The Incidence Of Salmonella And Escherichia Coli In Livestock (Poultry) Feeds

Project and Seminar Material for Microbiology

The Incidence Of Salmonella And Escherichia Coli In Livestock (Poultry) Feeds


This work is aimed at determining the incidence of bacterial injections such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli which cause health hazards to the poultry in their feeds. Sample feed were obtained from commercial mash operation/ pellet mill operation at New heaven and top feed at Ogbete main market Enugu. The samples were screened for total aerobic bacteria count, total coliform count and the characterization of the bacteria isolates carried out while indole test and citrate test were used to confirm the presence of Escherichia coli. The confirmation of salmonella isolates on Mac conkey agar was also done.

Table of Contents

  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 1.1 Statement of problem
  • 1.2 Aims and objectives of the study
  • 1.3 Limitation of study
  • 1.4 Hypotheses

Chapter Two

  • 2.0 Literature review
  • 2.1 Nutritional value
  • 2.2 Economic importance
  • 2.3 Disease cause by microorganisms
  • 2.4 Livestock (poultry) feeds manufacturer
  • 2.5 Nutrient /feed requirements
  • 2.6 Nutritive values of eggs
  • 2.7 Standard of feed quality
  • 2.8 Types of poultry feeds & march ingredients
  • 2.9 Quality control of feeds

Chapter Three

  • 3.0 Materials and method
  • 3.1 Sample collection
  • 3.1.1 Microbiological analysis
  • 3.2 Characterization of bacateria
  • 3.2.1 Gram’s staining reaction
  • 3.2.2 Indole test
  • 3.2.3 Methyl red (Mr.) voges proskaver (vp) test
  • 3.2.4 Citrate test
  • 3.2.5 Carbohydrate fermentation
  • 3.2.6 Motility test
  • 3.2.7 Oxidase test

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Result
  • 4.1 Total aerobic bacterial count
  • 4.2 Coliform bacterial count
  • 4.3 Characterization of coliform isolates
  • 4.4 Characterization of salmonella isolates

Chapter Five

  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • Recommendation
  • References

Chapter Six

  • 6.0 Appendixes
  • 6.1 Hard wares
  • 6.2 Glass wares
  • 6.3 Reagent
  • 6.4 Composition for bacteriological culture

List of Tables

  • Table I; Total aerobic bacterial counts
  • Table ii; Coliform bacterial counts
  • Table iii; Biochemical characteristics of Isolates (Escherichia coli)
  • Table iv; Biochemical characteristics of isolates (Salmonella)

List of Figures

  • Figure I; chemical composition of the various constituents of the raw materials used
  • Figure II; Flow chart of poultry feed
  • Figure III; Energy, protein and Amino acid requirement of chicken
  • Figure iv; March Ingredient

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

The term poultry used in agriculture generally refers to all domesticated birds kepts for egg or meat production. These includes chickens (domestic fowls), Grallus domestics, turkeys, ducks and geese. This project will deal largely with the chicken which are the most common domestic fowl. The species of poultry are aptable or can survive in different environments therefore, they are widely distributed in the world, with great increase in population, the demand for goods especially protein food become acute. To meet the demand for animal protein and its development, rapid multiplying ones becomes very necessary. Poultry has so many advantages over other domesticated animal whose production is very much hindered by lack of money, high temperature, disease and lack of good at certain periods of the year.

The diseases of poultry is like the disease of other animals may be caused by:

  1. pathogenic organisms like bacteria and viruses, protozoa, worms and some members of arthropods
  2. Nutritional deficiency, (c) From wound or cannibalism

The following diseases are usually associated with the fowls locally

  1. New castle disease
  2. Chronic respiratory diseases
  3. Fowl typhoid
  4. Coccidiosis
  5. Fowl pox

The incidence of salmonella and Escherida coli simply means the extent to which the enteric organisms (Escherichia coli) that are part of the normal flora and incidentally causes disease and pathogenic organism (salmonella) affect the poultry feeds. Hill, D.H; and Davis, O.s; (1962). Shoening et al 1942). Defined diseases as any abnormal condition of the tissue of the body, the cells that make up the various tissue have specific functions to perform. Pekzar et al (1977) defined Salmonell is as a disease of the chick fowl and swim bird cause by some species or Salnaonells.

Anon (1963) described pullorum disease as an actute infection disease of body chicks caused by salnonella pullorum. Infection is the entering of the disease produces organisms into the animal.

Livestock (Poultry )gets infected when pathogenic organisms passes to the susceptible animal through the through the following avenues. Esmat.omar 1977.

1. Feeds and contaminated water feed or water containing droppings or waste products of diseased animal will help spread the organisms to fresh hosts. The feeding troughs and watering vessels aso spread the diseases if not seperated.

2. Dropping or excretes: These material are the gateway out for some stages of oarganisms to go out of the host and get to fresh animal hosts.

3. Close contact – some disease spread by contact. Their agents may be external parasites or air borne in which case nearness to the superior’s birds increase the changes of getting the organisms

4. To or event the disease pathogenic organism from getting into the body of poultry, attention should be payed to those factors that influence their infections and spread. First and foremost, they should have disease resisting stock, provide good shelter, clean range, proper feeding and practise separating the unhealthy ones from the healthy poultry, quarantining new stock. In case of poultry, the brooder house should be 30m to 48m from old birds. Such that they gets good feed and sunlight. They should act be allowed to get in contact with their droppings or excretes since their dropping carry the pathogenic organisms. Sanitation is very important in poultry management by cleaning of water cans and feed troughs and finally disinfecting the stock to help reduce organic matter.

1.1 Justification

This study has been justified by the need and safety of consuming children (white meat) which has low cholesterol but rich in protein than beef which has high cholesterol. Also human beings and the world at large, benefit from our poultry farms where we have the layers (Egg producing Chiks) and the broilers (Heavy chicks) for consumption.

The poultry (chicken) are rich in protein and amino acid needed for growth. Livestock feeds are formulated to a ratio for different species and classes of poultry. These are also feed additive, which may be added to the feed to prevent disease or make animals utilize feed better. Some ingredient concentrate is added to nourish the feed.

1.2 Aims and Objective of the Study

  1. To highlight the varius importance of the livestock (poultry) t human and our industries.
  2. To determine the incidence of bacteria infection such as balmonella and Escherichia coli which cause health hazard to the poultry (Chiken).
  3. To isolate and deduce effect of salmonella specie and Escherichia coli in livestock (poultry) and their feeds.
  4. To advice poultry farmers on how to preserve and handle their farms feeds from infections diseases to the birds.

1.3 Hypothesis

HYP. 10:- Salmonella and Escherichia coli are the major causes of bacteira infection found in livestock (poultry) feeds.

HYP. II: – salmonella only is the infection that effects the livestock (poultry) feeds.

HYP. II0:- Escherichia coli only is the bacteria infection that effects the livestock (poultry) feeds.)

1.4 Statement of Problem

  1. Poultry feeds are infected during procession by handling, mixing of ingredient and exposing the raw materials and furnished products to the atmospheric micro organism.
  2. Poultry (birds) are being infected through the consumption of the contaminated feeds and unpurified water
  3. Also when the healthy and unhealthy birds are fed together from the some feeding trough and water vessels, eventually the pathogenic and the enteric organisms from infested ones may widely spread
  4. Salmonella and Escherichia coli as the bacterial organisms effects the essential requirement of the body such as water, carbohydrate, fats, vitamin, minerals and protein thereby reducing the content of the nutrient needed for the food to the palatable and easily digestible
  5. Consumers (humans) get infected by the in take of uncooked and half done chicken

Chapter Five


Some of the samples analyzed in this study yielded isolates of Escherichia coli of the 10 samples of poultry feed, nine contained E. Coli,. This is of health concern since poultry (Livestocks) serve as a major food component to Nigerians. This concern is even more pronounced since the feed for domestic animals contain little or no chemical preservations.

Information on Coliforms in poultry feed is diverse however their association with drinking water has been reported to contaminate feeds and products during processing. Ecoli is an actiological agent of human diarrhea illness. This organism while being primarily associated with good-borne out breaks also has become an important public health concern as a water-borne. Pathogen (Rice et al 1000). A large epidemic of haemorrhagie colitis in Africa has also been reported to be primarily a water-borne outbreak (Rice et al 1996).

In this study Coliform count in the poultry feeds range between 5.0×105 to 1.1 x107 cfu/g and this could be attributed to contamination during drying machine milling. Also water used for washing materials could be a source of coliform contamination of this product of great public health concern is the fact that E.coli isolated could be of aecal origin. Martha et al (1988). Reported that faecal coliform is an indicator organism of possible presence of other pathogen such as salmonella, Shigellea, Yersiniae etc. The finding in this current study is not surprising since water from streams or even chlorinated tap water may be used in one way or the other during processing.

Although E coli has long been recognized as a normal flora of the gas trointestinal tract of man and domestic animal, including birds, on several occasions it has been responsible for acute gatro enteritis, diarrhea and extra intestinal infections (Laden et al, 1990). In this light enterotoxigenic strains of E Coli (ETEC) have been associated with epidemic and sporadic out break of infantile diarrhea in humans and some diarrhea diseases in livestock. Though reports exist on the enterotoxigenity of E coli strain isolated from animals in Nigeria, information of food isolated are hard to come by (Ladan et al 1990) The relatively high numbers of coliforms isolated from livestock feed may constitute health hazard to livestock and man. It is however important to guide agaisnt food home infection by coliforms by encouraging or education of feeds processors on sanitary practices during processing and handling chemical preservatives such as organics acids should be used to increase the shelf life and bacteriological quality of poultry feeds.

On the other hand, some of the samples analysed in this study yielded isolates of Salmonella sp. Out of the 10 samples analysed, samples five and eight did not show the presence of salmonella following confirming test, the rest eight samples contained salmonella sp. This could be due to the presence of faecal coliform which is an indicator organism of possible presence of other pathogens. Several studies have demonstrated a direct correlation between the presence of salmonella in poultry feeds and its isolation frm carcasses (Baines and Mackenzie 1974). Ultimately this method of transmission may increase the potential for foodborne illness to occur, of which poultry is a major contributor (popper 1994).

The total acrobic bacteria count was found to be high in this study which has a range of 5.4.106 to 3.3×107 cfu/g. These significantly high numbers are in variably involved in the rapid contamination of poultry feed and products if they are not eliminated during processing.


The total aerobic count of bacteria was found to be high and range between 5.4×106 to 3.3×107 cfu/g. this shows that the livestock (poultry) feed samples were predisposed to a lots of mesophilic erobic spoilage Organisms.

Coliform count was also found to be relatively high in the range of 5.0 x 105 to 1.1×107 cfu/g. it is therefore possible that these range by contamination can constitutes health hazard to poultry and to human, through consumption
of animal based human food if the feeds are not processed under strict hygiene conditions.

From the above written essay, it will be that bacteriological quality of livestock feeds is very essential. This is mainly to prevent the hazards done to the livestock by contaminated feeds and provide job opportunities.


Though standards of livestock feed have been designed but it has been found that lots of diseases are associated with these. Therefore, modern methods of raw materials storage and proper handling during process also add to the quality of the feed.

The Incidence Of Salmonella And Escherichia Coli In Livestock (Poultry) Feeds

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