Incidence And Cause Of Primary School Drop-Out In Abredan Clan Of Biase LGA

Primary Education Project and Semina Material

Incidence And Cause Of Primary School Drop-Out In Abredan Clan Of Biase LGA


Abstract


The study investigated the incidence and causes of primary school drop-out in Abredan clan of Biase LGA of Cross Rivers State.A descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. The population for this study comprises of all 250 teachers from ten primary schools in Abredan clan. The instrument used for data collection in this study was a structured questionnaire developed by the researcher. It was presented in tables and analyzed using frequency, simple percentage and the mean (X).From table 1, it is obvious in items 1,2,3,4, and 5, that respondents agree that poverty is a major reason why students dropout from school. From the analysis in Table 2, it is observed that in items 6,7,8,9, and 10, that respondents agree on the following as factors that cause students to dropout from school; poor value orientation of student from parents, lower self-concept, inability of students to model good and responsible characters, Unnecessary display of riches by illiterates and improper orientation affect student with deviant behaviour.From the analysis in Table 3, items 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15, respondents agree that poor school infrastructure cause school dropout. Finally, from the analysis in Table 4, the location of school with respect to students’ homes is a strengthening factor towards school dropout was revealed. This indication was brought by the acceptance of items 16, 17, 18, 19, and 20, with mean scores that are above 2.5 cut-off mark.In conclusion, if those identified problems will be properly addressed by the government and educational authorities in Cross River State, the rate of dropout among secondary school students will be definitely eliminated to increase the rate at which primary school students attend schools and minimize wastage of government funds in Cross River State.

 


Table of Content


Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Question
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisation of the Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 The Concept of Poverty as it Affects Dropout
  • 2.3 Poor Value Orientation Among Peers
  • 2.4 Poor School Infrastructure in Nigeria Education System as it Affects Dropout Rate of Students
  • 2.5 Location of School as a Contributor to Dropout Among Students
  • 2.6 Factors or Causes of Students’ Dropout
  • 2.6.1 Student and Family Factors
  • 2.6.2 School Factors
  • 2.6.3 Financial Reasons
  • 2.6.4 Social and Peer Influence
  • 2.6.5 Gender and Early Marriage
  • 2.6.6 Perception of Individuals’ Goals for Education
  • 2.6.7 Academic Factors
  • 2.6.8 Other Factors
  • 2.7 Consequences of School Dropout on the Society
  • 2.8 Possible Remedies to Potential Dropouts and Those Dropped Out of Schools

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population
  • 3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique
  • 3.4 Instrument for Data Collection
  • 3.5 Validity of the Instrument
  • 3.6 Reliability of the Instrument
  • 3.7 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.8 Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Result
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Globally, more than a hundred million still do not have any access to schooling, mostly in poor countries. This lack of basic education means that young people have fewer choices and opportunities, thus, making it harder for countries in the developing world or third world countries especially in Africa and in Nigeria in particular, to achieve sustainable development and efforts to tackle poverty and diseases which are associated with high level of illiteracy in the country. Oladunni (2004) says, “Primary schooling for every child has only been achieved in fifty countries mostly the developed countries of the world. A further fifty-seven countries are currently experiencing a number of difficulties which are preventing them from meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in education”. The millennium Development Goals on education is to ensure that by year 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike will be able to access quality education.

Unfortunately, the rate at which young people drop out of school prematurely is also one of such problems bedeviling the success of the MDGs by the year 2015. Almost all less Developed Countries (LDCs) are concerned about the problem of low school completion rate. This issue is actually generated by many different perspectives but the difficulty from a policy perspective, however, is not uncertainly about the desirability of increasing completion, instead it is of lack of fundamental information about why students drop out of school.

Despite the several policies today, the dropouts’ figures are always dramatic and startling. The percentage of dropout varies from country to country, state to state, and from community to community. The dropouts and the increase in youth involvement in crimes and other forms of violence activities spur out the researcher’s interest in this particular area. In Nigeria today, quite a number of policies are undertaken by government and other stakeholders in the educational system at different intervals and other innovations in the system to make educational opportunities affordable, admirable and desirable by all and for all. These efforts over the years look more of theory than practical. Lagan (2007), buttresses this point in his work emphasizing that “school drop out… still remain a marked feature of our educational system, especially at our elementary and secondary levels of education”.

The policy focuses on school completion and dropouts’ behaviour. Remarkably little is known about the underlying determinants of school dropout. While completion levels and aggregate on the age-grade distribution of students provide some over all sense of the dropout situation, they are however insufficient for the investigation of underlying factors responsible for the high rate of dropouts. The concentration on aggregate masks all individual specific factors.

Though a lot of attention seems to be attracted from a couple of researchers, but response is still below expectations. A number of researchers had advanced some factors responsible for this menace such as peer group, school itself, the media, the home and the society as most relevant in explaining dropout in our school system (secondary level) while others see the students’ Intelligent Quotient (IQ), Interest and lack of employment opportunities for school leavers or graduates as some basic factors for such attitudes of dropping out of school.
Education, which has rightly been conceived as a preparation for life, is a productive activity and an investment in human resources. A progressive and welfare state (country) would never ignore its indisputable need for socialisation of its masses of which education is considered to be the chief organ for this purpose. Education is an important component of economic and social development and contributes significantly to a country’s progress. It is considered to be the investment in human capital as it builds human capabilities, which is a vital nation-building ingredient. Without spread of literacy, the dream of socio-economic development of the country can never be realized (Abdul, Q.M., Muhammad, A. and Faiza, B., 2004).

According to Abdul etal (2004), Secondary education is an important sub-sector of the entire education system. It varies from country to country. It is the schooling designed for students in the age bracket of 12-16 years who are enrolled in secondary schools. Secondary education is a stage where, a student enters at adolescence, the most crucial state in one’s personality development. It comes at a time when a child is in his/her most impressionable and formative years. At this particular time, the features of future men, women and citizens are beginning to appear and require full encouragement and sympathetic help in the development.

A common feature observed in most developed nations is higher attainment in education than the developing nations. For instance, according to Egwunyenga and Nwadiani (2004), Britain had 98% education attainment, United States of America 89% while Nigeria and Sudan had 59% and 33% respectively as reported by the World Bank (1996) on development indicators. This properly informed the reason the Federal Government is seen to have priority attention to the supply of education in the first two levels (primary and secondary) as reflected in the launched Universal Basic Education (UBE) Scheme in May 2000. A common feature in the Nigerian educational system in the issue of drop-out. According to Hornby, A.S. (2008), drop-out means a person who leaves school or college before they have finished their studies. It also means one who withdraws or quits from school or a given social group.

The rate at which secondary school students are observed to be leaving school at will to engage in diverse socio-economic activities calls for concern. This is with a view to saving scarce productive resources which would have been put into alternative use from being wasted on those who will not like to complete their school programmes. It has been observed by most school administrators that boys withdraw from school to go into buying and selling while the girls migrate into urban centers in search of daily bread. According to Nwadiani (1998), some parents have preference to menial jobs done by their wards that brings quick monies to solve domestic problems. It is also important to note that besides students dropping from the system, there are those who are observed to dropout within the system. These are students that willfully leave one public school and enter another or from one public school to a private school (Nwakobi 1990).

In Nigeria, about 7.3 million children dropout of school, of which 62% are girls (UNICEF 2004). The same UNICEF report indicates that girls’ primary school completion rate is far behind that of boys, at 76% compared with 85% for boys. This gender gap means that millions more girls than boys are dropping out of school each year. This goes to show that the majority of children not in school are girls. UNICEF (2003) showed a worrisome report from sub-Saharan Africa where the number of girls out of school rose from 20 million in 1990 to 24 million in 2002. The report also indicated that 83% of all girls out of school in the world live in Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, East Asia and the Pacific. Mohammed (2004) equally reported that a girl may be withdrawn from school if a good marriage prospect arises. Early marriage is a socio-cultural factor that hinders the girl child’s access to school. Some parents, in an attempt to protect their teenage daughters, give them out to wealthy old friends. Some of these girls who attempt to escape from such forced marriages end up in disaster. Efforts should be made to ensure that girls go to school and complete their schooling. According to Egbochuku (2002), efforts made to ensure that adolescent girls who re-enrolled in school are retained with a view to acquiring education will permanently close the door to poverty and ignorance and at the same time open that of prosperity in terms of economic buoyancy, social advancement and civilization. Alika and Egbochuku (2009) found that the socio-economic status of the girls imposes considerable constraints upon their continuing stay in school. In fact, they asserted that a girl’s particular socio-economic inheritance may have a direct and important effect on educational attainment.

In the researcher’s view, several factors have advanced from the foregoing and more will still be discovered, but the need to curtail the rate of dropouts should pragmatically and urgently not be overlooked, alongside the factors considered to be responsible should be critically alienated. Consequently, the desire to identify potential dropouts early enough in order to facilitate the development of vehement precautionary measures, contributes to the progress and the relevance of this research work.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

There are several patterns of educational wastage. In some school systems, educational wastage means that there are insufficient vacant places in the next class or the next level of school for all children who want to continue schooling. There is also much educational wastage between the primary and secondary school levels in Nigeria due to limited secondary school places; for example, the common entrance examination is primarily aimed at selecting capable candidates for secondary education.

Mallum (1981) observes that “another form of educational wastage is the repeats and dropouts, or premature withdrawal of students from schools. This means that school places remain unfilled because large numbers of children fail to continue at school. In this sense, there is much educational wastage in Nigerian schools for in spite of the provisions made for such students to stay in school, they refuse to continue their schooling”.

The pattern of school dropout in Nigerian schools particularly in the extreme North, present a gloomy and disappointing picture because these school dropouts often make planned development in some aspect of the educational system almost impossible. If the number of dropouts continue to increase, the situation will be such that educational planners will not be able to estimate how many teachers, classrooms, and other facilities are needed over a given period of time at various levels of education nor will economic planners be able to estimate the country’s manpower output at different levels of skills since many people do not complete particular stages of their education.

Achieving the goals of education largely depends on the positive dedication to academic work by students and instruments performance of teachers. The continuous existence of the problem in external examinations, absenteeism, lateness, drug abuse and dropout especially among students in secondary schools is another challenge facing educational administrators. The increase in the quality of teachers produced for teaching in secondary s schools in Nigeria does not help or make any difference. It must be borne in mind that education is an instrument of empowerment, which provides one with essential knowledge and experience needed to meet life challenges and societal growth and development. Osanyin (2001) says “the expected end product of education is a matured individual who is skillful in his chosen field and a cultured person. Akpotu and Jike (2004) added by saying that “realistic education must develop the talents and character of individuals and prepare them to be active participants in life and for nation building”.

Indeed, dropouts are a menace to any society, especially in Nigeria where their situation is helplessly looked upon with disdain. Consequently, criminal record revealed that “most of those involved are mostly potential dropouts or the dropout themselves. Therefore, the unending problem of dropout has thus increased youth involvement in crimes and all forms of anti-social activities as the resultant effects” (Ubogu, 2004).

The investigation of the causes of school dropout in schools within Abredan clan of Biase LGAof Cross River State is of necessity in this regard. In addition, the likely causes of dropouts and the levels to which these factors influence students ‘dropout in the schools should be seen as a cancerous infection that is in dare need of urgent attention of all stakeholders in the educational sector.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The aim of this study is to investigate the incidence and causes of primary school drop-out in Abredan clan of Biase LGA of Cross Rivers State. Specifically, the objectives of the study include to;

  1. Examine whether poverty causes school dropout from primary school in Abredan clan of Biase LGA of Cross Rivers State.
  2. Determine whether poor value orientation among peers causes school dropout in Abredan clan of Biase LGA of Cross Rivers State.
  3. Ascertain whether poor school infrastructure is causes school dropout in Abredan clan of Biase LGA of Cross Rivers State.
  4. Determine whether location of school is part of the causes of school dropout in Abredan clan of Biase LGA of Cross Rivers State.

1.4 Research Question

The following research questions are formulated to guide this research:

  1. Does poverty cause school dropout from primary school in Abredan clan of Biase LGA of Cross Rivers State?
  2. Does poor value orientation among peers cause school dropout in Abredan clan of Biase LGA of Cross Rivers State?
  3. Does poor school infrastructure cause school dropout in Abredan clan of Biase LGA of Cross Rivers State?
  4. Does location of school cause school dropout in Abredan clan of Biase LGA of Cross Rivers State?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • HO1 There is no significant relationship between the causes of dropouts and the dropout rates in primary schools in Abredan clan of Biase LGA of Cross Rivers State
  • HA1 There is a significant relationship between the causes of dropouts and the dropout rates in primary schools in Abredan clan of Biase LGA of Cross Rivers State

1.6 Significance of the Study

One fundamental significance of the study is that it will create awareness among parents to know their roles in reducing the challenges of those who dropout from schools.

Likewise, all stakeholders in educational sector will come to realize that there is no singular cause to the incidence of school dropout. This fact should stimulate the hearts of all for the need to collaborate in their efforts to avoid this form of educational wastage. Thereby the success of achieving educational goals will soon be a reality in little or no time at all.

Parents and guardians will also come to the realization of the indispensability of their task for proper caring for their children in school both economically and in terms of relating with their peers this will reduce drastically, if not eliminate the danger of the peers’ influence and the likelihood of dropping out of their children.

The educational planners will stand a better chance of responsibly estimating how many teachers, classrooms and other facilities are needed over a given period of time at various levels of education, especially at the secondary school levels. The government here on its part will come to realize the need for creating and providing a conducive learning environment that is not only attractive to students but also capable of sustaining the desire to learn in the students till completion.

The result of this work is expected to go a long way to helping the entire public to have a new and correct view of education. Not as a means of getting employment or basis for engaging in political activities only, but also a means of getting individuals empowered for self-actualization. This will grossly disabuse the mind of some dropping out school because of unemployment.


1.7 Scope of Study

This study was designed to investigate the incidence and causes of primary school drop-out in Abredan clan of Biase LGA of Cross Rivers State. Public primary schools in the area was used for the study.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

In the course of this study, the researcher encountered some limitations. This includes: the geographical spread of the areas of study was a big limitation because the researcher could not move around the whole of the primary schools in Abredan clan of Biase LGA of Cross Rivers State in order to access the respondents, however the study used trained assistant in collection of the questionnaire. Again there was unwillingness of respondents to fill the questionnaires. Some of the copies questionnaires were also reported missing and it was severally replaced and this affected the researcher negatively finance wise.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Dropout:

A person who withdraws from a course of study

Education:

A process of training and instructing children, young and even adult people in the school.

Incidence:

Refers to the occurrence of dropout among children in primary schools in the study area.

Causes:

Refers to the factors that influence or contribute to the incidence of dropout among children in primary schools in the study area

Primary School:

A school for children between the ages of about five and eleven.


1.10 Organisation of the Study

This study is organized into five chapters. Chapter one included the background of the study, research problem, research objectives and questions as well as limitation of the study. Chapter two contains the literature review. Chapter three includes the methodology and study area. Chapter Four contains the results and discussion of key findings of the study. Chapter Five finally looks at the summary, conclusions, and recommendations based on the findings.


Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

The focus of this study was to investigate the incidence and causes of primary school drop-out in Abredan clan of Biase LGA of Cross Rivers State. Four research questions were posed to test the causes of dropout among primary school students. Related literatures were reviewed in the course of the research. The result of the findings showed that parental socio-economic background, poor value orientation of students, poor school infrastructure and location of school are those factors that cause dropout among secondary school students in Abredan clan of Biase LGA of Cross Rivers State.


5.2 Conclusion

The findings of the study revealed some of the factors that cause students to dropout of primary schools in Abredan clan of Biase LGA of Cross Rivers State. It is the researcher’s opinion that if those identified problems will be properly addressed by the government and educational authorities in Cross River State, the rate of dropout among secondary school students will be definitely eliminated to increase the rate at which primary school students attend schools and minimize wastage of government funds in Cross River State.

From the findings, it is essential for counsellors should identify indigent students, who are likely to dropout of school as a result of poverty, and help negotiate some form of scholarship or financial assistance for them. Adolescent girls who are not doing well academically should be identified by the counsellors and remedial classes should be organized for them. Guidance counsellors should also be introduced into the school system in order to change the value orientation and character of students. This is to prevent poor value orientation of student from parents, lower self-concept, inability of students to model good and responsible characters etc cause students to dropout of school.


5.3 Recommendation

Based on the findings of this study, the following are recommended;

  1. Principals of secondary school should ensure that school equipment are taken proper care of, any damaged materials such as desks, tables, chairs etc. should be repaired properly. This will make school equipment last longer.
  2. Parents should be educated on the effects of their children’s life, by meeting their financial needs.
  3. The government should pursue a genuine program of poverty alleviation and economic empowerment of parents so that they would be able to send their children to school.
  4. The government can intensify public enlightenment campaign to educate the public on the importance of education and the consequences of school dropout, and that money is not everything. The government should not overlook the school dropouts rather establish primary schools and skilled teachers. Parents should inculcate n their children the worth of education through empowerment with consequential greatness as long-term benefit.
  5. Education should be deployed to help the youths appreciate principles, opinions, manners, talents, because the power of education is knowledge and a nation without education is powerless or dead. And the absence of education produces crude leaders that lack sound education.

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