Influence Of Advertising On Consumers’ Purchasing Behaviour Of Toothpaste Brands
A television commercial, ad or TV spot is a compact short-term visual used by advertising to convey their messages to an audience through the electronic medium known as television. There is a hugely popular advertising medium in India. The purpose of the present study is to examine the effects of advertisement on consumer behavior on college students (N = 60).In addition to this consumer purchasing behavior towards toothpaste brands wre also checked our. These students are from PNBIIT, Gomti Nagar, Lucknow. This paper examines the role of advertisement towards purchasing behavior. A questionnaire has prepared to evaluate the effects of advertisement.
The sample data has been collected from students, between 23-26 age group. As a whole five brands of toothpaste have been taken for the study, they are Colgate, Pepsodent, Oral-B, Sensodyne and Babool. Data collection were made in respect of how people connected with their advertisements. For result, frequency and percentage were used and presented in tabular format. These results exposed that advertisements help in choosing any particular brand and fluctuate consumers buying behavior. Results also revealed that consumers considered advertisement as a reliable source of knowledge as compared to others, (friend, neighbors, reference group) opinions. The most preferred brand’s ad is Colgate’s and second preferred brand’s ad is Pepsodent. Further, Oral-B’s ad effects more consumers than Sensodyne. Babool’s ad comes last
The study looked at the influence of advertising on consumers’ purchasing behaviour of toothpaste in Uyo Urban. The survey research method was used for this study with population of 436,606. Data were gathered using questionnaire from four hundred respondents. However, three hundred and eighty copies were completed and returned valid for the study. The objectives of the study were to: determine whether consumers in Uyo Urban have access or are exposed to advertisement on toothpaste; ascertain if advertising influences Uyo Urban consumers’ purchasing behaviour of toothpaste; determine if advertising increases Uyo Urban consumers’ preference for a particular brand of toothpaste and to determine if there are other factors than advertisement that influence Uyo Urban consumers’ buying behaviour of particular toothpaste brand. With Uses and Gratifications and Cognitive Dissonance theories of communication as theoretical frameworks, it was found out from the study that: toothpaste consumers in Uyo Urban were exposed to advertisements on toothpaste brands; advertising did not influence consumers’ purchasing behaviour of toothpaste brands in Uyo; although consumers’ of toothpaste in Uyo Urban are exposed to advertisements of different toothpaste brands, it did not increase their preference of their toothpaste brand and that there are other factors than advertisement that influence Uyo Urban consumers of toothpaste brands. Based on the findings, the researcher recommended majorly that advertisers of toothpaste meant for Uyo market should not only rely on advertisement to sell their products but should incorporate other factors like affordable price, quality taste and satisfaction that will be derived from using the product, packaging, etc. to help influence the patronage of the advertised product.
1.1 Background of the Study
Advertisement is one of the major tools used to stimulate consumer’s demand for goods and services. In other to know the influence of advertisement on consumer’s behaviour, it is necessary to know what advertising itself is and its goal and purpose. Wikipedia (2018) defines advertising as, “an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored service or idea. Advertising is differentiated from public relations in that an advertiser pays for and has control over the message. It differs from personal selling in that, the message is not directed to particular individual.
Advertising is communicated through various mass media including traditional media such as newspapers, magazines, television, radio, outdoor advertising or direct mail and new media like blogs, social websites or text messages. The actual presentation of the medium is referred to as an advertisement or “ad” for short. Terence (2007) defines advertising as a paid, mediated form of communication from an identifiable source, designed to persuade the receiver to take some action, now or in the future. The basic purpose of advertising is to communicate the news to the user or the customer that there is something new in the market. Beyond the above stated purpose of advertising, it also serves as the source to persuade or attract customer about the product to do a certain action which is usually to purchase a product (Kenneth and Donald, 2010).
Advertising serves a good purpose for business nowadays (Onunkwo, 1997) because of the number of goods and services produced every day. Advertising helps in telling the consumer about any new product or service or any new promotion on the existing product and service. Advertising helps to describe the features and characteristics of products or services in the visual form so that the customer can understand it easily. So advertising has become important for business nowadays (Bardi, 2010)
A good advertisement persuades the customers to the final purchase and keeps them motivated to do a certain action (Kenneth and Donald, 2010). So advertisement has an important role to play in today’s business. Advertisement not only persuade the customers to buy but also gives them the options that can be considered when they go out to purchase and to distinguish the products among many. So when the customers go to purchase anything, he will once think that there is a certain product with certain features (Agwu, 2013: Ikpefan, Owolabi and Agwu, 2014). It has also been such a persuasive and intrusive socio-economic force in Nigeria, as in other countries, that neither manufacturer nor consumers can ignore it (Bardi, 2010; Edwin, 2014).
Advertising is generally accepted as an essential service to the industry and the public. Its effectiveness depends largely on the audience; it is the way audience perceives the information that is very important. Today, advertising is constructed to make a favourable impact on the behaviour of consumers to patronize organizations offerings. It is used by philanthropic organizations to raise funds for social welfare projects. So it can be seen that advertisement cuts across all aspects of social, political, and economic life. It is necessary to say at this point that an advertising campaign is considered successful only when the consumer themselves have begun to appreciate and talk about the product, service or idea.
Ampofo (2014) notes that consumers are final users of products. They keep the production circle moving. A firm’s primary mission is to reach prospective customer’s attitudes and buying behaviour. They spend a lot of money to keep individuals (market) interested in their products. To succeed, they need to understand what makes potential customers behave the way they do. The firm’s goal is to get enough relevant market data to develop accurate profiles of buyers to find out the common group for communication.
As a communication medium, advertising invades our streets, offices, villages, and homes pushing in messages about various products and services, ideas, persons (dead or alive) and institutions through various media outlets (Ozoh, 1998). It does this intensively and persistently that it is only our natural abilities to selectively perceive and recall information that saved us from the thraldom of what communication experts have described as “information overload” (Nwosu, 1990).
According to Ukessays (2017) “consumer’s behaviour is defined as the behaviour that the consumer shows in searching for, purchasing, using, evaluating, and disposing of products, services and ideas that they expect will satisfy their needs.
Thakur (2017) defines consumer’s behaviour as the behaviour that consumer displays in searching for, purchasing, evaluating, and disposing of products, services, and ideas that they expect will satisfy them. The author further cites Philip Kotler who says that consumer behaviour is all psychological customers as they become aware to evaluate, purchase, consume, and tell others about products and services. Individual behaviour is influenced by economic, social, cultural, psychological and personal factors.
More would be discussed in details on advertising and importantly on the impact it plays on stimulating consumer’s behaviour towards patronizing a given product especially consumer’s goods.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The study of consumer behaviour is concerned not only with what consumers buy, but also with why they buy it, and how often they buy it. It is concerned with learning the specific meaning that products hold for consumers.
Advertising is seen by scholars as a tool used to stimulate consumer’s buying behaviour by ways of getting them informed or remind them about a product but it must persuade them. There are other ways which can be used to determine consumer’s loyalty. Knowing fully well that advertisers spend money to advertise their products on the media and if these products are not accepted or patronized, they will not get value for their money, this researcher, therefore, sought to investigate how advertisements of toothpastes are accessed by Uyo Urban consumers and whether the ads influence their searching, purchasing, using, evaluating, and disposing of toothpastes.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
- To analyze whether advertising is influencing the buying behavior of the consumers and results in sound purchase.
- To investigate the impact of personality used in advertisements on consumer behavior.
- To study consumers’ buying behavior while purchasing Tooth paste.
- To determine the impact of keyword/caption/slogan of advertisement on purchasing behavior of consumers.
- To find out the acceptance of advertisement due to appeal used in it.
1.4 Research Question
- Does advertising influence the buying behavior of the consumers and results in sound purchase ?
- What is the impact of personality used in advertisements on consumer behavior ?
- What is the consumers’ buying behavior while purchasing Tooth paste ?
- What is the impact of keyword/caption/slogan of advertisement on purchasing behavior of consumers?
1.6 Significance of the Study
In this work, attempt has been made to identify its significance to: Business organizations, Academics and the Researcher.
The need for prudent management of financial resources in an organization is of great concern. It’s amazing however; that at anytime an organization is going through some hard times financially, first thing that runs into the mind of the management staff is a cut-down on advertisement and promotion budget or eliminate them entirely as a step to ameliorate their predicament. This study therefore, has been designed in such a way as to aid organizational managers realize that measurement is very important in advertising. Therefore, before decisions are taken on whether to eliminate advertisement or cut-down the budgets, efforts must be made towards ascertaining the impact of such advertisement, hence; a call for checks and balances.
Before this study, some past studies found that advert had increasing effect on consumer satisfaction; others found that advert had negative impact and led to consumer dissatisfaction. No research has ever found why conflicting results were obtained in this area of research. To academics therefore, this work will provide a basis for further research works. To further achieve this, relevant and authentic references have been cited.
To the Researcher:
The researcher is an advertising practitioner; hence, embarking on this work will increase his knowledge of media planning. Above all, this study is designed in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of a master degree of the department of marketing, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study was carried out in Uyo Urban consumers of toothpaste brands
Conclusion and Recommendations
In a competitive economic system, the success of the business units depends on an accurate knowledge of the consumers. An understanding of consumer behavior is essential in Marketing planning and programs and one of the most important keys to successful marketing. The increase in population, the increase in the diversity of population and the ever expending choices and freedom, and the study of consumer behavior are must for the marketing function. Moreover, promotion techniques also matter in the growth of organization, especially the role of advertisement can not be underestimated.
The following are some of the recommendations from this study.
- Advertising should be seen as an investment into the future of products and not to be evaluated by its immediate returns.
- It is not advisable for Firms to entirely eliminate advertising budgets in the event of challenges as advertising may go a long way to restoring their pride. Let’s recall products like Phensic, Cafenol and bongo tea that are virtually out of the market today owing to organizational challenges with little or no advertisement. However, there should be a system of checks and balances as regards the impact of advertisement.
- Compromise must be discarded for advert to be successful, hence, the need to employ the services of core professionals for the purpose of proper planning and execution of the advert rather than use quacks in order to cut cost.
- It’s also advisable to identify a target market before advertising, so as to know the particular medium that will be more useful and cost effective in reaching them. For instance, advertising an expensive car on a billboard will not make much impact as 80% of the target market read newspapers and view cable network.
- Before advertising, an analysis of the advertising environment must be made. This will focus on understanding:
- Physical attributes of various media options
- Strengths and weaknesses of various media options
- Audience reach capability and
- Cost effectiveness
- There is need to assess how far campaign objectives were met, e.g. if it was to build awareness, what is the awareness level now?
- Visuals, words and sounds to be used in the advertisement must be decent and of good public taste.
- Advertisers should endeavor there is a media monitoring team/department distinct from its media department or Advertising Agency as the case may be. The main responsibility of this team shall be to ensure that adverts are produced at the agreed time with the media houses. For instance, there could be cases where an advertiser may pay for TV commercials in Sokoto and this may be omitted by the Television house intentionally or otherwise; it may be practically difficult for the advertiser whose operating office is in Lagos to find out without a good media monitoring team. It may also be difficult to evaluate the impact of such TV commercial given this situation.
- Above all, the researcher recommends this topic for further research.
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