conventional material; male students did not perform better than their female counterparts in simple geometry; urban students performed better than rural students in geometry; The results do not suggest ordinal interaction effect between mode of method and gender on students’ achievement in geometry. This was because at all the levels of gender, the mean scores were higher for student’s improvised instructional material; the result suggests ordinal interaction effects between modes of method and location on students’ achievement in geometry; this was because at all the levels of location, the mean scores were higher for student’s improvised instructional material compared to conventional materials with lower mean scores; there was significant difference in the mean score of students taught using students improvised instructional material and those taught using conventional instructional materials; there was no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female students in geometry; there was significant difference in the mean achievement scores of urban and rural students in mathematics; The interaction effect of method and gender on students mean achievement scores in geometry was, therefore, not statisticallysignificant.
The indication of the result that students taught geometry with audio visual materials improved upon their mean achievement scores in junior secondary schools was a welcome development. The reason for this, may have been that students were stimulated to learn by the use of audio visual materials that may have equally brought about competitiveness and enlivened the students to learn. These materials may have provided enthusiasm, excitement, as well as total involvement and enjoyment of the lesson. Again, the contents learnt were arranged according to the students’ cognitive level. This may properly be in tune with the Piagetian theory of concrete operational stage that pointed out the need for mathematics teachers to be conscious of the developmental level of their students. Thus the results of this study has revealed that the adoption of appropriate classroom instructional strategy would enhance a meaningful learning of any mathematics concept. This finding tend to be in line with Abimbade (2004), Eze (2005) who had earlier shown that students demonstrated greater understanding of mathematics concepts as well as improved upon their mathematics achievement due to the utilization of appropriate instructional strategy in the mathematics classroom. This result is also in line with the outcome of Kurume (2006) who found that the utilization of improvised instructional materials in mathematics classroom enhance the development of learners’ cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains.
From the results obtained in the study, it was found that students taught geometry using improvised audio visual materials performed better than students taught using conventional material; male students did not perform better than their female counterparts in geometry.
Based on the findings of this study, and their implications, the following recommendations are made.
- The teaching of geometry in junior secondary school should be conducted in a manner that students will effectively understand and learn the concept taught. It should be practical as the use of improvised instructional materials has play greater role in students’ achievement.
- Teacher should try to improvise audio and visual materials and encourage students to do the same. This will gives students enough understanding of geometry concepts as the child’s local environment will be use to source for the materials.
- There should be cordial relationship between policy makers and schools for the provision of essential resource materials, like laboratory, glass wares, reagents, microscope, burner, etc.
- It is suggested that regular meaningful workshop on improvisation technique for mathematics teachers should be conducted to improve and update their competence in teaching.
- At the local education authority level, effort should be made from time to time to organize workshops for mathematics teachers on improvisation and needs for the use of audio visual materials. This is to compliment the efforts of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for re-training of Science teachers.
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