An Increased Crime Rate And State Development (A Case Study Of Imo State)

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration


Abstract


The study is carried out to examine an increased crime rate and state development using Imo state as a case study. There has been increased crime rate noted recently in Imo state. Crime is an offence against the values system of a society. The cost and effects of crime vary among the various segments of the population and touch almost everyone by some degree and in general as the economic growth and development of countries increase, it would be expected that crime level reduces.

This may not necessarily be. The socio-economic effects of crime have been well noticed in Imo state and the country at large. The various costs of crime to victims and society or the economy include; loss of income, property losses, loss in community productivity, etc. Some other costs of crime, which are less tangible include psychological trauma on victims and their family and friends, pain and suffering and a lower quality of life. In all of these and other associated losses, the ultimate cost is loss of life.

The high and sophisticated rate of crime in Nigeria and specifically in Imo state calls has hindered economic growth of the state as investors are afraid to come into the state. It was observed that some of the causes of the said crime are poor management, bad governance, lack of employment, insufficient resources and son on.

It is pertinent to recommend that, government should embark on a serious action towards checkmating this ugly incidence in the state by re-branding the management of the state affairs, create job opportunities for the people, urge the traditional rulers to take part in the administrative exercise seriously, enact a sincere law that could help to maintain orderliness in the state.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter one

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the study
  • 1.4 Research questions
  • 1.5 Statement of hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the study
  • 1.7 Scope of the study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the study
  • 1.9 Definition of terms

Chapter two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Other subject that is related to the topic
  • References

Chapter three

3.0 Research Design and Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research design
  • 3.3 Source/methods of data collection
  • 3.4 Population and sample sizes
  • 3.5 Sample technique
  • 3.6 Validity and reliability of measuring instruments
  • 3.7 Method of data analysis

Chapter four

4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Presentation of data
  • 4.3 Analysis of data
  • 4.4 Test of hypothesis
  • 4.5 Interpretation of result

Chapter five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary of findings
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

Crime in Nigeria, like in most developing nations of Africa, is widespread and seems to be on the increase by the day. When poverty is coupled with high levels of economic and social aspirations, the stage is set for criminal activities – particularly official corruption, robbery and dealing in illegal goods and services.

People, who are thwarted in attaining desired social and economic goals legally, may seek to obtain them illegally. This paper, analyze how increased crime rate, resulting from unemployment, poverty and inflation, increases criminal activities in Imo state.

The discussion stresses that crime is a social problem that deserves serious attention. It noted that the social problems which afflict Nigerians as a people are the result of the faulty strategy of development which has prevailed in the country, the particular set of economic and social policies to which that strategy has given rise and the particular structural arrangements which have produced and sustained both the strategy and the policies. It recommends a drastic modification of the development strategy, both at the macro and micro levels.


1.1 Background Of The Study

Conceptually, crime can be seen as an infraction of both the basic principles of law and order and the norms of civilised behaviour. No society is immune from this knotty social problem but what differs is the frequency and magnitude of the situation and the response mechanisms to address it.

As part of the human community, Nigeria is currently caught in the web of crime dilemma, manifesting in the convulsive upsurge of both violent and non-violent crimes.

But the most alarming and terrifying is the present escalation of violent crimes and the barbarity, lethality and trauma the perpetrators unleash on the hapless citizenry across the length and breadth of the country. Notable in this regard are the rising incidents of armed robbery, assassination and ransom-driven kidnapping, which are now ravaging the polity like a tsunami and spreading a climate of fears and anxieties about public safety.

So far, the prevalent sky high level of violent crimes in Nigeria has cast asterisk on the political will of some of those in the corridors of power in the country to protect the citizens through the instrumentality of the law enforcement agencies, especially the Nigerian Police Force, which is constitutionally charged with maintaining law and order.

Suffice it to say that a bizarre situation where any government abdicates its sole responsibility in this regard will give room to the emergence of a kind of Hobbesian state where life is solitary, nasty, brutish and short because of nihilism and violence of men. Already, many social analysts are eager to draw a parallel between the current tempo of kidnap saga in Nigeria and countries infamous for it like Colombia, Mexico and Bolivia, where various drug gangs and marxist guerrillas are wreaking havoc.

Considering the human cost of the upwardly growing level of grave crimes like armed robbery and assassination in places like Owerri, Lagos, Ibadan, Abeokuta, Benin-City, Yenagoa, Port-Harcourt, Onitsha, Aba and Uyo, these towns, without sounding alarmist, could be said to have reached a point of comparism with South Africa’s Johannesburg, which has earned itself the unenviable sobriquet of the murder capital of the world.

What are the underlying causative factors behind the exponential increase in violent crimes in our present-day society, especially the ugly trends of dare-devil kidnapping, armed robbery and assassination that have put the country in a quandary and instigated the pervasive sense of agoraphobia and “homephobia” among many Nigerians?

And what are the realistic means of containing these worrisome developments, which have come with pernicious effects of threat to the life and property of the citizenry, forced divestment of resources by the government from more productive sectors to the maintenance of internal law and order and discouragement of foreign direct investments? It was under this background that the researcher embarked on this study.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Several Eurocentric scholars, history and anthropology have painted imo state which is one of the state in Nigeria as a state without a past and a state with increasing crime rate. This view has seriously been held that imo state has no capable government who will enact good security policy which will help curtail the increasing crime rate in the state. The contest of the problem here lies in the way to curb this ever increasing crime rate in the state. Government and other none governmental organizations are now seeking the realistic means of containing these worrisome developments, which have come with pernicious effects of threat to the life and property of the citizenry.

On the other hand, the traditional rulers presently are not what they seems to be hence, many of them have been masterminding the evil crime in imo state by supporting the bad fellows, they protect the kidnappers armed robbers, ritualists and others with their influence as a result of that what would be experienced will be nothing but increased crime rate in imo state. And this is also a serious problem.

The rising incidents of armed robbery, assassination and ransom-driven kidnapping, which are now ravaging the polity like a tsunami and spreading a climate of fears and anxieties about public safety. So far, the prevalent sky high level of violent crimes in Nigeria has cast asterisk on the political will of some of those in the corridors of power in the country to protect the citizens through the instrumentality of the law enforcement agencies, especially the Nigerian Police Force, which is constitutionally charged with maintaining law and order.

Crime presently has become an ugly menace in the state, it is also very rampant that all efforts of both the government and the traditional rulers even some of the worthy citizens have been put in place to ensure that this problem in question is reduced in imo state.


1.3 Objectives Of The Study

This work is concerned with the following objectives:

  1. To examine the various crimes in Imo state
  2. To investigate the effect of increasing rime rate in imo state to state development
  3. To examine the various causes of crime in imo state.
  4. To suggest how crime rate can be reduced/ controlled to have a smooth peaceful and harmonies co-existence among the members of the society in Nigeria with special reference to imo state.
  5. Finally, to know if there is any relationship between increasing crime rate and state development.

1.4 Research Questions

This work is anchored and associate with the following questions:

  1. Does traditional rulers have any indigenous way of addressing and fighting crime in the state?
  2. What are the causes of increased crime rate in imo state?
  3. What are the solutions to increased crime rate in imo state?
  4. Has the government make any serious effort in combating crime in imo state?
  5. What are the problems this increased crime rate has caused to the good people of the state?
  6. Does increased crime rate effect state development?
  7. If yes, in what ways?

1.5 Statement Of Hypothesis

The oxford advanced learners dictionary (1995:586) defined hypothesis as an idea or a suggestion that is based on known facts and its used as a basis for reasoning or further investigation.

This work is anchored on the following hypothesis:

  1. Hi: There is relationship between increased crime rate and state development.
    Ho: There is no relationship between increased crime rate and state development.
  2. Hi: unemployment and high poverty level in the country are directly linked to increased crime rate in the state.
    Ho: unemployment and high poverty level in the country are not directly linked to increased crime rate in the state.

1.6 Significance Of The Study

The study will be of significant in the following areas;

  1. it will help the government to know more on how increased crime rate can retard economic growth of the state.
  2. it will throw more light on the causes of increased crime rate in the state.
  3. It will be of help to government in tackling crime in the state
  4. It will be beneficial to scholars, academicians and students who want to carry out further research on the topic.

1.7 Scope Of The Study

The scope of the work is on the increased crime rate and state development. The study will concentrate on Imo state as a reference points or case study. but, a little overview will be taken in the Nigerian context

Limitation Of The Study

The researcher encountered a number of constraints in course of this study and they include:

Finance:

The research was carried on the limited resources of the researcher. The funds required were not forth coming, thus the researcher had to manage the meager income available and this hampered the extensive coverage of the study.

Time:

The researcher did not have sufficient time needed for the research of this nature, thus she, had to share her time with other academic chores.

Respondents:

On the part of respondents, some of them were reluctant to divulge information while some did not pay attention to the researcher.


1.8 Definition Of Terms

There are wider definitions of terms and concepts as different scholars have different view about them but those associated with the work are seen as follows:

Administration:

This is the management of business and public affairs. But in the course of this work, administration is seen as the management and control of individual and members of the society.

Tradition:

This is the passing beliefs, customs, generations by upholding strongly to it.

CRIME:

This could be defined as an illicit and social evil act of the people that, affects the entire creatures negatively.

Rate:

the frequency at which an incident occur.

Development:

the level or the amount of growth of a particular society in terms of infrastructure, economically, politically or socially.

Armed Robbery:

this is the act of taking someone’s possession with arms.

Kidnapping:

an art of taken someone hostage and demanding for ransom.

Money Laundering:

This is a process of concealing the existence, source or use of an illegally obtained money by converting the cash into untraceable transactions in banks.

Economic Development:

This refers to the process of growth in total per capita income of countries. It is occasioned by basic changes in the structure of the economy.

Economic Growth:

This means steady process of increasing productive capacity of the economy and also in the increasing of National Income.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation

Introduction

The context in this very chapter increased crime rate and state development “A case study of Imo state”, it goes a long way to associate with conclusion and recommendation.

However, the above mentioned topic led to slow movement of growth or development of the Nigerian economy in general and that of Imo in particular, and has attracted some series of questions concerning government efforts in ensuring the arrest of the so-called crime which has been on increase.


Summary Findings

Base on this research, increased crime rate can be stop or minimized in the state if government should adjust and implement its development policies especially those that concern employment and poverty reduction. In fact, Imo state is a great state both in landmass and population size. Imo state has 27 local governments. To move this state forward, the research has also find that there is a relationship between increased crime rate and development.
Also, the study has found that the level of poverty and unemployment are the major contributing factor to high crime rate in Imo state.

Finally, the study proposed to government to embark and invest on economic programmes which will empower the youths.


5.3 Conclusion

In Nigeria, it seems emphasis is placed on individuals’ pursuit of wealth to the neglect of social development which is concerned with a general improvement in the quality of life of the people. In any country experiencing rapid techno-industrial change, the emergence or aggregation of certain social problems is to be expected.

However, unless government tackles earnestly the socio-economic problems, criminal activities will not abate. For example, raising living standard, increasing incomes, eliminating unemployment, providing social welfare services, improving housing and offering medical or psychiatric services, where necessary will prevent or at least reduce crime surge in the state.

The neglect of social development can be held among other causes, as the factor responsible for the under development of industrial structures which breeds mass unemployment, inequality, exploitation, poverty, deprivation and frustration.

This kind of environment tends to encourage crime. In fact, the ongoing change and negative occurrence in the country is enough to create those conflicts and disjunctions in values, inter personal relationship and the social situation generally, which are veritable sources of social problems.

As Akeredolu_Ale (1982) had notes, those who have advocated policies of income redistribution in developing countries in the past have usually done so only on the argument that a reduction of income inequality is necessary for greater social justice. The emphasis in the equality argument may be valid but, in a fiercely materialistic world, it has usually not proved convincing to those who are in charge of the planning machinery and can influence policy decisions.

Social problems are, essentially and in general a reflection of the level of marginalization in society; a consequence as well as a measure of the extent to which people are eliminated from the mainstream of production and consumption, from power and decision making processes, and from themselves. There is now an urgent need for a drastic modification of the development strategy; in particular, there is need for democratization on the development process.

This operational demarcation is proposed in view of the fact that the social questions which need to be resolved as a basis for and in the process of the kind of transformation envisaged at the macro-national level (the form of economic organization, the role of the state in the economy, the structure of political power, economic inequality etc) are essentially political in nature and their resolution is expected to emerge in time. In contrast, the kind of transformation envisaged at the micro-sectored level is addressed mostly to question concerning the quality of life of the people and of their capacity to perform effectively and optimally and to contribute towards stable improvement in their own life quality, and towards national socio-economic development.


5.4 Recommendation

Today, the avenues for obtaining a suitable, well-paying employment are different from those in past colonial era. It is not unusual to note that emphasis is now being placed on technical and agricultural employment to ensure that we do not miss out in the global race for economic stability. But we find out that in our institutions of learning, students are not trained to be able to cope with the changing times in the society. As a famous philosopher once said, ‘ the only thing constant is change itself’, for us to be able to move forward, both in economic, technological and agricultural development, we need to change our thinking attitudes, which can only be brought about by a change in our way of thinking. Education, which is a process of training and instruction designed to give knowledge and develop skills, is supposed to suit the ever-changing times.

In essence, for the problem of crime to be reduced, we have to restructure the educational sector to better equip our youths to cope with the changing times in our economy. This has a significant role in reducing crime because we find out that students who graduate from the institutions of learning have no jobs because they have not been properly schooled in the prevailing ways of life and as such, due to frustration, the youth of today may result to criminal activities.

The homes and religious organizations have important roles to play in curbing the crime wave in Nigeria. These criminals live in homes and even receive religious instructions from religious groups. The family heads and religious leaders should pay more attention to the moral upbringing of these youths. If these youths are given the right training from childhood, they will not easily depart from the right path.

In fact, government in Imo state should be all integrating and ready to re-integrate not only in society but also in governance those criminal elements that have accepted amnesty, on whose advice and suggestions government can as part of her contingency plan, control and contain criminal activities in the state. Due to the high rate of crime in Imo state, people are encouraged to help the government and institutions to address the said crime in the state.
From the study of the population in Imo state, it is clearly known that the percentage of working classes is above average. The people should also encourage projects like health care, scholarship and other self help projects for the advancement and development of Imo state.

Government, on her own part should be more proactive in the fight against crime, especially corruption in high place. For any meaningful development to take place, Imo state government as well any other government in the country should stop paying lip-service in the fight against corruption and pursue meaningful developmental programmes and projects that will impact on the citizens. Again, government should strengthen anti graft agencies to fight crime and provide them with good policies in order to be able to contain the level of crime waves in our society. Government officials are advised to shun corruption in high place.


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