The Incidence Of Candidiasis Among Single And Married Women Of Different Age Group

Project and Seminar Material for Science Laboratory Technology SLT

The Incidence Of Candidiasis Among Single And Married Women Of Different Age Group


In thus work the incidence of candidacies was studied using selected patients of university of Nigeria teaching hospital Enugu analyzed for the presence of candidacies yeast infection. The specimens were cultured on seaboards agar and blood agar and subculture isolated were C aibicans C Tropical C Knusei C Pseudoizo P cals C paraknusei and C stellatoides. The prevalence of candidacies among patients of UNTH was monitored in terms of level of occurrence and microbial types. Also the prevalence of candidicesis infection was 40% samples under study.

Table Of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Aim and objectives
  • 1.3 Statement of problem
  • 1.4 Significance of study
  • 1.5 Scope of study
  • 1.6 Limitation
  • 1.7 Hypothesis

Chapter Two

  • 2.1 Literature Review

Chapter Three

  • 3.1 Methodology
  • 3.2 Sterilization of methodology
  • 3.3 Population sample
  • 3.4 Preparations of culture media
  • 3.5 Collection of samples
  • 3.6 Identification of isolates
  • 3.7 Antibiotle sensitivity disc testing

Chapter Four

  • 4.1 Results

Chapter Five

  • 5.1 Recommendation
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • Reference
  • Appendix

List Of Table

Table I

Age distribution and incident of candidacies. Infection among single and married women of different age group patients unit

Table II

Diameter of zone of l one of inhibition of the organisms with each antibiotic after 24 hours incubation

Table III

Antimicrobial senses pattern of organisms isolated

Table IV

The protein of 80 urine sample detected with aibustixstrips.

Chapter One


Candeda: This is a yeast like fungi several of which cause disease in man about 90% of infection are to candida albicans, which is normally present in mouth, intestine and veginal it is responsible for the infection in the sites defense mechanisms (carousal 1990)

Candida abbacies usually appears as oval yeast like cell that reproduce by budding however in infected areas. Filamentous hyphare plus pseudolyphae (which consist of elongated yeast cells that remain attached to each other many also be seen the yeast is easily grown at 250c 40 37 0c on sabouraudis glucose agar and if grown on cor a meal agar at 250c the organism can produce many characteristic thick walled chlamydospore Van leeuweuhoed (2 000) candida albicans is measured about 2.5 to 4.0 wm in diameter which can gives rise to pseudomycellun, in the body it has no sexual form the body it has no sexual form in poor medic at temperature of 2b0c it produces thick wall and resting cells is about 7 to 17 m in test positive in maminaliam serum it has the ability to split urear. it is pathogenic to rabbits. guinea Pig s and with where it cause abscesses in the kidney when give intran Veroush (Eleke, 2002).

Oral candidacies oral candidacies also called oral thrush) occurs and most frequently in the new born and is probably acquired during passage through and infected vagina the yeast appears as a creamy grade membrane covering the tongue and appears able to produce disease only because of the absence of their resident normal flora (Prescott et al; 1994) if thrush has not occurred by the 3rd day of life it is likely that it will appear but it should occur which will usually disappear without treatment as other members of the normal flora are acquired

Oral thrush in order children or Adults may occur as a result of endocrine disturbance or ceutaninosis (Particularity a deficiency of rib flauin as a complication of diabeta, as a result of poor oral hyepene or following the administration of corticosteroides or autibutics oral thrush also occur in bottle feed infants which the magnification of my white patches cowering red raw areas of mucous manbrance vanities , vagines cendiass is seen most frequents in women with diabetes, milieus deny pregnamai or following prolonged antibiotic therapy. The prominent symptom is a yellow, milk, veginals discharge yeast cells and pseudo my cell can be found on the mucous membrane and such infections may result in an intense inflammation of the entire ingunal area according to Atlas 199: 13) he state vaginal thrush in pregnant women are susceptible here with production of whish discharge with a pH below 5.2. Alimentary candidacies. Alimentary candidacies may follow essentially any of the predisposing conditions listed for adult oral thrush; however the majority of cases occur as a result of prolonged broad spectrum antibiotics therapy which destoirys a large part of the normal flora of the intestine.

The organisms may also cause interse inflammation of the parinal region the region around the arws and may spread to the and thing coetaneous are systemic candidacies infection of the skin by Candida usually occurs in those with metabolic disorders in those whose obesity result in continuously most tools of skin or in persons in whom part of the body are kept moist under surgical dressings According to Prescott et al (1999, 18) systemic candidacies is exlvecnely but in debilitated person or those receiving immuno suppresure drugs sandida albicans can cause urinary trait infection endocarditis and meningitis chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is also a rare syndrome in which the skin mucous membranes hair and nails become infected, such infections appears to occur in persons with T. cell defects manifested by their inability to respond to Candida certigens, in addition to vaging yeast infections the acid environment of the veginal and the proliferation of normal vaginal bacterial limited its growth when the environment of the vegina changes, situations that change the environment of the birth control pills. Which often change the vaginal pH or taking bread spectrum cutibioties such as tertiary cline which kills the normal vaginal bacteria in addition, patients with Aids of uncontrolled eddiabetes often develop yeast infections.

1.2 Aim And Objectives

  1. To determine the prevalence of fugal infection among the patients of UNTH Enugu
  2. To determine the prevalence of fungal infection among single and married women of different age group patient
  3. To determine the yeast type involved.
  4. To determine the autimicrobial sensitivity pattern of isolates involves.

1.3 Scope Of Study

This research work is limited to only patients of single and married women of different a group in hematology laboratory in university teaching hospital Enugu. The work was carried out with the use the necessary material such as early morning urine, HVS swab samples which was collected from those women vaginal

1.4 Statement Of Problems

Candidiasis has caused a lot of problem in our societies this days because of has the nature of the disease look like such as the discomfort it causes to people like itching which causes a lot of embrcincement to people publicly

Secondary the to candidiasis cause frequented urinating people that are suffering from the disease will not found it easy to stay in a public for a long time without beivery disgrace by this infection another problem with this infection is when it stays long in the body it will make the person that is suffering from it to be smelling due to severe discharge.

1.5 Significance Of Study

The study of this research topic will provide more constructor frame work to formation or creating a way of Eradicating the infection ( candidiasis it also help to educate people the cause and consequence of the infection candidacy. It will also help the communities to know the risk of staring thing that makes people to contact the disease, it will also help to provide precaution measure that will help in preventing the infection.

finally this research work will help to reduce the high rate of the disease occurrence and gives an insight into our communities

1.6 Hypothesis

H0 The infection (candidiasis) is more prevalent in single women than married women

H1 The infection (candidiasis) is more prevalent in married women than in single women

H2 Pregnancy is one of the factors that can change the pH or taking broad spectrum antibiotics.

Chapter Five


Treatment of candida infections. a variety of agents are available for treating the different types of candida infections. system or internal organ involvement can be treated successfully with amphotericin b unfortunately patient with immune deficiencies well routinely become reinfected nightstand is usually effective for the treatment of mucocutanous candidiasis such as thrush or vagintis other antibiotics used for the treatment of mucoutaneus candidiasis include mc camisole and chotrimoie oral and coetaneous infection also respond welt a 1 % solution of gentian violet.

Newer therapeutic measure are in all likelihood responsible for the increase in candida infection seen over the past couple of suppress the normal flora undoable is responsible for increased number of infection particularly gastrointestinal candidiasis. the used of polyethylene cutlets and implanted prosthetic devices is also associated with increased candida infection

Natural Treatment For Candidiasis

If possible after consultation with your doctor eliminate antibiotics birth control pills corticosteroides and uicer drugs.

Being a yeast and sugar free diet and follow it stretchy for at least thirty days if your symptoms diminish. You know that you have been suffering from candidiasis depending on the severity of your symptoms you will have to follow the yeast free diet for three to twelve mouths ehimmate the following foods bread baked goods cheese mushrooms vinegar, soy source fermented food alcohol, also eliminates sugar including all sweets cookies, candy ice cream, soda diet soda dried fruits, chocolate and sweetener including fructose, malt, barley and fruit juice lactobacillus acidophilus: in natural form in yogurt make sure the yogurt contains live cultores as indicated on the label and in capsule form available in health food stores, tale one capsule three time dairy garlic. In its natural form or in capsule form available from health food stores capryfic acid follow the directions on the container as to dosage
In addition: there is a prescription drug called nystatin that can be of help to confirmed cases of candidiasis if you try the yeast free diet and your symptoms are alleviated but do not completely clear. Them you might have has candidiasis for so long that you will require additional treatment in the form of prescription drug you should discuss Nysktin with your doctor.


The screening of candidiasis infection among single and married women of different age group this work has given an indication that most of the women many suffer form candida infection in future. It established the fact that in every 80 patients 40 percent of them may be four with significant to the disease in incidence is higher in single women than in married women it is therefore recommended that the planners our health care delivery program should include screening programe for the injector among young girls.

The federal government should also help to fund the teaching and federal hospitals so that the screening should be carried out in affordable price also the federal government should help to provide some thing like lecture on television screen about the causes, consequences and natural treatment on candidiasis infection

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