The Influence Of Accounting Standard On Financial Reporting In The Nigerian Banking Sector
The study examines the influence of accounting standard on financial reporting in the Nigeria banking sector, using a sampling size of 14 banks out of all banks quoted in the Nigerian stock exchange as at third quarter of 2012. The survey design was adopted in this study and a total number of 50 questionnaires were administered but 47 copies were returned completely. The t-statistics was adopted in carrying out the analysis of data. From the analysis of data collected, the result reveals that there is a positive relationship between accounting standards, its contents and presentation of financial statement in the banking sector. Based on these findings, some recommendations among others were made that proper accounting standards be put in place by the relevant accounting standard setting bodies so as to ensure the preparation of high quality financial report or statement in the Nigerian banking sector.
1.1 Background to the Study
Section 33 5(1) of the companies and allied matters act CAMA 1990 as amended stipulates that the preparation of financial statement, shall comply with the accounting standards’ issued from time to time by the Nigeria Accounting Standard Board.
Financial statements are described as the end product of accounting transactions or economic events aimed at providing qualitative and quantitative financial information to evaluate and predict the performance of an organization to permit informed judgment and decision making, (Illaboya,2005, p.167).
In Nigeria, the; standard setting body was the Nigeria Accounting Standard Board (NASB) which is presently referred to as the Financial Reporting Council of Nigeria (FRCN) which was passed into law On 18 May 2011 and was signed into law on 20 July 2011. The financial reporting council of Nigeria like all standard setting bodies in the world is independent of the profession of accounting. The council identifies areas where a measure of uniformity is required so as to bridge the variation in reporting practices and ensure a high level of uniformity which is panacea to corporate compatibility, (Illaboya,2005, p.169).
The need for an accounting standard setting body in Nigeria became urgent when the Nigeria enterprise promotion decree was promulgated to transfer ownership of companies to Nigerians. Foreigners exploited the lack of uniform accounting procedures in valuing their equities in companies affected by the decree. Those companies, whose parents were resident outside Nigeria, followed the dictate of their parents. At the end of it all, there were as many accounting practices reflected in the account as there were companies in Nigeria, (Nnadi, 2007, p.32).
Whenever an auditor challenged a company on the appropriateness of its accounting practices, management was usually quick to as the auditor to produce the law prohibiting such practice. The Nigeria accounting standard board presently known as the financial reporting council of Nigeria was therefore ‘established in order to ensure that these conditions did not persist, (Nnadi, 2007, p.38).
The Nigeria Accounting Standard Board (NASB) presently referred to as Financial Reporting Council of Nigeria (FRCN) has been the body responsible for establishing standards of accounting and reporting in the Nigeria business enterprises. The board help to ensure that the published financial statements are uniform in content and format and communicate precisely what they purport to convey. These standards are in effect rules governing the preparation of financial statements. Accounting standards issued by the board are essential because they lead to efficient allocation of resources in the economy such that more successful companies are better able to raise capital to finance their operations than the less successful one, (Nnadi, 2007, p.45).
The development of new accounting standards involves a long process usually referred to as “due process”. The due process ensures that all interested parties get the chance to make some contributions towards the proposed standards. The process begins with the selection of an area of accounting to be standardized. An accounting problem must be sufficiently significant in terms of its effect on the financial statements. If problems do not create significant difficulties, the cost of the due process may be justifiable. Any individual or organization can write to the financial reporting council (F1C) to suggest an issue for standardization, (Nnadi, 2007, p.45).
Accounting standard is a statement issued by the appropriate standard setting body locally or internationally on a specific area or topic in financial accounting, the acceptance and application of which is mandatory for prepares and users of financial statement, (lgben,2004,p.41).
Accounting standards are issued at the international level by the International Accounting Standard Committee (IASC) while they are issued in Nigeria by the financial reporting council of Nigeria. The standards issued by the (IASB) are known as international accounting standard (IAS) while those issued by the (FRCN) are known as statement of accounting standard presently know as International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS). Both IAS/IFRS are applicable except that: if an IAS is inconsistent with an SAS, the IAS/IFRS would be inapplicable to the extent of the inconsistency. This implies that on any matter on which an IAS and an SAS make conflicting pronouncements, the SAS shall, supersede the IAS in Nigeria, (Igben, 2004, p.4l).
1.2 Statement of Problem
Our national accounting standard (SAS) are partly based old IAS, some of which have since been amended or withdrawn by IASB. Furthermore, the local standards do not cover all the aspects of financial reporting encountered by prepare of financial statements. We think it is fair to admit that our standards are partly out of date and are not sufficiently comprehensive to form a basis for the preparation of high quality financial statements.
1.3 Research Question
Is there a positive relationship between accounting standards, its contents and the presentation of financial statement?
1.4 Objective of the Study
To find out if there is a positive relationship between accounting standard and the content in the presentation of financial statements.
1.5 Statement of Hypothesis
Ho: There is no positive relationship between accounting standard andthe content and presentation of financial statements.
HI: There is a positive relationship between accounting standard and the content and presentation of financial statements.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will be relevant tousers of financial statement. Examples are investors, shareholders, employees, government etc. Every business organization uses financial statement to communicate information about its performance, resources and obligation and interested parties. The report, are prepared in such away to meet different needs of the parties. It is expected that at the end of the research work solutions would be provided to the problems and recommendations on the content and presentation of financial statement and the influence of standards on financial statement in the Nigeria banking sector.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The fact is that this study attempts to access and eva1uate the influence of accounting standards on financial statements in the Nigeria banking sector. The study covers the statement of accounting standard (SAS), the Nigeria accounting standard board (NASB) now referred to as Financial reporting council of Nigeria (FRCN), the relevant international accounting standard board (IASB) and the international financial reporting standard (IFRS).
The study shall be focused on 14 banks in Nigeria and shall be concentrated in Benin City, Edo State.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
The scope of the study would have been more enlarged in terms of looking at more banks but the inability to go round the banks in Nigeria has limited the researcher to just 14 banks all in Benin City, Edo State. Data were extracted from published information obtained from books, financial statements, seminar papers and the internet.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Is a principle that guides and standardizes accounting practices.
2. Financial Statement:
Is a formal record of the financial activities and position of a business, person or other entity.
3. Financial Position:
It is another name for balance sheet and it reports an entity’s assets, liabilities and the difference in their total.
4. Financial Reporting:
This is the process of producing statements that disclose an organization’s financial status to management, investors and the government.
The condition of related objects.
The quality of being reliable, dependable or trustworthy.
The act of conducting or caring out business negotiations, plans.
The judicious use of means to accomplish an end
1.10 Organization of the Study
This research work is presented in five (5) chapters in accordance with the standard presentation of research work.
Chapter one contains the introduction which include; background of the study, statement of the problem, aim and objectives of study, research questions, significance of study, scope of study and overview of the study. Chapter two deals with review of related literature. Chapter three dwelt on research methodology which include; brief description of the study area, research design, sources of data, population of the study, sample size and sampling technique, instrument of data collection, validity of instrument, reliability of instrument and method of data presentation and analysis. Chapter four consists of data presentation and analysis while chapter five is the summary of findings, recommendations and conclusion.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain the influence of accounting standards on the quality of financial reporting in Nigerian banking sector.
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of accounting standard and quality financial reporting in Nigeria.
The research work was carried out with the objective of unraveling the benefits Nigerian companies stand to achieve by the adoption and implementation of the International Financial Reporting Standards in preparing and reporting its financial statements. To this effect, two hypotheses were assumed and tested, so that it can be accepted or rejected at the end of the research work when it will be analyzed using questionnaire to obtain data from chartered accountants, auditors, managers, investors in Jos North Local Government of Plateau State.
The outcome of the study revealed the following:
- The adoption will increase the level of confidence of global investors and investment analysts in the financial statements of companies in Nigeria.
- The adoption of IFRS is an effective tool for enhancing the uniformity and comparability of financial statements of companies in Nigeria.
- The companies that have adopted IFRS will be able to generate more funds from foreign sources.
- There are still challenges militating against the successful adoption and implementation of IFRS but government has put adequate measures in place to address these issues.
- The adoption and implementation of IFRS will increase the FDI inflow in Nigeria.
In this study, attempts were made to assess the relevance of IFRS in the preparation and presentation of financial statements in Nigeria. Based on the findings, it was concluded that adoption of IFRS is a right step inthe right direction which actually has been more relevant in the preparation and presentation of financial statements in the Nigerian. Although, there are many issues and challenges facing implementation, the benefits outweigh the challenge. With adoption, Nigerian Companies will produce more credible financial statements that will not only be informed but also provide a basis for better interpretation. This invariably will boost investors’ confidence and attract cross border financial transactions which is the basis for economic growth.
Abstracting from the above mentioned, the research makes the following recommendation to ensure a successful adoption and implementation of IFRS in Nigeria.
- Government and the regulators should ensure that there is availability of training facilities and materials for Professional Accountants on the concept of IFRS and issues relating to its implementation conversion
- Compliance with IFRS timetable should be mandatory and failure should be marched with appropriate sanctions.
- Government should release more fund to FRC to educate all stakeholders with special reference to the academic, staff and accounting students who will uphold the future of IFRS in the country and developing a plan to help properly equip the company for upcoming changes
- Professional accounting bodies in Nigeria should made IFRS training a part of MCPE at a reduce cost.
- While monitoring the IFRS implementation timetable, the government, the Central bank of Nigeria and other regulatory bodies should ensure that ethical environment and corporate transparency are observed.
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