The Incidence Of Drug Abuse Among Secondary School Students (A Case Study Of Some Selected Sss Students In Esan Central Local Government Area Of Edo State)
This research was aimed at investigating the incidence of drugs abuse among secondary school students in Esan Central LGA of Edo State the findings of the research were based on the effect of drugs, reasons for drugs abuse, how these drugs are gotten, the students that abuse it more and the commonly abused drugs secondary school students randomly chosen, drawn from 10 secondary school four boys schools two girls and mixed schools.findings show that alcohol, Indian hemp, LSD Amphatanin, Chinese capsule are the drugs commonly abused the investigation also show that the drugs have effect on the abusers such lack of sleep, restlessness, hyper-activity of the muscle and lack of self control. The abuse of drugs was also found to be more prevalent among males students than female students. And that most of the drugs gotten through illegal means. The findings also indicated that the reasons why the respondents abuse drugs are as a desire to win during competition, because it aid movement of the muscle, reduce fatigue, ease tension and as an act of curiosity to know its effect. Solutions to the problem includes government taking action against drug abusers, the provision of counselling services to school and the imposition of some level of restriction to the production of these drugs. And also, the mass media should mount heavy campaign against drug abuse and wining should not be much emphasized in secondary school.
In recent times, the incidence of drug abuse is on the increase and experts in the area of drugs and health have indicated that if the trend of drug abuse is not controlled, the problems might aggregate into serious health problem. One sad aspect of this is that teenagers and children of school age are worst involved with this problem.
To say the least, the phenomenon of drug abuse is what individuals; government and society are generally interested in.
A drug is any substance that modifies body functions when taken into the organism.
A drug is a substance used for medical purposes, either alone or in mixture substance that changes the state of function of cells, organs or organism. Drugs are mood modifies which change the mood of individual per time. Drug abuse can be defined variously depending on the standpoint of the individual.
It could be seen as constant and indiscriminate use of both prescribed and legal and illegal drugs or the use of drugs without diagnosis and prescription, to an extent that it hinders ones health. Our health-oriented definition of drugs abuse is the self administration of a quantity or a pattern that impairs an individuals health or social or economic functioning.
Drug use and abuse or misuse is phenomenon, which has bothered, is bothering and will continue to bother mankind even in generation to come. Governments, religious organization, social groups, world bodies and concerned individuals in the world over are alarmed and indiscriminate and went on use and abuse of drugs and the implication to the individual health status. Drugs abuse world wind is said to have become a major social problems, which affect individuals at every socio-economic level as well as individuals in age group from the adolescent to the elderly.
For instance, Caliendo (1996) reports; an estimated 9.3-10.3 million U.S adults or 7% of the U.S. adult population are alcoholics or problems drinkers among teens and youth age 14-17 years old, this represents 19% of American youths.
The rate of alcoholic consumption is alarming.
Caliendo (1976) look at that; it has been estimated based on data obtained from USDH. Food balance sheet, that the average annual consumption of obsolete alcohol from beer, wine and spirit among the drinking age America public 2.6 gallons per individual. The caloric value of this quantity of alcohol is approximately 210 calories daily per son. The rate of alcohol consumption varies among individuals.
Many people do not consume any alcohol whereas many consume alcohol far in excess of the average. It is estimated, however that on the average, adult females in the United States derives to 10% of their RDA calories from alcohol whereas males obtain 7.5%.
This trend is similar globally.
Origin of Drug Use and Abuse
The African society is a drug using one. We take in drugs daily as we eat food in form of herds, stems, roots, crops and cereal beverages. Ideally, we use drugs either in these aforementioned forms, or in refined forms for both preventive and curative purpose.
For certain ailments and diseases. In traditional African society which dates back even before recorded history, drugs are used daily for difference cultural and religious purpose of birth, death, marriage, and divorce rites.
Others are initiations into difference groups, appeasement of the gods. In concluding agreements for buying and selling of lands and landed property, apprenticeship agreements for teaching and learning of crafts and so on. Therefore, the use of drugs, in different forms and for different purpose permeates every facet of our traditional society and culture. Most of these drugs in their unrefined forms grow widely in our environment and hence there easy availability to the users. One can therefore say without fear of contradiction that the history of drugs abuse and misuse is as old as society itself or man.
The arrival of the ‘white men’ on the shores of African continent added yet more damaging drugs to the ones we already had and to that extent made the environment for drugs use and abuse friendly by easy availability and preference.
Effects of Drugs Use and Abuse
According to Agwubike (1998) drugs are known to be chemical agents that affect living cells they are used in modern medicine, in the treatment of illness and disease.
Drug abuse has severe health implication. The incidence and severity of problems associated with the non-medical use of the drugs is incalculable. Alcoholism for instance is one of the most common types of under-nutrition in the adult. Excessive alcohol consumption is the primary factors related to the development of cirrhosis of the lever which according to Caliendo (1966), the ninth leading killer disease of the United States population.
Villabi et al (1991) report; Spain ranks second to France in international comparison of alcohol consumption, 52% of adults drinks daily, and mortality due to liver cirrhosis ranks as the sixth causes of death both in terms of death rates and potential years of life lost.
In addition to the liver problem and the nutritional, Caliendo (1976) has this to say, “Alcohol related deaths may reach as many as 205, 000 annually in the U.S. It has also been known to cause several health problem like congestion heart failure, high blood pressure, lose of appetite, inflammation of the stomach/pancreas, intestines which leads to nutrient matabsorption.
Another severe consequence of alcoholism worthy of mention is the effect it has on the offspring of a pregnant drinker. It is said in Britain alone that more than 44% of children born to alcoholic mothers had 10 below 80, as well as significantly higher rates of hearty and joint abnormalities.
Economically, it cost the government billions of petro-dollar if quantified in terms of man-hour lost as a result of drug associated problems. This affects our out-put by reducing productivity.
According to Caliendo (1976), … alcohol abuse in the United State cost almost $43 billion in 1975.
According to Agwubike (1998), a drug has damaging consequences to the body organ and systems e.g. some drugs damage the liver, kidney or adversely affect the central nervous system. In certain instances death may result. It also state ion his book that users of drugs spend a lot money in producing drugs to themselves.
Drugs Commonly Abused
According to Agwubike 91998) drugs commonly abused by secondary school students are;
- Anabolic steroids
- Caffeine and others like alcoholic content etc. which have excitatory or inhibitory effect which are thought to enhance performance in sport by delaying the onset of fatigue or hasten recovery rate.
Prevention Control of Drug Abuse
In view of the adverse effect of drug abuse on the private and public health of the society, there is need to prevent and control the abuse of drugs. In order to achieve this, there should be both concerted and simultaneous efforts by government, religious and other concerned organizations.
There has to be drug education and re-education.
This education should be directed at the drugs using population especially adolescents in both secondary and tertiary institutions. The objectives should be to made available to them useful information on short term effect of drug use and abuse especially dependence producing drugs. This is necessary because most of the drug users do so because of ignorance of the area of using the mass media, school and other educational means for it to spread drug education. There should also be drug adult education to educate parents who will in turn continue to teach their wards at home the need to avoid drug abuse or the correct use of drugs.
World Health Organization (WHO) through its appropriate agencies should step up action both in term of education and in releasing funds for rehabilitation and various activities that will discourage drug use and misuse.
- What are the factors responsible for drug abuse?
- What category of secondary school students abuse drug more?
- What are the types of drugs abused?
- What are the effect of drug abuse?
Purpose of Study
This research was carried out with a view;
- To identifying the types of drugs that are commonly abuse by secondary school students
- To point out conditions under which secondary school students take drugs
- To highlight the reasons why secondary schools students indulge in the abuse of drugs
- To educate secondary school students activities towards drugs involvement
- To suggest and recommend ways by which the problems of drugs abuses can be controlled among secondary school students
Significance of the Study
Indiscipline among secondary school students in most cases has been blamed on drug involvement.
The climate during competition game situation will undoubtedly be improved when secondary students are intimated with the implications of drug involvement.
- It will enable the school authorities and sport organization to plan programme to suit secondary school students from various background.
- It will reduce indiscipline among secondary school students and abuse of drugs.
- Deviancy as well as delinquencies amongst minimum in school and society at large.
- It will create a way to guide them to a meaningful life or drug free live.
- This study will serve as a base for more research work on drug abuse among secondary school students.
Delimitation of Study
The geographical location of this study is Esan Central Local Government Area of Edo State specifically, it looks at the incidents of drugs abuse in some secondary schools in Esan Local Government Area of Edo State.
The population for the study was restricted to JJJ 1 – SS III.
Definition of Term
Any substance that when taken into the living organism, may modify one or more of its functions.
A state, psychic and some time also physical, resulting from the interaction between a living organism and a drug characterized by behavioral and other responses that always include a compulsion to take the drug on a continuous or periodic basic in order to experience its psychic effects and sometimes to avoid this discomfort of its absence.
Dependence Producing Drugs
A drug having the capacity to interact with a living organism to produce a state of
psychic or physical dependence or both.
Non-Medical Use of Drugs
The uses of dependence producing drugs other than when medically indicated.
Is the constant and indiscriminately use of both prescribed and non-prescribed legal drugs or to the extent that it hinders.
These are drugs statutorily allowed for use by law of the land.
Are drugs approved by a quantified physician for use by the patient.
Summary Conclusion and Recommendation
This research is carried out on the incidence of drug abuse among secondary school students in Esan Centre Local Government Area of Edo State on the reasons for drug abuse, the drugs most commonly abused by students the sex of the students more involved, sources of getting these drugs and its effect on them. From the investigation, I found that the commonly abused drugs were alcohol, Indian hemp, mandrax LSD, amphetamine and Chinese capsule. A total sample of one hundred and sixty respondents was used and this was drawn from two secondary school in Esan Centre Local Government Area. A compromise of four boys school, two girls and tow mixed schools. As retard the source of supply . it was found that most students got their supply from peddlers, friends, chemist, (drug store), market place and physician. The reasons for drug abuse were mainly to win competition.
Reduce fatigue, ease tension and as an act of curiosity. It was also discovered that the drugs have some effects on the students who abuse it such as hyper activities restlessness, lack of sleep, lack of self control bizarre behaviour and that it is injurious to health generally. It was also discovered that the problem of drug abuse was more prevalent among the male students. This confirm the work of my predecessor such as M. O. Olatawura and Odejide A. O. (1974) A. O. N. Okoh (1978) and Oviasu (1976).
From the research carried out it was discovered that success in sport was one of the reasons many secondary school students in Esan Centre local government engaged in drug abuse so as to enhance their performance during competition, and also as an act of curiosity which is encourage by peer group influence. The commonly abused drugs were those that either relaxes the nerves seductive or increase muscular activities or functions e.g. stimulant. And it was mostly used by male students than female students. Also was discovered that most of the drugs abused by students were mostly gotten through illegal means e.g market places, drugs store, friends and peddler, only little come from the physicians. The negative effect these drugs has on the students are more than the so called enhancement to success and relaxation they claim to feel after using it.
Finally, the ascertain which hold the abuse drugs as a pursuit of pleasure and other non-medical practices as within man’s basic right should be viewed with seriousness and culprits should be reprimanded and punished.
The research reveals that secondary school students abuse drugs. In an attempt to reduce the incidence of drug abuse among secondary school students all hands must be on deck. That is to say everybody in the society has a role to play. The Government, Parents, Educators, coaches and students themselves must help in one way or the other to ensure control. To this end the following recommendations have been made it is hereby recommended that less emphasis should be laid on will at all cost syndrome. Emphasis should be laid on guilt in winning by unfair means. Sports organizers should de-emphasize making champions semi-gods in order to save our youths and future leaders from destruction. Meddle winners should not be the sole criteria for selection of students or players for sports meet. Hard working students should be encouraged by inculcating their names in the team and giving them the assurance that they can make it through hard work. Award and recommendations should be given to all participants. The present practice in which emphasis is laid only on first, second, and third winners, should be discouraged. The government should enforce law that is workable against any illegal use and possession of dangerous drugs like the jail terms.
There should be a daily health programme in both the television and radio to educate the people on the effect of using drugs not prescribed by medical practitioners. Anybody in the streets, shops and markets should not sell or administer drugs, except chemist or a pharmacist, and they should make sure that then prescription they get must be only signed and stamped by medical doctors. It would be proper to say here that parents, should develop more interest and care for their children, and also in each school their should be a guidance and counselling unit to help the young develop a strong will to cope with their problems and not to resort to drugs for help also, their should be less emphasis on winning during competition. There should be campaign against drug abuse through school workshops, seminars and conferences, which help in educating them about the evil and social embarrassment of drug abuse in sport.
Suggestion for Further Study
In addition, I suggest that further attempt to carry out a research on drug abuse should be aimed at establishing a relationship between drug abuse and violence during competition. Another area that can be researched into is to find out ways of elimination the factors which leads to drugs addition among students. And also effect of drugs abuse on job performance.
The Incidence Of Drug Abuse Among Secondary School Students (A Case Study Of Some Selected Sss Students In Esan Central Local Government Area Of Edo State)
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