Influence Of Age At Marriage And Educational Level On Anxiety Level Of Women

Project and Seminar Material for Psychology

Influence Of Age At Marriage And Educational Level On Anxiety Level Of Women


Abstract


In many traditional societies, women’s age at marriage acts simultaneously as a gateway to new family roles and the likelihood of producing offspring. However, inadequate attention has previously been given to the broader health and social implications of variability in women’s marriage age for public health. Biomedical scientists have primarily been concerned with whether the onset of reproduction occurs before the woman is adequately able to nurture her offspring and maintain her own health. Social scientists have argued that early marriage prevents women from attaining their rightful education, accessing employment and training opportunities, developing social relationships with peers, and participating in civic life. The aim of this review article is to provide comprehensive research evidence on why women’s marriage age, independent of age at first childbirth, is a crucial issue for public health. This study was carried out to ascertain the relationship of age at marriage of women and anxiety level. It also examined the relationship education level and anxiety level of women using Uyo Local Government of Akwaibom State as a case study. The researcher used simple survey, purposive sampling 300 women were picked from the population. Pearson co-relation was used to anlalyze the hypothesis. The results showed that there is a relationship between age at marriage and anxiety level of women (r=922.; p<0.05). Furthermore, a positive and significant relationship between level of education and anxiety level in women (r=.897; p<0.05).

The study concluded that physiological maturity is not enough reason for women to enter into marriage but they should also be ready mentally to handle stress, career or educational and the bulk of responsibilities attached to marriage. The researcher recommended that young adolescent who intend entering into marriage should be given handful orientations on how to handle anxiety and family pressure without endangering the pursuit of education, career and growth.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Marriage is a social contract between two human beings of the opposite gender. The people concerned are not only physiologically mature but also traditionally recognized by their immediate neighbourhood as being qualified for the holy matrimony (OKoro, 1981). This is perhaps based on the fact that marriage is for people that have attended a certain age bracket with high degree of maturity. Marriage as a social contract is permanent and requires endurance and tolerance from both parties.

In some areas, the above concept of marriage has been neglected, thus exposing teenagers to early marriage. Early marriage is synonymous to child or adolescent marriage. A child is not really mature for any appreciable responsibility until he becomes an adult. On that note, early marriage is obviously defined as a union of either or two persons of the opposite sex as husband and wife without attaining physiological and psychological development (Eleonu, 1984).

Education is regarded as all of man’s activities which enable him realize himself and live fully as a human being or a process of influencing the young and inexperienced so that they may become worthy human beings and citizens (Onwuka, 1975). Basically, education is a process of harmonizing the individual within a given environment in such a manner as to enable him to develop his physical, mental, emotional and volitional capacities for the happiness and welfare of all. Based on the definition, education is a means to marital happiness.

The zeal to be educated empowers girls to stay in school, delay pregnancy and marry latter, these are essential interventions that can substantially improve their chances of becoming well informed, productive citizens.
Early marriage has robbed millions of women a whole opportunity for educational development and self-realization in all sphere of human endeavour. Many of them with little or no vocation in all sphere of human endeavour. Many of them with little or no vocational training cannot help but to engage in low-income employment if there is need for them to supplement the family income. Worst still, offspring of such mothers end up marrying early like their mothers and with low level of education. Also, many of these early married mothers and their children usually look wasted, emaciated and older than their age because of the trauma experienced in coping with their marital problems due to lack of education. Many of their children are malnourished and succumb easily to diseases.

Marriage as a union of a man and a woman is not meant for adolescent or children. It is an institution that would last as long as the world continues to exist; it should not be tackled in a haste. According to Obiageli (1989), it requires a thorough examination and re-examination. However, marriage is therefore God’s first human institution with direct responsibility of replenishing the world. It involves joint responsibility of mature opposite gender which are supposed to be ascribed with loving and caring for each other. But because of the rampant nature of teenage marriage, some families and marriage today are facing and experiencing the worst trying period; tension, anxieties, quarrels, fears, fighting, uneasiness and chaos have become the order of the day, thus, creating high blood pressure and premature death. This situation of marriage can be associated with low level of education, orphanage factors, many female children, accidental or unplanned pregnancy and the desire to enjoy the honour associated with matrimony, as well as cultural heritage accorded to married people.

However, motherhood at a very young age entails a risk of maternal death that is much greater than average, and the children of young mothers have higher levels of morbidity and mortality. Early child bearing continues to be an impediment to improvements in the educational, economic and social status of women in all parts of the world. Overall for young women, early marriage and early motherhood can severely curtail educational and employment opportunities and are likely to have a long term adverse effect on the quality of life of young women and their children. Against all odds, it takes mental and physical maturity to make a successful marriage. Anatomically, it is known that bones continue to grow and stops between 18-20 years. By international conventions, 18 years has been established as the legal age of consent to marriage. Before this age, mental and physical maturity are inadequate. Hence, a youth who gets married before this age definitely does not have the where without to make a successful marriage.

Inspite of the desire of most teenagers in many culture these days to make great progress in their chosen fields and to lead a life of self reliance, the priority with many of them is marriage and a settled home with a living partner and children. But because of the problems accruing from early marriage and low level of education, these dreams have in most cases become a mirage. Perhaps, since the beginning of the world, the belief has been that a woman is created for nothing else but for marriage and rearing of children hence neglecting education. Thus, most culture however, have come to resolve that the earlier a girl takes up this role for the reason of her existence, the better.

Early marriage and low level of education lead to beginning sex quite early and this could cause some havoc on a girl’s physiological and emotional health. Based on that, it has become an absolute necessity to enact laws to safeguard the lives and health of our young girls to make sure that something that can be prevented is avoided. However, for the health and well been of the mother and child, it would be desirable to postponed marriage and face education till above the age of 20 years when the woman is mature enough both emotionally and physically. This in turn would reduce maternal and infant mortality rate, slow population growth and thus contribute to the improvement of the quality of the family generally.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In view of the peculiar nature of women, physiologically and psychological, as well as their cultural and familial roles, their status fluctuate. Their mental health are more at risk, resulting sometimes in certain gender specific disorders like pauperial psychosis and menopausal complications due to hormonal imbalances. Based on the fluctuating mental health of women, the researcher wonders if some variables related to women have any link in their mental health. Such variables inherent in the women’s world are their personality, age at marriage, level of education, locality, socio-economic status etc.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the present study is to investigate if there is a relationship between early marriage and educational level of women on their levels of anxiety. Specifically, the researcher assessed if there is a link between Age of marriage and level of anxiety of women and also educational level of women and their level of anxiety.


1.4 Research Question

  1. Do you think there’s a relationship between age at marriage of a woman and anxiety level
  2. Do you think there is a relationship between the educational level of a woman and her level of anxiety?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

Kerlinger F. (1976) defines hypothesis as a conjectural statement of a relationship between two or more variables. Hypotheses are usually gotten from research questions/problems and can be regarded as tentative solutions to research questions.

Therefore, the researcher will test the following hypotheses

  • Ho: there is no significant relationship between age at marriage and anxiety level of women
  • Ho: there is no significant relationship between education level and anxiety level of women

1.6 Definition of Terms

Early Marriage:

Marriage in which the female is below the age of 18 years which has been established as the legal age of consent to marriage.

Educational Level:

The extent and quality of training acquired by an individual. Here low educational level is having little or no educational training as below SSCE while high educational level is having acquired enough educational training of B.Sc. or HND & above.

Anxiety:

Feeling of dread, apprehension or fear that is often accompanied by increased heart rate, perspiration, muscle tension and rapid breathing as measured here with the State Trait Anxiety Inventory.

Women:

Adult females of the human race or wife’s. Those used for the present study were selected from those that had early and late marriage.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This study was carried out to ascertain the relationship of age at marriage of women and anxiety level. It also examined the relationship education level and anxiety level of women using Uyo Local Government as a case study.

The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, recommendations and suggestions for further studies.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the relationship between the age of marriage, level of education and anxiety level of women in Uyo Local government of Akwaibom State. The study specifically was aimed at identifying the psychological and physiological impact the marriage age of the female gender has on his mental and physical health. It examined the extent at which age of marriage can impact the dreams, level of education and anxiety level in women. The study adopted the survey research design. The population size is the entire women of Uyo Local Government while three categories of married women were randomly selected as the sample size of the population. In all 300 respondents were used as the sample size. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the finding of this study, the following conclusions were made:

  1. Marriage is a step towards independency that introduces loads of responsibilities, decision making and serious commitments but early married girls fails to cope with it as marriage requires satisfactory level of maturity and considerable sense of responsibilities motherhood at a very young age entails a risk of maternal death that is much greater than average, and the children of young mothers have higher levels of morbidity and mortality
  2. Early child bearing continues to be an impediment to improvements in the educational, economic and social status of women in all parts of the world.
  3. Early child bearing continues to be an impediment to improvements in the educational, economic and social status of women in all parts of the world
  4. It takes mental and physical maturity to make a successful marriage thus every woman should be prepared before entering into it.
  5. Women should be educated and ensure they acquire enough skill to get them properly placed in economically and socially in the society.
  6. Infant and maternal mortality can be reduced if women assume family life when their bones are matured and when their mental health is mature to balance both work life and family responsibilities
  7. That education level increases the confidence and boost the self esteem of women in the society

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Families should empower the female child with both education and skills necessary for adulthood.
  2. Parent should not stigmatized nor pressure female children into early marriage as a tool to escape responsibility.
  3. Young women should endeavor to keep their head high and groom their sense of independence rather than rushing into marriage
  4. Young women should be mentally, psychologically and physically ready before entering into marriage relationships
  5. Young women should learn how to manage family stress, parenting technique and should not reliant in the quest for success even when marriage
  6. Government should always create seminars for married women who are struggling with anxiety and depression to enhance their well being

Influence Of Age At Marriage And Educational Level On Anxiety Level Of Women


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Influence Of Age At Marriage And Educational Level On Anxiety Level Of Women


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